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• ~ ~l « I • 1 



















VOL. VIIL ' ' 

► • » - 


Frinted hy Jama Ballantyne and Company, 








4 • 



• • • • 




CHAP. IX. Continued^— Early Voyages of the English to the 

East Indies, before Vxe Establishment of an 
Exclusive Company, • . • • 1 
S|:qT« lY • Voyage of Mr John Eldred, by Sea, 
to Tripoli in Syria, and thence 
by Land and River to Bagdat and 
Basora, in 1583, • • ib« 

V. Of the Monsoons, or periodical 
Winds, with which Ships depart 
f^om Place to Place in India. By 
William Barret, • • 9 

VI. first Voy^e of the English to In- 
dia in 1591 ; begun by Captain 
George Raymond, and completed^ 
by Captain James Lancaster, • 13 
yiL Supplementary Account of the for- 

m»v Voyage, by John May, . 32 
VIIL The. un&rtunate Voyage of Cap- 
, tain Benjamin Wood, towards the 
East Indies, in 1596, . . 40 
IX, Voyage of Captain John Davis to 
the East Indies, in 1598, as Pilot 
to a Dutch Ship, • • 43 

X. Voyage of William Adams to Ja- 
p^, in 1598, and long residence 
m that Island, ... 64 
Introduc|l^n, • . • • ib. 

§U ^r^ief Relation of the Voyage of Se- 
balt, de Wert to the Straits of 
. Magellan^ ^ . . 65 


§ 2. First Letter ofWilliam Adams^ 68 

§ S. Letter ofWilliam Adams to his Wife, 80 
Sect. XI. Voyage of Sir Edward Micfaelbume 

to India, in 1604^ • . 86 

CHAP. X. Early Voyages of the English to India, after the 

Establiuiment of the East India Company, 102 
Introduction,. • • • • • ib. 
Sect. I. First Voyage of the English East 
India Company, in 1601, mider 
the Command of Captain James 
Lancaster, • • . 107 
Introduction, • • • • • ihi 
§ 1. Freparatioa for the Voyage, and its 
Incidents till the Depturture of 
the Fleet from Saldanha Bay, 108 
§ 2. Contintiation of the Voyage, to the 

Nicobar and Sombrero Islands, 114 
§3. Their Reception and Trade at A* 

cheen, .... 120 
j 4. Portuguese Wiles discovered, and a 

Prize tidcen near Malacca, . 125 
f 5. Presents to and from the King of 
Acheen, and his Letters to Queen 
EHzabedi. Their Departure to 
^ FHaman and Bantam, and Set- 

tlement of Trade at these Places, 1S2 
§ 6. Departure for England, and Occur- 
, rences in the Voyage, . 137 

SE.CT. II. Account of Java, and of the first 
Faetory of the English at Ban- 
tam ; with Occurrences there 
from the 1 1th February, 1603, to 
the 6th October, 1605, • .141 
Introduption, . • • • • ib. 
§ 1. Description of Java, with the Man* 
niers and Customs of its Inhabit- 
ants, both Javanese and Chinese, 142 
§ 2. Brief Discourse of many Dangers 
by Fire, and other Treacheries of 
the Javanese, • • . 149 
$ 3. Diff^srcnces between the Holland- 
ers, styling themselves English, 
and the Javai)9, and of other me- 
morable Things, ,^ p 154 
^ 4. Treacherous Underminings, and 

other OeeuireBces, • • 156 
§ 5* Arrival of General Middletoo, and 

other Events, • • • 16S 

f 6. Aoemmt of Quarrds betvreen tbe 
English and Dutch at Bantam^ 
and other Occurrences^ . 171 

^ 7- Obsenrations by Mr John Saris of 
Occurrences during his Abode 
at Bantam, from October, 1605} 
to October, 1609, • • 175 

§ 6. Rules for the Choice of sundry 
Drugs, with an Account of the 
Places where they are procured, 181 

§ 9. Of the principal Places of Trade in 
India, and tbe Commodities they 
afford, > • • • • 183 
SscT* IIL Second Voyage of the English East 
India Company, in 160^ under 
the Command of Captain Henry 
Middieton, . . .191 
Introduction, ib* 

§ I. Voyage of General Henry Middle* 
ton, aft^wards Sir Henry, to 
Bantam and the Moluccas, in 
1604ft .... 192 

$ 2. Voyage of Captain Colthurst, in the 

Aftcension, to Banda, • 196 

Sbgt. IV. Third Voyage of the English East 
India Company, in 1607} by Cap- 
tain WilUam reeling, • 199 
Introduction, 3b. 

f 1. Disasters in the Outset of the Voy- 
age, with Occurrences till leaving 
SaldanhaBay, • • . 200 

$-2. Departure from Saldanha Bay, and 
Occurrences till the ^Ships parted 
Company, 204?' 

§ S« Instruction learnt at Delisa respect- 
ing the Monsoon ; with the Ar- 
rival of the Dragon at Bantam, 207 

§ 4f. Voyage of the Hector to Banda, 

with Occurrences there, • 212 
SflCT. V. Narrative by William Hawkins of 
Occurrences during his Resi- 
dence in the Dominions of the 
Great Mogul, ... 220 
Introduction, • . . . • lb. 

§ 1. Barbarous Usage at Surat by Muc- 
' rob Khan ; and the treacherous 
Procedure of the Portuguese and 
' Jesuits^ • • • • 221 


§% Journey of the A^or to Agra, and 
b^ Entertainment at the Court 
of the Great Mogul, • . 227 
§ S* The Incojutanqy of the King, and 
the De|Mirture of Ci^tain Haw- 
kins to the Red Sea, Bantam, 
and England, * • . 236 
SxcT. VI. Observations of William Finch, Mer- 
chant, srho accompanied Captain 
Hawlons to Surat, and returned 
over Land to England, • 254 
Introduction, • • . • • ib. 
.$1. Remembrances respecting Sierra 

Leona, in 1607, • • ib. 
§ 2. Observfttioas made at St Augustine 
. in Madagascar, and at the Island 
of Socotora, • • 261 

' § 3. Occurrences in India, respectiDg 
the English, Dutch, Portuguese^ 
and Moguls, • • • 269 
§ 4. Journey to Agra, and Observations 
. by the Way ; with some Notices 
of the Deccaa Wars, • 277 

$ 5. Description of Fiittipoor, Biana, 
S[p^ of Nill, or Inaigo i and of 
other Matters, . 287 

§ 6* Description; of Lahore, with other 

. Observations, . . • 295 

Sjicx. VIL Voyage of Captain David Middle- 
ton, in 1607, to Bantam and the 
Moluccas, • • 307 

. IntrodikJiion, • » . . • . • ib. 

8£GX. VIIL Fourth Voyage of the English East 

India Company, in 1608, by Cap- 
tain Ale3Eander Sharpey, • 314 
Introduction, •■ * * • • • ib. 

§U Relation of this Voyage, as written 

by Robert CoVene, . 316 

§ 2. Supplement to the foregoing Nar- 
rative, from the Account of the 
t9»une unfortunate Voyage, by 
. Thomas Jones, • • 331 

. § S* Additionid Supplement, from the 

. Report of William Nichols, 334 

Sect. IX. Voyine of^Captain Richard Rowles 
in me Union, the Consort of the 
Ascension, • • 335 

Introduction, . . • • . • ib. 



§ 1. Of the Voyage of the Union, after 
her Separation from the Asoen- 
sion, to Acheen and Priamany S36 

§% Return of theUnion from Friaman 

towards England, • 840 

Sect. X. Kfth Voyage of the English East 
India Company, in 1609, under 
tiie Command of Captain David 
- Middleton, . • 343 

Atroductiony «. - • . • • ib» 

§ 1. Oceurremces at Bantam, Booton, 

' and B^nda, • . 844* 

§ 2. Occurrences at Banda; Contests 
with the Hollanders; Trade at 
Pulo-way, and many Perils, 347 

§ Sb Departure for Bantam, Escape from 
the Hollanders, and Voyage 
Home • . 359 

Sbct. XI. Sixth Vby^e- of the English East 
India Company, in 1610, under 
the Command of Sir Henry Mid- 
dleton, • • 361 

Introduction^ ^ ib. 

§ L Incidents of th6 Voyage till the Ar- 
rival of:the Souadron at Mokha, ib. 

§2, Transactions at Mokha, and Trea- 
diery of the Turks there, and at 
Aden, • • • 365 

§■ 3* Journey of Sir Henry Middleton to 
Zenan, in the Interior of Yemen, 
or Arabia Felix, with seme De- 
scription of the Country, and 
Occurrences till his Return to 
Mokha, • . • 374 

§ 4. Sir Henry rMiddleton makes his 
Escape from the Turks, and 
fordes tfiem to make Satis&ction, 386 

§ 5. Voywefrom the Red Sea to Surat, 

ana Transactions there, . 392 

$ 6. Voyage froin Surat to Dabul, and the Red Sea, and Pro- 
ceedings there, • • 401 
SxcT. XII. Journal S£ the preceding Voyage 

by Nichohis bownton, Ci^tain 
of the Pepper-corn, • 406 

Introduction, ib« 

> « 



f h Notices of the Voyage between Sal- 
danha Bay and Socotora, both in- 
cliuivc lb 

$ 2. Of Abdal Kuria^ Arabia FeUz, 
Aden, and Mokha, and the trea- 
cherous Proceedings of both 
Places, . . . '412 

§ S. Account of Proceedings in the Red 

Sea on the second Visit, 42S 

1^ 4. Voyage from Mokha to Sumatra, 

and Proceedings there, • 431 
§ 5. Voyage of the Fepper*com Home 

to England, . . 43S 

SiCT. XIII. The Seventh yoyage of the Eng^ 

lish East India Company, in 161 1 , 
commanded by Captain Antho- 
ny Hippon, • • 436 

Introduction, ib« 

SxcT* XIV. Notices of the preceding Voyage, 

by Peter Wiluamson Floris^ 440 

Introduction, ib. 

§ 1. The Voyage to Pullicatt, PatapiUy, 

Bantam, Patane, and Siam, ib, 

. § 2. Narrative of strange Occurrences 
in Pegu, Siam, Johor, Patane, 

and the adjacent Kingdoms, 448 
oyage to Masulipatam, and Inci- 
dents during a long Stay at that 

Phu!e, • . • 455 

§ 4. Voyage to Bantam, and thence to 

Englandi . . . 463 

Sect. XV. Eighth Voyage of the English East 

India Companpr, in 161 1, by Cap- 
tain John Sans, . • 465 
Introduction! •••••• ib. 

§ 1. Incidents of the Voyage from Eng- 
land to Socotora, • • 467 

§ 2. Occurrences at Socotora and in 

the Red Sea, • . . 471 

§ 3« Adventures alone with Sir Henry 
Middleton in the Red Sea, and 
otiier Observations in those Parts, 
with our Arrival at Bantam^ 485 

§ 4. The Voyage of Captain Saris, in the 
, Clove, towards Japan, with Obser- 

vations respecting the Dutch and 
Spaniards at the Molucca Island^, 483 


* * 

< . 






CHAPTER IX.— C<m<aniedl 



Fbya^e of Mr John Eldred, by Sea, to Tripoli, in Syria, 
, aim thence^ by Land and lUper, to Bagidat and Basora, 

I DEPARTED from London in the Tiger on Shrove- 
Tuesday, 1583, in company with Mr John Newberry, 
Mr Ralph Fitch, and six or. seven other honest merchantEf, 
and arrived at Tripoli in Syria on the next ensuing 1st of 
May. On our arrival, we wait a Maying on the Island of 
St George, where the Christians who die here on ship board 
. VOL. viii. PART 1* A are 

, ' Hakluyt, 11. 409. . . 

As Eldred accompanied Newberry and Fitch from England to Basora, 
ihis article is, in a great degree, connected with our present purpose : It 
may likewise be mentioned, that Eldred is one of the persons with whom 
KewbfNTiy corresponded. — £• 


t Early English Voyages part ix* book itu 

are wont to be buried. In this city of Tripoli our English 
merchants have a consul, and all of the English nation who 
come here reside along with him, in a house or factory, 
tailed Fondeghi Ingles^ which is a square stone building, re- 
sembling a cloister, where every person has his separate 
chamber, ds is likewise the custom of all the other Chris- 
tian nations at this place. 

Tripolis stands under a part of Mount Lebanon, at the 
distance of two English miles from the port. On one side 
of this port, in the form of a bal^moon, there are five 
block-houses, or small forts, in which there are some good 
pieces of artillery, and they are occupied by about an nun^ 
dred janisaries. Right before the town there is a hill of 
shifting sand, which gathers and in<;reases with a west 
wind, insomuch, that they have an old prophecy among 
them, that this sand hill will one day swallow up and over- 
whelm the towUi as it every year increases and destroys 
many gardens, though they employ every possible device to 
diminish this sand-bank, and to render it firm ground. 
The city is walled round, though of no ^eat strength, and 
is about the size of Bristol : Its chief d^ence is the citadel 
or castle, which stands on the south side of the town, and 
within the walls, overlooking the whole town, being armed 
iKith some good artillery, and garrisoned by two hundred 
janisaries. A river passes through the middle of the city, 
by means of which they water their gardens and plantations 
of mulberry trees, on which they rear great numbers of 
silk-worms, which produce jgreat quantities of white silk, 
being the principal commodity of this place, which is nmch 
frequented by many Christian merchants, 9s Venetians, 
Florentines, Genoese, Marsilians, Sicilians, and Eagusans, 
and, of late, by the English, who trade more here than in 
any other port of the Turkish dominions. 
. 1 departed from Tripolis with a caravan, on the 14th 
May^ passing, in three days, over the ridge of Mount Lib&« 
nus ; and at ^e end of that time came to the dty of Ham'^ 
mahf which stands in a goodly plain, abounding in corn and 
cotton-woo). On these mountains grow great qiiantities of 
gaU-treesj which are somewhat like our oaks, but less, and 
more crooked ; and, on the best trees, a man shall not find 
above a pound of galls on each. This town ofJIamtbah is 
lallen into decay, and continues to decay more and more^ 
so that at this day scarcely is the half of the wall ^anding» 


csi)^ IX. SBCT. r^ io India* ^ 

Miath bas ohce been Btr OBg ^id hundsome ; bat, because it 
t)OBt nulsiijf liveB t6 win it> die Turks will not have it re- 
paired) ^nd ha^e caused to be inscribed in Arabic, over one 
<:fihejgat6f^ <^ Cursed be the fether and the son of him who 
ahail lay hunfis to the repAirin^ of this place/' 

Refreshing eurselyes one day here, we went fbrwarda 
three days more, with our camels^ and came to Aleppo^ 
where we arrived on thts 2 1^ of May. This has the great- 
est trad^ ibr to inland town, of any in ail those parts, being 
vesoitMtbfay JeWs^ Tartars, Persiaiis, Armenians, £gj^ 
tialis, Indians, alid many different kindk of Christians, all of 
whom enjoy Hb^ty df conacienee^ and bring here many dii^ 
intent kinds of m^rdb^Midise* In the middle of the city there 
is a .^(dodly castle, raised oU hifg^h^ having a garrison of four 
^t five huitdred JamsaHee* VV idiin four miles round about 
tllere are many goodly gardens and vineyards, with many 
tree% wbi<;b bi^a^ excellent fruit, near the side of the river, 
whieh JSVery km0\l» The walk of the city are about three 
iBiles in tireuit, but. the suburbs are .nearly as large as the 
<i4yi the whole bei^g verjr p^uJoua. 

We departed from Al<^po t>a the 3 1st of ]itay» wllh a 
caravan ^rf" camels^. aJoilg wi^ Mr Jolm Ne^beiry, and his 
<XNmai^5 and eaa^ to Birmk, {J^r^ in. three days, being ^^ 
#m^ town ^ti tbe fiuphraitesy where that river first assumes 
the name, b^ing here tc^iected into on& channel, whereas 
before it'com^ dow|i in numerous brandies, and is there*' 
fore called by .the people of the country by a name which 
cignifies 9i tkoMmd h^adk^ We here found abundance of 
provisions) and fiiriHshed.ourselv^ iot a long journey down 
the riTter; and^ iijToording to the casl»m c« those who txa^ 
vel <m this riveri >V9. provided aisiuall bark for the convey*- 
ance oJP outcelvcs aad our goodsi The^e boaHs are flat-botr 
tomed) because the river i6 ahaUow in many places; and 
when p^le travel ib th^ tttcmths<^ July, August, and Sep- 
tonber^ the water being then at the- lowest, (hey have to 
carry a «pare boat.oir two along with ^hem^ to lighten their 
own boats in case of gixraodiag on the shdals.^ We were 
twenty*eight days upon the river in going between Bir and 
Feluahiii, at which la^t place we disembarked ourselves and 
our goods. 

During our passage down the Euphrates, we tied :Ounr 
boat to*a«take eVery night at sun-^set, when we went on 
land and gathered some klieks to make a fire, <ki which we 


4 Early English Voyages t^a&t n, book m« 

set our pot, with rice or bruised wheat ; and when we had 
supped^ the merchants went on board to sleep, while the ma* 
riners lay down for the night on the shore, as netur the boata 
as they could. At many places on the river side we met 
with troops of Arabs, of whom we bought milk, batter, ^gs^ 
and lambs, giving them in barter, for they^care not for mo- 
ney, glasses, comos, coral, amber, to hang abotit their necks;' 
and tor churned milk we gave them bread and pcmiegranate 
peels, with which they tan their goat skins which iSiey use 
for chums. The complexion, hair, and apparel of these 
Arabs, are entirely like to those vagabond Egyptians who 
heretofore used to go about in England. All Uieir women, 
without one exception, wear a great round ring of gold, sil- 
ver, or iron, according to their abilities, in one of their nos- 
trils, and about their Tegs they have hoops of gold, «ilver, or 
iron. All of them, men, wom^i, and diildren, are excel- 
lent swimmers, and they often brought off in thismaim^* 
vessels with milk on their heads to our barks. They^tire 
very thievish, as I proved to my cost, for they stole a cask- 
et belonging to itie, containing things of good value^ fifom 
tmder my man's Jhead as he lay asleep. 

At Bir the Euphrates is about as broad as the Hiames at 
Lambeth,, in some places broader, and in others narrower, 
and it runs very swiftly, almost as fast as the Trent It has 
Various kinds offish, all having seates, some like our bar- 
bels, as-large iu salmon. We landed at Feludiia on the 
.28th of June, and had to remain th^re*&eveh days for want 
of camels to carry our goods to Babylon, [Bagdat,] the heat 
at that season being so violent that the 'people were averse 
from hiring their camels- to travel. Felucliia is- a village of 
some hundred houses^ and is the phce appointed for dis<- 
charging such goods as come down the river^ the inhabit- 
ants being all Arabs. Not being able to procure camels^ 
we had to uplade our goodsj and hired an hundred asses to 
carry our English merchandise to New Babylon, or B^dat^ 
'across a short desert, which took us eighteen hours of tra- 
velling, mostly in the night and morning, to avoid the great 
heat of the day. 

In this short desert, between the Euphrates and Tigris, 
formerly stood the great and mighty city of ancient Baby- 
Ion, many of the old ruins of which are easily to be seen by 
day-light, as I, John Eldred, have often beheld at my good 
leisure, having made three several journeys between Aleppo 


I3KAP. XX. 8SCT. IT. ii> Ifidio* . 5 

Mid New Babylon. Here also are still to be se«i the ruins 
of the ancient Tower of Babel, which, being upon plain 
ground, seems very large from i^r $ but tlie nearer ^ou 
come towards it, it seems to grow less and less. I have gone 
sundry times to see it, and found the remnants still stand* 
ing above a quarter of a mile in circuit, and almost .as high 
as the stone^work of St Paul's steeple in London, but much 
bigger.* The bricks remaining in this most ancient monu- 
nient are half a yard thick, and three quarters long, having 
been dried in tne sun only; and between every course of 
bricks there is a course of matts made of canes, which still 
remain as sound as if they had only lain one year. 

The new ci^ of Babylon, or Bagdat, joins to the before- 
mentioned small desert, in which was the old city^ the river 
Ti^s running close uqder the walls, so that they might 
easily open a ditch^ and make the waters of the river en- 
compass the city.^ Bagdat is above two English miles in 
eircamfibrence. The inhabitants, who generally speak three 
languages, Persian, Arabic^ and Turkish, are much of the 
same complexion with the Spaniards. The women mostly 
wear, in the gristle of the nose, a ring like a wedding-ring, 
but rather larger, having a pearl and a turquoise stone set ; and this however poor they may be. ^Tbis is a place 
of great trade, being the thoroughfare from the East Indies 
to Aleppo. The town is well supplied with provisions, 
which are broi^^ht down the river Tigris from Mosul, in 
Diavbdur, or Mesopotamia, where stood the ancient city 
of Ninevdli» These provisions, and various other kinds of 

foods, are brought, down the river Tigris on rafts of wood^ 
ome up by a great number of goat-skin bags, blown up 
with wind like bladders.. When the^oods are discharged, 
the rafts are sold for fuel, and letting the wind out of the 
^at skins, they carry them hon^e again upon asses, to serve 
lor other voyages down the river. 

The buildings here are mostly of brick, dried in the sun, 
as little or no stone is to be found, and their houses are all 


* It is liardly necessary to ^bserte, thftt this refers to the old St Paul's 
before the great fire> and has no reference to the present magnificent 
structure, built long after the date of thfs journey.— £. 

^ It may be proper to remark, as not very distinctly marked here, 
though expressed after^aids'iTi the .teicl^-that Bagdat is on the east side 
of the Tigris, whereas the plain, or desert of ancient Babylon, is on the 
west, between that river and the Euphrates. — £. 


S Early En^sh Voyages tAXV n. book inv 

low and flat-roofed. They have no rain for eight nontlur 
together, ipid hardly any clouds in the sky by day or night* 
Tneir winter is in November, Deeeml>et; January, and Fe^ 
bruary, which is almost as Warm as our smnnwr iii En^ 
land. I know this well by experience, having resided, at 
different times, in this city for at least th# space <yf two 
years. On coming into the city from Feluchia, we have to 
pass across the river Tigris on a great bridge of boat^ wfaicl^ 
are held together by two mighty chains of iron. 

Froip tms place we departed in flat-bottomed boats, wkiclr 
were larger and more strongly built than those on the Euph<*- 
rates. We were twentyreigbt davs also in going down this 
river to Basora, though we mighc have gone « eighteen 
days, or less, if the water had been higher. By the side of 
the river therq stand several towns, the nan)es of wiiick re- 
semble those of the prophets of the Old Testament. The 
first of these towns is caHed Ozeahj and {uiotber Zecchialu 
One day's journey before we came to Basora, the two rivers 
unite, and there stands, at the junction, a ca^tde bdonging 
to the Turks, called Curna, where all merchants hfl,Ye to pay 
a small custom. Where the two rivers join,, their uoitea 
waters are eight or nine miles broad ; and here also the ri* 
ver begins to ebb and flow, the overflowing of the water 
rendenng ail the country round about very fertile in oonit 
rice, pube, and dates. 

The town of Basora is a mile and a half m circuit.; aS 
the houses^ with the castle and the walls, beitig of brick 
dried in the sun. The Grand Turk has here five hundred 
janisaries always in garrison, besides other soldiers ; but 
his chief force consists in twenty-five or thirty iSne galiies, 
well furnished with good ordnance. To this port of Baso- 
ra there come every month divers ships from Ormus, laden 
with all sorts of Indian goods, as spices^ drugs> indigo, and 
calico cloth* These ships are from forty to si^ty tons bur- 
den, having their planks sewed together with twine made 
of the bark of the date-palm ; and, instead of oakum, their 
seams are filled with slips of the same bark, of which also 
their tackle is made. In these vessels they have no kind 
of iron-work whatever, except their anchors* In six days 
sail down the Gulf of Persia, they go to an island called 
Bahrein, midway to Ormus, where Ui^y fish for pearls du- 
ring the four months of June,^ Ju]y> August, and Septenn 

I remained 

CSUP XX. SSCT. tT» to India* 

I reisftiiied mx months st Bascnra, in which time 1 recei- 
ved several letters from Mr John Newberry, then at Ormus^ 
who, as he passed that wiijr^ proceeded with letters frcnt hef 
majesty to Zel^^im Echebary king of Cmnbaia,^ and to 
ihe mighty Empteror of China, was treacherously there aiv 
rested, with all hb compiany, by the BDrtugucsey and after* 
wards sent prisoner to Goa, where, after a long aUd cruel 
imprisonment, he and his companions were released, upon 
giving surety not to depart from thence without leave, at 
the instance of one Father Thomas Stevens, an En^idi 
priest, whom they fearid there. Shortly afterwards three 
of them made their escape, of whom Mr Ralph Fitch is 
since come .to England. The fourth, who was Mr John 
Story, painter^ became a retigious in the colWe of St Pao^ 
at GoBf as we were informed by k*tters tiom raat place. 

Having completed all our business at Basora, I and my 
compamon, Wi^Kam Shales, embarked in company with se«> 
▼enty barks, all laden with merchandiase ; every baik ha- 
ving foortecn men to drag it up the river, like our west 
country barges on the river Thames t and we were forty- 
four days in' going up against the stream to Bagdat. We 
ihere^ after paying our custom, joined with other merchants^ 
to form a coiravan, bought camels, and hired men to load 
and drive them, ftunished ourselves with rice, batter, dates^ 
honey made of dates, and onions ; besides which, every mer- 
chant bought a jcertain number of live sheep, and hired cap- 
tain shepherds to drive them along willi us. We idsa 
bca^t tents to lie iao^ and to pat oor goods under; and ia 
this caravan of ours ^ere were foor tl^usand camels laden 
with spices and ot&er rich goods. These camds can sub» 
sist very well for two or three days without water, feeding 
on thistles, wormwood, ma^dalene^ and other coarse weeds 
the;^ find by the way. The government of the caravans, the 
deciding of aliquarreb that occur, and the apportionment of 
•all duties to be paid, are committed* to the care of some<me 
rich and experienced merchant in the compotry, whose bo^ 
nour tmi honesty can best be confided in. We spent forty 
diays in our journey from Bagdat to Aleppo, travelling at the 
rate of from twenty to twenty-four mile$ a-day, resting our- 
selves coxmnonJy from two in the afternoon till three next 
morning, at which time we usually began our journey. 



* Akbar Shah, padishah or envperor of the Moguls in India.— B. 

S Early EngUsh Vofigts TASft IX. book III; 

Eight days journey from Bagdat, near to a town called 
Heit, where we cross the Euphrates in boats^ and about 
three miles from that place, there is a vaHey in which are 
many mouths, or holes, continuaUy throwing out, in great 
abundance^ a black kind of substance like tar, which serves 
all this country for paying their' boats and barks. Every 
one of these springs makes a noise like a smith's forge, con- 
tinually puffing and blowing ; and the noise is so loud, that 
it may be heard a mi'e off. This vale swalloweth up all 
heavy things that are thrown into it. The people of the 
country call it Bab-eUgehenam^ or the gate of hell In pass- 
ing through these deserts we saw certain wild beasts, such 
as asses, all white, roebucks, leopards, foxes, and many 
hares, a considerable number of which last we chaced and 
killed, jdborisej the king of the wandering Arabs in these 
deserts, receives a duty of 40 shillings value for every loaded 
camel, which he sends his officers to receive from the cara<» 
vans ; and> in consideration of this, he engages to convoy 
the caravans in safety, if need be, and to defend thexa 
^auist the prowling thieves. 

I and my companion, WilKam Shales, came to Aleppo on 
the 11th June, 1584^ being joyfoUy welcomed at twenty 
miles distance by Mr William Barret, our consul, .accom* 
panie(^'by his people and janisaries. He fell sick immedi^ 
^tely after, and departed this life in eight days illness, ha- 
ving nominated, before he died, Mr .Anthony Bate to suc^ 
ceed him as. consul for the English natk>ny who laudably eser 
cuted the office tor three, years. In the mean time, I made 
two other journeys, to Bagdat and Basora, returning in the 
same- manner, through the dessert. . Being afterwards desi- 
rous to see other parts of the country, I went from Ale^o 
to Antioch^ which is 60 miles, and from thence to Tripoli^ 
where, gping on board a small vessel, I arrived at Joppa^ 
and 'travelled by land to Rama, Lycia, Gaza, Jerusalem, 
Bethlem, the river Jordan^ and the sea of Sodom, and re^- 
turned to Joppa^ from whence I went back to Tripoli; but 
as many others have published large discourses of these pla- 
ces, I think it unnecessary to write of them here. Within 
a few days after my retujn to Tripoli, I embarked in the 
Hercules of London, on the 2 2d December, 15&7, and ar- 
rived sate, by the blessing of God, in the Thames, with di- 
vers other English merchants, on the 26th March, 15S8; 
our ship being the richest in merchant goods that ever was- 
known to arrive in this realm. ' ' ■> 

cmJLV* IX. net t.- to India* 

Section V. 

C^the Monsoom, or Periodical Winds, with which Shypi depart 
Jtmn Place to Place in IntUa^ By tVilHam Barret.* 

It is to be noted) that the city of 6oa is the principal 
place of all the oriental India, and that the winter begins 
there on the 15tii of May, with rery great rain, and so con- 
tinues. till the 1st of August ; during which time no ship can 
pass the bar of Goa, aj9, by these continual rains, all the 
sands join together near a mountain called Oghane^ an<j[ run 
into the shoals of the bar and port of Groa, having no other 
issue, and remain there, so that the port is shut up till the 
Ist of August; but it opens again on the ICVth of August, a^ 
the rains are then ceased, and the sea thus scours away the 

To the northward, as Chaul, Diu, Cambay, Damaun^ 
Basseen, and other places, the ships depart from Goa ber 
tween the 10th and 24th of August; and ships may sail to 
these i^bces at all times of the year, except in winter, as al- 
ready described. 

Ships depart for Goa from Chaul, Diu, Cambay, and 
other parts to the northward, betwixt the 8th and 15th of 
January, and come to Goa about the end of February. 

From Diu ships depart for. th^ straits of Mecca, or thp 

• Red-Sea, about the 15th of January, and return from thence 

to Diu in the month of August. They likewise depart from 

Din for the Red-Sea in the second monspon, betwixt the 


' Hakluyt, II. 413. 

It appears, from the journal of John Eldred, in the preceding section, 
- that William Barret was English consol at Aleppo, and died in 1584. 

In the immediately preceding article in Hakluyt, vol. II. p. 406, et seq., 
is a curious account of the money weights and measures of Bagdat, Ba- 
sora, Ormus, Goa, Cochin, and Malacca, which we wished to hav^ in- 
serted, but found no suffident data by which to institute a comparison 
with the money iweights and measures of England, without which they 
would have been entirely useless. 

In the present article, the dates are certainly of the old stile, and, to 
accommodate these to the present new stile, it may be perhaps r^ht to 
add nine days to each for the sixteenth century, or twelvcix^ to re- 
duce them to corresponding dates of the present nineteenth centuiy«-^£* 

Id Earlji/ English Foynges baibf n, JKiox xi£» 

25th of August and 25th of September, and return to Diu 
between the 1st and 15th of May followiug. 

From Socotora, which hath only few smps, they depart 
for Ormus about the 10th of August. 

About the 15th of September the Moors of the firm land 
b^n to come to Goa from all partB, as from Balagneiie^ 
Bczmegar, Sudalcan^ and other places; and they wpart 
from Goa betwixt the 10th and 15th of November. 

It is to be understood, that, by going to the norths is 
meant departing from Goa for Chaul, Din^ Oambay, Ihr- 
maun^ Basseen, and other places as far as Sinde; and, by 
the south, is meant departing from Goa for Cochiiv and aH 
that coast, as far as Cape Comorin. 

In the^n^ mcMisoon for Ormus, ships depart foom Go« 
in the month of October, passing with easterly winds along 
the coast of Persia. In the ucond monsoon, the ships de* 
part from Goa about the 20th of January, passing hy a like 
course, and with a similar wind ; this second monsoon bdng 
called by the Portuguese the entremonson. There is lika^ 
wise a third monsoon for going from Goa to Ormiis^ when 
ships set out from Goa betwixt the 25th March and 6tli 
Apvi), having easterly winds^ when they set their course for 
ihie coast of Arabia, which they foil in with at Cape Rasal* 
gate and the Straits of Ormus. This monsoon is the most 
troublesome of all, for they make two navigations in the la* 
titude of Ceylon, somewhat lower than six degrees.* 

The^V^^ monsoon from Ormus for Chaul and Goa is in 
the month of September, with the wind at north or north- 
east. The secomi is between the 25th and SOth of Decem- 
ber, with like winds. In the third, ships leave Ormus be* 
tween the 1st and 15th of Aprils with the wind at south- 
east, east^ or north-east, when they coast along Arabia from 
Cape Mosandon to Cape Rasalgate ; and after losing sight of 
, Basalgate, they have westerly winds which carry them to 
Chauland Goa. But if they do not leave Ormus. on or be- 
' fore the 25th of April, they must winter at Ormus, and wait 
the first monsoon m September. 

The Jirst monsoon from Ormus to Sinde is between the 
15th and 20th of April; the second between the lOth and 


^ This is by no means obvkms ; but means, perhaps, that tbey are 
obliged to bear away so far south', owiB^ to the wind not allowing a di- 
rect passage, — £, 

CHAr. t%i met. T« io InJSa^ It 

doth of Oetober. From Ormua dbips depart fiir the Red« 
Sea in all January. 

From Goa lor Cnliciit, Cochin, Ceylon^ and other places 
ta the southward, the ships depart from the 1st to the 15lli 
of August, and find these seas navigable afl the jear, except 
in winter^ that is, from the 15th May to the lOth August. 
In like manner, ships ean go finom these fdaces to Goa every 
time of the year except in winter ; hut the best time is in 
the months of December, January, and Fehruanr. 

In the^rsf monsoon from Goa for Pegu, the uiips depart 
firom Groa between the 15th and 20th erf* April, and wiotcff 
at San Thome, whence they sail for Pegu after the 5lh of 
August. . in the second, they leave Goa between the Sth aikl 
24th of August, going direct for P^pi ; but, if they pass 
the ^4th of August, they cannot make out their voyage that 
monsoon, and must wait till next April. It may be noli* 
eed, that the best trade for Pegu is to take ryak and pat^ 
ehoni to San Thome, and there purchase Tetkani^ whkh ia 
fine eotton cloth, of which great quantities are made in Co-* 
romandel. Other merchandbe is not good in FegUy ^tt^ 
cept a few dozens of very fair oriental emerald& Gold, silr* 
ver^ and rubies are in Pegu sufficiently abundant^ In co- 
ming from Pegu for Western India,^ ships sail between the 
15th and 25th of January, and come ta Goa about the 25th 
of March, or beginning of ApriL If it pass the 10th of 
May before> reaching Goa, ships cannot reach Goa that 
monsoon ; and if they have not then made the coast of In* 
dia, they will with much peril fetdi San Thome. 

In i\\e first monsoon for Malacca, the ships leave Goa he* 
twe^i the 15th and SOth of September, and reach Malacca 
about the end of October. In the secoftdi they leave Goa 
3h€mt the 5th of May, and arrive at Malacca about the 15th 
of 3nn&, In the first monsoon from Malacca for 60% they 
leave Malacca about the 10th September, and come to Goa 
about the end of October. In the secondy they leave Ma* 
lacca about the 10th February, and reach Goa about the 
end of March. If any ship is detained on this voyage till 
the 10th May, they cannot enter the harbour of Goa ; and^ 
if they have not then got to Cochin, they most return to 
Malacca, as the winter and the contrary winds then come on* 

Ships sail from Goa for China in. the xnonth of April ; 
and tb^y must sail in such time from China as to readbt Goa 
before the 10th of May* If not then arrived^ they must put 


li Early EtfgUsh P'oydgt^ VKKX n. BaoK itb 

back to Cochin; and if not able to get in there, must go to 
Malacca to winter. 

Ships going from Goa for the Moluccas- must sail on or 
before the 10th or 15th May; after which period they can^ 
not pass the bar of Goa ; and the ships returning from the 
Moluccas usually reach Goa about the 1 5th of April. 

The ship^from Portugal for India usually depart between 
the 10th and 15th of March, going direct for the coast €£ 
Melinda and Mozambique, which they reach in July, whence 
they proceed to Goa. If they do not reach the coast of Me- 
linda in July, they cannot fetch Melinda that year, but must 
return to the island of St Helena. If they are unable to 
make that island, then they ritn as lost on the coast of Gui- 
nea. If they reach the coast of Melinda in time, and set 
forwards for Goa, but are unable to make that port by the 
15th September, they then go to Cochin; but, if unable to 
get into Cochin, they must return and winter on the coast 
of Mozambique; Tet, in the year 1580, the ship San Lo- 
renzo arrived there on the 3th of October, sore tempest-beat- 
en, to the great admiration of every one, as the like had 
not been seen before. 

The ships bound for Portugal leave Cochin between the 
15th and 31st January, steering for Cabo de huona Speran^ 
xa, and the isle of St Helena, which island is about midway, 
being in'lat. 16^ S. It is a small island, but fruitful of all 
things, with great store of fruit, and gives great succour to 
the ships homeward-bound from India to Portugal. It ia 
not lotig since that islatid was discovered, by a ship that 
came from the Indies in a great storm. They found in it 
such abundance of wild beasts and boars, and all sorts of 
fruit, that, by these means, this ship, which had been four 
months at sea, was wonderfolly refreshed both with food 
and water. It received its name because discovered on the 
day of St Helen. This island is so great a succour to the 
Portuguese ships, that many of .them would surely perish 
if it were not for the aid they get here. For this reason, 
the King of Portugal caused a church to be built here to 
the honour of St Helena, where only two hermits reside^ 
all others being forbidden to inhalrit there, that the ships 
may be the better supplied with victuals, as on coming 
from India they are usually butslenderly provided, because 
no corn grows there, nor do they make any wine. The 
ships which go from Portugal for India do riot toach there^ 

- because 

laa SECT* Tx^ :. tqIn/M0, IS 

^ .K 

because, on leaving Purtuga], they are fiiUy providad with 
bread and water for eight months. No other person can 
inhabit St Helena except the two hermits, or perchance 
some sick person who may be left there on shore mider tho 
care of the hermits, for his help and recovery. 

Ships depart from Goa for Mozambique between the 
10th and 15th of January ; and from Mozambique for Goa 
between the 8th and Slst August, arriving at Cbaulor Goa 
any time in October, or till the 15th of November. 
. froin Qrmus ^ps bound for Bengal depart between the 
15th and 20th of June^ agoing to winter at 2W? whence 
they: resume their voy<^e for Bengal about the 15th of Au** 


Section VI. 

' • - • ♦ • • # • 

JFirst Vo9fage of the EngUsh fa India in 1591 ; b^m by Cap-- 
tain George Raymondf and complete^ by dtg^tqin Jama 
Jjoncaster^ . . 


' • 1^ We have at laEigth^ arrived at the period when the 
• English 'began to visit the . East Indies iu their, own ships ; 
-this voyage of Captain Raymond, or, if you wiil> Lancaster, 
^beiJlg the first of the kind ever performed by them. ' From 
-this year, therefore, 1591, the , oriental navigations of the 
•English are to be dated; Uiey did not push them with any 
-vigour till the begipning of the next century, when they be- 
vgan to pursue the commerce of India with unwearied diii- 
'*gence and success, as will appisajr from the narratives in the 
. next suo^eeding chapter 

<^ As for C^tain Bayniond, his .ship was separated ne^r 

Cape Corientes, on the eastern coast of Africa, from the 

.other twOi^ and was never heard of more during the voyage, that, whether; he performed the voyage^ or was lost by 

^ the way, does not appeal* from Hakluy t ; from whose si- 


r > 'Hakltiyt, IL286. Astley^ I. 285. 

^ This is a singular oversight in the editor of Astley's Collection, as by 
that time there were only two ships, the Royal Merchant having beea 
<' pept home irom Saldaaha bay.*^]^» 

14 Early EngUA Foyuges TAsa u. book, niw 

fence, faoweror, nothing can be certainly conicloded xsUhm 
way, for reaaonifl that wUI appear in ibhe neqaeVJ'^^jisiiBy*. 

The full title of this voyage in Hfdckiyt's Coiiectiosi m 
thus : ^f A Voyage with three tali ships, the Ptenelope/ AA* 
miral; the Merohant-^RoyaJ, Vioe-*Admiml; and the Bd» 
word Bonadventnre, Rear-Admiral, to the East Indies^ iby 
way of the Cape of Baona Speranza^ to Qaitangoney near 
Moeambiqne^ to the ides of Comoro and Zanzibar, cm thi^ 
backside of Afnca, and beyond Cape Comortn, in India, to 
the isks of Nicobar^ and of Gomes Palo, witibiin i^o leagues 
cf Snraatra, to the Islands o( Polo PinaoiiH and tknoe tb 
lii6 Mainland 6( Malacca; begun by Mr GreorgeiUyaaioiid 
in }the year 1591, and performed by Mr James Lancastsiv 
and written from the mouth of Edmund Barker of Ipswich^ 
his Lieutenant in the said Voyage, by Mr Richard Hak- 

This voyage is chiefly remarkable as being the first ever 
•attempted by the English to Iiidia, though not with ai^ 
view of trade, a^ its only object seems to have been to com- 
mit privateering depredations upon the Portuguese trading 
ships in India, or, as we would now call them, the country 
ships, which were employed in trading between Goa and 
the setdements to the eastwards. It is unnecessary here to 
point out the entire disappointment of the adventurers^ or 
the ditastrous Conclusion of the eKpiedition, as these lite 
clearly related by Mr Edmund Barker. This article is fol- 
lowed by a sUf^lementaiy account of the satne voyase^ by 
John May^ one of the people belonging to the fkiwanT Bon- 
adventnre^ who relates some of the occurrences rather difieN 
ently from Edmund Barker, or rather gives some informa- 
tion th«t Mr Barker seems to have wished to ooncefd. For 
these reasons^ and becanse of some farther adventures in a 
French ship in which May embarked, it has been thought 
proper to insert that narrative in our ooUection;-^£. 


Out fl^et, consisting of three tall ships, the Poielopc^ 
Merchant^Royal, and Edward Bonadventure, sailed from 
Plymouth tli6 10th April, 1591, and arrived at the Canary 
Islands dn.d5th of that months whence we again took our 
departure eib.the 29th. The 2d May we were in the lati- 
tude of Cape Bianco, and passed the tropic of Cancer on 
the 5th. All this time we had a fair wind at north-east, sail- 

^ These promised reasons no vhere appear.— £• 

CHAP* IX- 8E<2f ^« to fniia. 15 

ipgfilwiiy^befiaiiette wiad> till iIig ISUiMay, wlien we came 
within eight d^e^ of the linei where we met a contrary 
wiiid. We Jay off aod on from that time till the 6th June, 
when we cttMsed the equinoctial line. While thus laying 
off and ODj we caf>tiired a Portuguese caravely laden by 
some merobanlfl of Lisbon for Brasil, in which vessel we 
got about 60 tons of wincv 1200 jars of oil, 100 jars of olives, 
some barrels of capersi three vats of pease^ and various 
other necessaries fit for our voyage; the wine, oil, olives|» 
and capers, being more valuable to us than gold. 

We bad two vai&i died before passing the line, and seve« 
nl sick, who first became unwell in these hot climates, as. 
it is wcmderfiilly tinwhokome from 8^ N. lat. to the 'eqoap- 
tor at that season of the year; for we had nothing but tor« 
nadoes,^ with sucii thunder, lighlning, and rain, that we 
Qould not keep our men dry three hours together \ which, 
with scanty ckiathing to shift them, and living entirelv on 
salt provisions) occasioned an infection among them. After 
passing the line^ wd had the wind continually at east-aouth- 
eait, which CBrried us along the coast of Brasil, at 100 
leuues Irom the land, till we were in lat. 2QP S. when we 
haa the wind fix)m the liorth i at which time we estimated 
the Cape of Good Hope to bear E. by S. dOO or 1000 
leflffues distant. 

£i passing this great golf from the coast of Brasil to the* 
Cape of Good Hope^ we had the wind often variable^ as it ia 
oa our Own coast, but, for the most part} so as that we could 
hold our course. The 28th of July we had sight of the . 
Cape ; and till the 9 1st we plied off and on, with a contrary 
wind, always in hc^)es to double the Cape, meaning to havB • 

Sne 70 leagues farther, to a place called Aguada de San 
roB, before seekim; to put in at any harbour. But as our 
men were sick in aO our ships, we thought it good to seek . 
some place of refreshment for them i wherefore we bore up., 
with the land to the northward of the Cape^ on the west 
coast of Africa ; and going along shore, we espied a goodly. 
bs^^ having an island to leeward of its mouth, into which 
we entered, and found it very commodious to ride in at an- 
chor. This bay is called Aguada de Saldanha, being in 
lat. 3$^ St 15 leagues northward on this side from the 


^ Tornado signifies a storm, during which the wind shifls about, or 
turns to all points of the compass. — £• 

1 6 EarJtf Engluh Voyages vAftT li; BbbK nu 

Cape;^ and m it we anchored on Sanday the Ist August^ 
and immediately sent our sick men on shore. 

' Certain very brutish black savages came to them^ but 
would not stay, arid immediately retired. For the space of 
15 or 20 days, we could procure no fresh provisions, except 
some cranes and p^eese which we shot ; and we could get bo 
fish btit mussels and other shell-fish, which we gathered on 
the rocks. At the end of this time, our admiral went one 
day with his pinnace to the island off the mouth of the'bay^' 
where, he found great numbers of penguins and seals, of 
^ich he brought plenty with him to the ships, and twice 
i^erwards some df our people brought their boats loaded 
i^ith these animals. After we had been here some time, we 
got hold of a negro, iitrhoin we compelled to go along withr- 
lis into the country, making signs to him to procure us 
some cattle; but not being able at this time to come in 
Nght of any, we let thenegro go, giving him some trifling 
presents;* Within eight days after, he and 30 or 40 other ne* 
groes brought us down about 40 oxen and as many sheep, at 
which time we only bought a few of them ; but^ about eight 
days afterwards, they brought down as many more, when 
we bought 34 oxen and as many sheep. Ine oxen were 
large and well-fleshed, ^ but not fat; and we bought. an ox 
for two, knives, and a stirk, or young beast^ for one knife. ^ 
TTie sheep are very largei and excellent mutton, having 
hair instead of wool, and great tails like those of Syria.' 
We gave a knife for a sheep, and even got some for less 
Value. We saw various wild beasts^ as antilopes, red and 
fillow deer, and other large beasts, which we knew not, 
vHtb a great number of overgrown monkies or baboons, 
Mr Lancaster killed an antilope as large as a young colt. • 

Holding a consultation in respect to the prosecution of 
our voyage, it was thought best to proceed rather with two 
ships wen manned, than with two weakly manned, having 
only 198 men in sound health, of whom 100 »vent in the 
Penelope with our admiral, and 98 in the Edward, with 
the worshipful Captain Lancaster. We left behind 50 men 


• < 

' It will appear distinctly in the sequel of these cafly voyages, that^ 
this Agfiada de Saldanha, called likewise Saldanha or Saldania bay, was 
that now named Table bay, on which stands Cape Town, and not that 
which is now called Saldanha bay, which. is ten or twelve leagues fartl\er 
north, and on the same western coast of Africa. — E. 

f This negro must, of course, have been a Hotentot«'— E. 

eHAF. IX. SECT. Ti. to India* 17 

Id the Rqjra) Merchant, Captain Abraham Kendal, of 
whom a good many were well recovered, thinking proper, 
jfor maiiy reasons, to send home that ship. The disease 
that consumed our men was the scurvy. Our soldiers, 
who had not been used td the sea, held out best, while our 
mariners dropt away, which, in my judgment, proceeded 
from their evil diet at home. 

Six days after sending home the Royal Merchant from 
Saldanha bay, our admiral, Captain Raymond, in the Pene^ 
lope, and Captain James Lancaster in the Edward Bonad* 
venture, set forward to double the Cape of Good Hope^ 
which they now did very readily. When we had passed as 
iar'as Cape Coricntes, on the east coast of Africa, at the 
entry into the channel of Mozambique, we encountered a 
dreadful storm, with excessive gusts of wind, during which 
.we lost sight of our admiral, and could never hear of him 
Bor his ship more, though we used our best endeavours to 
seek him, by plying up and down a long while, and after- 
wards staid for him several days at the island of Comoro^ 
which we had appointed our rendezvous in case of separa* 
tion. Four days after this unfortunate separation, we had 
a tremendous clap of thunder at ten o'clock one morning, 
which slew four of our men outright, without speaking one 
word, their necks being wrung asunder. Of 94» other men> 
not one remained untouched, some being struck blind, some 
bruised in their arms and legs, others in their breasts, so 
that they voided blood for two days : some were as it were 
drawn out in length, as if racked. But, God be praised, 
they all recovered, except the four men who were struck 
dead. With the same flash of lightning our mainmast was 
terribly split from the head to the deck, some of the spikes 
that went ten inches into the wood being melted by the fer- 
vent heat. 

From thence' we shaped our course north-east, and not 
long afterwards fell in with the north-west point' of the 
island of St Lawrence, or Madagascar, which, by God's 
blessing, one of our men espied late in the evening by moon- 

, VOL. VIII. B light. 

' The place of shaping this course is by no means obviousr It could 
not be from Comoro, which is farther north than the north end of Ma* 
dagascar, and was therefore probably from near Cape Corientes. — £. 

^ From the sequel, the text is certainly not accurate in this place, as 
they were not so far as this cape by 100 leagues. It probably was Cape 
St Andrews.— £. 

18 Early En^itk Votfuge^ mbt th. aoos. Jlli. 

light. Seeing fimn afar the breakup of the mb* he eilleC 
to loiiie of his comrades, aidLing whstJt memty wheA th9^ 
tdd him it was the sea breaking upen dhgak or foriu, npos 
whi^ we put about ship in gooid timey to aTiad Om daogor 
we were like to have incurreo. Conthniiisff oar vojMge, k 
was oar lot to overshoot Mo^ambiqufl^ and to feU in wtdi 
Quitangone, two leagues farther noitb, where we took three 
or Sour barks belongiag to the Moors^ laden with nille^ 
hensy and ducksi going as provisions fiar Mozambicpie, and 
having one Portuguese boy cm boanL Tiliese bms i|oe 
called patigaias in their iangnage. 

Within a few days after, we came to an khnd caHed Co^ 
SDoro, which we ibuad exceedingly popdoiu, die inhabk* 
ants being tawny Moors, cf good stature, hut veiy trtach»> 
erons, and reqairing to be sharply kioked after, neing de*- 
airous of piocuring fvesh water, of which we stood in greait 
need, we sent sixteea of eisr aaen, wdl anaed, on shoic^ 
whom the nadves allowed very quielly to hnd and take tha 
water. A good maay of them caaie on hoard, along mtk 
their king, wha waa dressed in a gowm of erimsoa satia^ 
leaching to the knee, pinked after the Moorish fashiosi* 
We entertained him in the be^ manner we aoaU, and had 
some oonfecence with him as to. the state of die pkoe ami 
jnerchaadise, using the Porloffaese boy we had taken aa 
our interpreter. We thea dJamissed dxe king and his ^ouy* 
paoy oonrteousfy, and sent oar boat on £ore again Sm 
water, when also Aiey dispatched their business quietly, and 
returned. A third tiaie the boat went for the sania yaicpose^ 
and returned uamoksted. We aow thought oniaehes safe 
ficiently provided; but our mastery Wilham Maoe^ of Rati* 
diS, pretending that it mi^t be long before we should &ui 
any good watering-place^ wouU needs go agaia on shores 
much against the wii! of our captain. He went aoeordic^*^ 
}y with sixteen men in a boat, which were aB we had, other 
sixteen of our men being on shore with oar odier bioat^ 
washing theb cbtbes, directly over agamst our ship. Hm^ 
perfidious Moors attacked all tfaeae men, who were mostlyi 
slain in our sight, while we could not yield them the smallest 
aid, as we had now no boat. 

Going from thence with heavy hearts on the 7th Novem^ 
ber, we shaped our course for tiie island of Zanzibar^ where 
we arrived shortly after, and there made ourselves a new 
boat, of such boards as we had in our ship« Wc ^ojgitijmed 


We till the t5th of FdiMTiiary, IfiOl, during whidi time we 
«aw severid pangaiof^ (^ boats, of the Moon, which ave 
IHDOcd with woodM pim^ and sewed together with cords 
made oi the palmito, and caulked with the husks of the 
vocoBr^nU beaten into a substance like oakum. At length 
« Portuguese pai^aia came ont of the harbour of Zanzibar, 
where tbsy have a small factory, and seat a Moor to us who 
had been christened^ briJStting with him a letter in a canoe^ 
in whidi tbej desired to know what we wer^ and what was 
icmr business. We sent them bade word that we were Ei^ 
lishmen, who had come from Don Antonio, upon busineas 
to hii friends in the East Indies. They returned with this 
Mfiiwer to'thdr &ctoty, and would nerer more look near 
us. Not long dler this we manned our boat, and took a 
pangsia bdonging to the Mooi% in whidi waa one of their 
pviests, called In their language a fhmfat* whom we used, 
very eonrteously. The king took this m very good part» 
liayiiig hifl priests in high estim^on, and fiunuabed uawidi 
two months' provisions (or hia ransom, during all which 
tbne we detained him on board. Fran those Moora we 
were informed of the false and spiteful dealing of the Por« 
tugiiese towards U3, as they had given out we were barbae 
rans people^ and canibak, desiring the Moors, aa they loved 
tibeir safiety, not to come near us ; using these contnvanoea 
to cut us off from all knowledge of the state and commercs 
of the country* 

While we rode from the end of November till the middle 
qS FAruBty in this harbour, widdi Ins sufficient water for 
a ship of 500 toiKip we one dsy attempted to take a PortUK 
gttese pangaia; but aa omr boat was so small that our neo 
nd hot room to Daiove^ and as they were armed with te» 
good guns, like fowling^^pieces, we were not able to tak« 
mm. Foe Ae ezcellenoe of its harbour and watering* 
place; its plenty of fidi, of whkh we took great stove with 
ow neta; for sundry sorts of fruits^ as eoooarnuta and odieniy 
which were brought to us in abundance by the Moore ; andl 
for oxen and poadtry, this place is wett worth being care^ 
fidly sought after by such of our ships aa shall heveafter 
pass this way ; but our people had good need to beware of 
the Portuguese* While we lay here their admiral of the 


^ Sker^9 sharjf, in Anibie» laore pmpedy deaotss tne of t&s iff 

scendants of Mahomet— Astl. l. 337. b. 

20 Early English Vai/ages ?art ii. book in, 

coast, from.Melinda to Mozambique, came to view us, anQ 
would have taken our boat, if he had found an opportunity'. 
He was in a galley frigate, or armed pinnace, with eight or 
nine oars of a side. V\'e were advertised of the strength of 
this gallev, and their treacherous intentions, by an Arabian 
Moor, who came frequently to ns from the King of Zanzi- 
bar, about the delivery of the priest, and afterwards by ano- 
ther Moor, whom we carried from thence along with ua : 
,for, wheresoever we came* we took care to get one or two 
of the natives into our hands, to learn the languages and 
conditions of the parts at which we touched* 

We bad at this place another thunder clap, which shiver- 
ed our foremast very much, which we fished and repaired 
with timber from the shore, of which there is abundance, 
the trees being about forty feet high, the wood red and 
^ tough, and, as I suppose, a kind of cedar* At this place our 
surgeon, Mr Arnold, n^ligently caught a great heat, or 
stroke of the sun, in hi:^ head, while on land with the mas* 
ter in search of oxen, owing, to which he fell sick, and short- 
ly died, diough'he might have. been cured by letting blood 
before the dibease had settled. Before leaving this place we 
procured some thousand weight of pitch, or rather a grey 
and white gum, like frankincense, as clammy as turpentin^^ 
which grows black when melted, and very britde ; but we 
mixed it with oil, of which we had 300 jars hrom the prize 
taken to the north of the equator, not far from Guinea. Six 
days beibre leaving Zanzibar, the head merchant of the fac- 
tory.sent a letter to our captain, in friendship, as he pri^- 
tended, requesting a jar of wine, a jar pf oil, and two op 
three pounds of gunpowder. This letter he sent by a negro 
servant and a Moor, in a canoe. Our captain sent him all 
he asked by the Moor, but took the negro along with us, 
as we understood he had been formerly in the Indies, and 
knew something of the country. By this negro we were ad- 
vertised of a small bark of some thirty tons, called ajurico bv 
the Moors, which was come hither from Goa, laden with 
pepper for the factory, and for sale in that kingdom. 

Having put our ship into as good order as we could,, 
while we lay in the road of Zanzibar, we set sail for India 
on the 15th of February, lo92, as said before, intending, 
if we could, to have reached Cape Comorin, the head-land, 
or promontory, of the main-land of Malabar, and there to 
have lain off and on for such ships as should pass from Cey- 

IpQ, San Thome, Bengal, Pegu, Malacca^ the Moluccas, 
China, or Japan, which ships are ful) of wealth and riches. 
But in our course we were much deceived by the currents, 
which. set into the gulf of Arabia, all along the coast of 
Melinda ; and the winds so scanted upon us from the east 
and north-east, that we could not get off, and .set us to the 
northward, within fourscore leagues of Socotoro, .far from 
our destined course. During all this time we never wanted 
dolphins, bonitos, and dying fishes. Finding ourselves thus 
&r to the northward, and die season being far spent, we 
determined upon going to the Red Sea, or the island of 
^ocptoroy both for rerreshment and to look oqt for some 
purchase, (prize). But, while in this mind, the wind forT 
tunately sprung up at no^th-wesst, and carried us direct for 
Cape Coinorin. 

Before doubling th^t cape, it w^s our intention to touch 
s^ the islands of Ma^/w/e, ** in 12° of N. lat. at one of which 
we were informed we might procure provisioqis. But it was 
ijiot pur luck to fin4 it, paj'tiy by the obstip^y of our mas- 
ter; for the day before we should jbave &Uen in with part 
of tbes^ islands^ the wind shifted to the south-west, and we 
ipissed finding it. As the wind now became more southerly, 
^e feared not being able to doubly the cape, which would 
i^ave ^eatly hazarded our being cast away upon the coast 
Qf Malabar, the winter season and western monsoon being 
ali^ady come in, which monsoon continues on that coast 
t^ll A)igust^ But it pleased God that the wiqd came abouf: 
more westerly, so that in May, 1592, we happily doubled 
V^ape Comorin^ ^without being in sight of the coast of India. 
Having thus doubled the cape, we directed our course for 
t^e islaiids of Nicobar, which lie north and south with the 
western part of Sumatra, and in lat. 7^ N." We ran from 
Cape Comorin to the meridian of these islands in six days, 
having a very large wind, though with foul weather, exces- 
idve rain, and gusts of wind. 

Througbthe negligence of our master, by not taking due 


'^ Perfai^s the Maldives are here meant ; but the northern extremity 
of that group is in lat. 7^ N., and the latitude of 10^» which reaches to 
the soutbemoiost of the Lakedives, is very &r out of the way lor don* 
bling Cape Comorin. — B.. 

" The Nicobar Islands are in 8^ N. ; but Great Sambelong is in the 
latitude mentioned in the text, and may have been considered a$ belonj^- 
ing to the Nicobar group. — ^£. 


99 Early EngUA V^yege» i^Ant ti. B50& WU 

observation of the south stur, we inisBed these ishndsy faff« 
ing to the southward of them, withiti sight of the islai^ds of 
Gomes Poloj** immediately off the great island of Sumatra^ 
it being then the 1st of Jane ; end we hy two or three days 
becalmed at the north-east side of these islands^ hoping to 
hate procured a pilot from the islimd of Sumatra, which 
was in sight, within two leagues of us. Winter now coming 
on, with much tempestuous weather, we directed our course 
for the islands of Pulo Pinao :'* it is to be noted that Pulo> 
in the^alayan language, signifies island. We arrived there 
early in June, and came to anchor in a Tery good harbour 
between three islands. At this time our men were retj siek^ 
imd many of them fallen ; and we determined to remain 
here till me winter were well over* This place is in lat. 5* 
15' N» and about five leagues from the main land| b^weea 
Malacca and Tanaserim^ belonging to Pega* 

We remained at this place till the end of August, our 
refreshments being very small« consisting only of oysters^ 

owing on the rocks, great wilks, or conchs, and a feWfishj 
hich we took with hooks and lines. We Landed our sick 
upon one of these uninhabited islands, for the sake of their 
health, yet twenty-six of them died here, among whom was 
John Hall^ our master, and Runakl Oolding, ibL merchant 
of much honesty and discretion. There are abundaiice of 
^ees in these islands of white wood, so taU and straight as 
to be well fitted for masts^ being often an hundred feet long. 
When winter was past, and our ship fitted for going to sea^ 
we hfid only now remaining thirty-three men and one boy^ 
twenty-two only of whom were sound and fit for labour^ 
and not above a third even of these were mariners. Being 
under the necessity of seeking some place for refre^ments^ 
we went over to the main-land of Malacca, and came nest 
day to anchor in^a bay two teagues from the shore. Theft 
our captain^ Mr James Lancaster, with his lieutenant, Mr 
Edmund Barker, the author of this narrative^ hating man- 
ned the boat^ went on shore^ to see if we could fall m ^th 
any inhabitants. On landing, we could see the tracks of 
some barefooted people, who had b^en there not long be-^ 


' '• Probably the islands nbw called PuIo Brasse, and Pulo W»y.— E. 

'^ Most probably the same with Pulo Pioang, now called Prince of 
Wales's Island : the Portuguese orthography being used in the text, in 
-which language ao, of rather aomf as m toe next section; b93 oiv soun4 
of an^.— £• 

hr9i fiMf tkiir fire was 0tiS burning; yel we coiild sed ntf 

Kple^ nor mky liriiig creatnte, except a Ibvl called ox- 
J^ beii!^ 8 grej asa^birdy in cdbur like a anqK^ but di& 
ferent in the beak. Being by no means shy, we killed about 
dif^t dcBfeo of diem with sbiaU shot, and haTing spent the 
daj firaitieatly^ we w^t on boavd in the evening. 

Aboat two o'clodi next dav we saw a caooe^ in which 
were about Hldsen indeed Indians^ who came near as, but 
wouki jkA come on board i ^t, going afterwards on shores 
ve had aoine fiieodlj convene i«ith them, and they p-o- 
mised i|D bring us vktilala. N^t morning we espied three 
iiiq% all 4if them abcoit sixty or seven^ tons burden, one 
of which surrender^ even to oar boait ; and anderstanding 
that therf were of the city ef Martaban^ a chief teinport ol 
the great city of Pegu J and that thegoods belonged to some 
PortxiBKeto jesiiits^ and a biscoit-bakef of thai aationi we 
tKxk. that ship; bnt as the oth^ two were hden on accoaniH 
of meitdiaHta a£ ^^^g^ we kt tbem go* Having this other 
along with u% we came to anchor together at night ; and 
in the n^|^ time «Q her iHeii^ being mostly natives of Pcgd^ 
fled away in their boat; exocpt twelve^ whom we had taken 
oil. bdanl ondr dsftp^ Hoast day we weighed anchor, and wa»t 
to leeward of an fflkod hard by, miere we took out her 
ladiSBg of peppcar^ widoh they Ifad taken on board at P^a, 
41 plaoe on the Main-landy tUrty leagses to the soutL We 
ISci^wifie atopt another ship tf Pegu, laden with pc^pef ; but 
6nding her cargo to bdoiig to natite mordknts of P^u^ 
we dismissed her untouched 

. Having^Biployed about ten di^ in removing the goods 
from the piriae into oor own sbipy and our sick men being 
.greatly rcfire^ied and 'strengthened by the relief we had 
Smnd in the priae, wevlneighed andbor about the beginning 
of Septssabetv deteriiining to run into the straits of Ma^ 
l«cc% to the.islandfl called Polo Sambilam, about forty-^five 
leagues ncnrth from the eky of Molucca, past which islands 
the Pbrtugudse dbipe most Heeeasarily pass on their voyages 
from Gq% or 800 Thomcir fcr :the Moluccas, China, or Ja- 
pan. After crniaong off aild on here fear about five days^ wd 
€me Sunday espied a PortogucK ship of 250 tons, from Ne^k 
gaq^atnaoi, a town an the aaain-land of India, opposite the 
northeen end of Ceylon^ laden with rice finr Malacca, and 
took lier that night. Captain Lancaster ordered her cap* 
tain and master on board our ship^ and sent me,^ Edmund 


Si Earfy EngEsh F^fi^es BtBT n* boos xxi« 

Barker^ his lietttenant, with seven men, to ti^e charae of 
the prize. We came to anchor in thirty fatbomsy as m all 
that channel there is good anchorage three or foar leagues 
from shore. 

While thus at anchor, and keepin/B^ out a light for tlie 
Edward, another Portuguese ship of 400 tons, bSonging U> 
San Thome, came to anchor hard by us. The Edward had 
&]len to leeward, for want of a sufficient number of men to 
handle her saiJs, and was not able next morning to fetch ap 
to this other ship, until we who were in the prize .went in 
pur boat to help her. We then made sail towards the ship 
of San Thome ; but our ship was so foul that she escaped 
us. We then took out of our prize what we thought might 
be useful to us, after which we liberated her with all ber 
men, except a pilot and four Moors, .whom we detained to 
assist in navigating the Edward. We continued to cr^iize 
here till the 6th of October^ at which time we met the galeon 
of the captain of Malacca^ a ship of 700 tons, coming from 
Goa. After shooting at her many times» we at length shot 
through her maiuryard, on which she came to andbor and 
surrendered. We then connnanded the captain, master^ 
pilots and purser to come, on board our ship ; but only the 
captain- came, accompanied by one. soldier, saying that the 
others would not come, unless bent for; but havuig got to 
some distance from us in the eTening, all the people of the 
ship, to the number of about SjOO, men, women^ and chil- 
dren,, got on shore in two great iooats^ and we saw no more 
of them. i 

? When we came on board, -we found she was juoned with 
sixteen brass cannon. She had SOO butts of wine, Canary, 
Nipar wine, which is made 0^ the. palm-trees, and rUisin*? 
wine, which is very strong. She had likewise an assoi tm^it 
of all kind of haberdashery wares ; as hats, red caps> knit of 
Spanish wool, knit worsted stockings, shoes, velvets, camb* 
lets, and silks; abundance . of sz^iAe^^^ (sweet^meats,) rice^ 
Venice glasses, papers full of false and counterfeit stones, 
brought from Venice by an Italian, wherewith to deceive 
the rude Indians, abundance of playing cards, two or three 
bales of French paper, and sundry other things. Vx hat be- 
came of the treasure usually brought in this ves^^ in ryals 
of plate, we could not learn. Alter the mariners bad pil- 
laged this rich ship in a disorderly manner, as they refused 
to unlade the excellent wines into the Edward, Captain 


CRAiv IS. SBCt. Vf • to Indian 25 

Lancaster abandoned the prize^ letting Iier driye at sea^ 
aiB;er taking out of her the choicest of her goods. 

Being afraid that we mi^ht be attacked by a greatly stl« 
perior force from Malacca, we now departed from the 
neighbourhood of the Sambilam islands, and went to a bay 
in the kingdom of Junkseylon, between Malacca and Pegu^ 
in the lat. of 8® N. We here sent on shore the soldier who 
had been left on board our ship by the captain of the galeon^ 
because he could speak the Malay language, to deal with 
the people for pitch, of which we were in much need, which 
he did very faithfully, procuring two or three quintals witfi 
promise of more,, and several of the natives came off along 
with him to our ship. We sent commodities to their king, 
to barter for ambergris and the horns of the abath, the 
trade in both of which articles is monopolized by the king 
of thi^ pountry. This abath is a beast having only one hom 
V^her forehead, thought to be the female unicora^ and the 
horn is highly prized by all the Moors in those parts, as a 
iQost sovereign remedy against poison.'* We got two or 
three of these horiis, and a reasonable quantity of amber-^ 
gris. At length the king was disposed to detain the Portu- 
guese soldier and our merchandise treacherously; but he 
told the h\ng that we had gilt armour, shirts of mail, and 
halb^rts, which things they prize greatly, and in hope of 
pi'ocuring some of these he was allowed to return ou 

Leaving this coast, we returned in sight of Sumatra, and 
went thence to the islapds.of Nicobar, wiiich we found inha<i 
bitj&d by Moors. . After we came to anchor, the people came 
daily on board in their canoes^ bringing tbwl^ cocoas, plan-' 
tainsj and other fruits ; and within two days they brought 
ryaJs of plate, which they gave us in exchange for calicut 
cloth, lltey find these ryals by diving for them in the sea, 
having biQen there lost in two Portuguese ships not long be- 
fore, tnat were ca$t away when bound for China. In their 
language the cocqa-^nut is called calambo; the plantain, pison; ^ 
^hen, jam; a fish, iecan; and a hog, babee. Departing 


** This Abath f or Abadia, is the Jlhinoceros Monoceros, or One-hom« 
fed Rhinoceros. The virtue of the horp, mentiooed in the text, is alto- 
gether imaginary. — E. 

'^ At this place Hakluyt makes the following remark on the margin:— 
** Some small quantity of these things might be carried out to pleasure 
those kings.'' 

fS Early EttgUtk FmfOges •tAsriUMimim 

firom die Nioobar Idinidfl on the Slit Novenfilieti 'we &iad# 
sail for the kind of Cejrkm, where we airrired abool the $A 
December^ 1592, «iui Miefaored on its south lide^ in six 
fiithoinB water^ but ld«t out anehor, as the gfoaiftd was fold 
and rocky* We then mn Along the south-west side of thd 
idand, and ancliored at a plaee called Pm^ta dei GaUtk 
meaning to remain there in waiting for the Bengal fleet of 
seven or eight «hipi» the Pegu ileec of two or threes and the 
ships from Tanaserini) a great hay to the south of Mftrta* 
ban, in the kii^om of Sftm» which ships^, according to 
diffin*At infermaiiens we hud got, were expected to come 
tins way witWn fourteen days, with commodities fot the 
earaks^ which ttsnally depart from Ccycbin, on the home* 
wsird voyage^ about the middle of January. 

The commodities of the ships which come from ^engul 
arsy .fine paviUoM for beds^ wrouglit quiltsj fine ooMon dotbs 
fi$aadiMf '(painted chintz,) and other fine goods» together 
with rice; and they usually make this voyage. ^ice a year« 
The ships from Pega bring the most predlcsts jewels, aS 
rabies and diamonds) but their principal lading ie rice and 
eertshi cloths* Those from Tanascrim are cbi^y frighted 
with rice end Nipar winey which is very $tPcft»g, and M 
colourless as rock water, with a somewnst whiush ting^ 
and Teiy«hot in taste, lake aqua vit^t.^^ We ceme to> anelioi^ 
at Bunta Galle,. in Ibul ground^ so thet we lay eil that night 
a-drifi^ having only two anchors left, which were in the 
bold, and had no stocks* Upon this oUr men took occurion 
to insist upon going home, our c^tain et thAt time being 
very skck^ and more likely to die than recover. In the 
mosning we set our foresail^ meaning to bear up to the 
nortkwsrd, standing ofi^ and on to ke^ away from the cui^ 
rent^ which otherwise would have set ns to the south, nway 
from all known hind When the foresail was set, and we 
were about to band our other sailsy to accomfdish <Mt be* 
fore^mentioned purpose^ cmr men mianimoustjr deckired that 
they would stay no longer in this country, and insisted up« 
on directing our course fer England; and Sfi they, would 
listen to no persuasions, the captain was under the necessity 
of giving way to their demand, leaving all hope of the great 
possibility we had of making some rici) prizes. 

Accordingly, on the 8th of December, 1592, we made 


^ Most probably what we now call arrack is here meantp— £. 

sftil for Um^ Cope of G60A Hope^ P««ii4; ^ Maldhre 
IfAondfi, and leaving the gredt islmd of 1^ Lswmce to' 
starboard, or on our right handi we passed its soudieni 
eoid in lnL9€^S. In our passage from the island of St 
Lawrence, or Madagascar, to the maiu'^land of Afirica, wt 
iband immense (Quantities of bonitos and albicores, whidi 
ifre' large ^hes, and of which our captain^ who was nowre^ 
covered from his sickness, took as many with a hook ib two 
or three hours as would have served forty persons a whok 
day. This skoU of fish continued with us fiir five or six 
weeics, ih til which time we took everyday as many aa 8U& 
ficed our whole company, which was no small refipeshmeat 
to us. 

In February, 1595, we fell In with the eaalem coast of 
Afirica, at a place cidled Baia de Jgoa, soat^hiiur moaw 
than 100 leagues to the north-east of the Cqie of Gkiod 
Hope ; and having contrary winds, we spent a month bflfiire 
we could double the cape. After doubling that cape i& 
March, we steered for the island of St Hcfena, wfam wt 
arrived on the Sd of April, and remained there to our gnat 
comfort nineteen days, in which time several indiviaaals 
«nong,t BS eaagbt iirtjr d^eaWe oon-m in . d.y, wiA 
other rock fish, and some bonitos. 1, Rdnrand Barker^ 
^Hmt wie day on shores with feur or five Patten and our 
surgeon, whei^e I feuiid an ikiglishman in a b>ase near tho 
diapd, one John Sesar, of Bury, in Sufiblk, who was left 
tiliere ei^teen monUis before by Abraham Kendal, who 
put in there with the Royal Merdiant, and who left him 
there to refresh on the island, being like to perish on di^ 
board. At our coming he was firesn in colour, and seemed 
in perfect health of body; but he was erased in mind, and 
hftf out of his wits, as appeared afterwards. Whether it 
was that he was terrified at our arrivaJ, not knowing at first 
whether we were firiends or foes, inrif sudden joy so afiectcd 
Mm on finding again his countrymen and old eomiudes, I 
Imow not, but he became quite l^t headed^ and during 
eight days and nights he could not get any natural rest, so 
ilmt he died <br lack of sleep At this pkice two of our men 
recovered their health in a shc^ time^ one of whom was 
diseased with the scurvy, and the other had been nine 
months sick of the fiux. We found abundance of green figs, 
$ne oranges and lemons, plenty of goato and nogs, and 
nuinbers of partridges^ pi^lados^ and other wild fowls. 


jtt^ Early English Voyagen part ii. book ui« 

Having now sapplied the ship with fresh water, and 
having some-store offish, our discontented mariners insists 
ed upon resuming tlte voyage home ; and our captain, be- 
ing inclined to go for Pernambuco, in Brasil, agreed to 
their, request. We departed therdTore from St Helena 
about tbe i2th April, 1593, directing our course for the 
Brasils ; and next day, on calling the sailors Xx> finish a 
foresail they had then in hand, some of them declared they 
would not put their hands to any thing, unless the ship'a 
course was directed for England; so that he was obliged to 
follow their humour, henceforwards directing our course 
towards our own country, which we continued to do till we 
came to lat. 8° N. between the equator and which latitude 
we spent about six 'week% with perpetual calms or contrary 
winds from the north, sometimes north-east and north-west; 
owing to which loss of time, and our small store of provi* 
si<ms> we were very doubtful of being able to keep oqr 
course. At this time some of our men became very mutinous^ 
threatening to break up other people's chests, to the eutire 
oonsdmption of our provisions and ourselves ; for every man 
bad now his share of provisions in his own custody, that 
they might know what they had to trust to, and husban4 
that tbe more thriftily. 

Anxioui> to prevent the occurrence of absolute famine^ 
and being informed by orie of tbe ship's company who had 
been at the island of Trinidada, in a voyage with Mr 
Ghudlei, and that we ihigkt be sure of having provisions^ 
there, our captain directed the course ior that island^ but 
not knovving the currents, we overshot it in the night, get* 
ting into the gulf of Paria, in which we were tor eight days^ 
unwie to get out again, as the current constantly set in^ 
and our ship was often in three fathoms water. At length 
the current put us over to the western side of the gulf^ 
under ihe main-land, so that by keeping close in shore, and 
having the wind off the land iu tiie nignt, we got out to the 
northward. Being now clear, we came in four or five days 
to the isle of MonUf where we anchored and remained about 
eighteen days, during which time the Indians of Mona gave 
us some victuals. In the ipean time there arrived a French 
ship of Caen, in Normandy, ot which one Monsieur de 
Barbaterre was captain, from whom we bought two butts 
of wine, with some bread, and other provisions. We then 
ivatered and repaired our ship, stopping a great leak thajt 


CRAIP. iX. SECT. VX. to India. 59 

'iiprung upon us while beating out of the gulf df Paria*; and 
being thus in readiness for sea, we determined upon going 
to the island of Newfoundland : but, before we could pot 
this in execution, there aro^e a great storm from the north, 
which drove us from our anchor, and forced us to the south*- 
wards of San Domingo. We were that night in great dan- 
'ger of shipwreck upon an island called Savona, which is 
environed with flats- for four or five miles aH round; yet it 
pleased God to enable us to clear them^ when we directed 
our course westwards, along the southern ishore of St Do- 
mingo, and having doubled Gape Tiberoon^ we passed 
through the old channd between St Domingo and Cahm, 
shaping our course for Cape Florida. 
. In this part of our course we again met with the Caen 
ship^ which could now spare us no more victuals ; but ha- 
ving some hides, which he had taken in traffic among the 
islands, we were glad to procure them, and gave him for 
them to his contentment. After this we passed Cape Flo* 
. rida, and clearing the Bahama channel, we directed our 
course for Newfoundland. Running to the lat. of SG'^ N. 
and as far east as the isle of Bermuda, we found the winds^ 
on the 17th Sq>tcmber, very variable, contrary to expecta- 
tion and all men's writings, so that we lay there a day or 
two with a north wind, which continually mcreased, till it 
blew a storm, which continued twenty-four hours with such 
violence that it carried away our saik, though furled, and 
occasioned the ship to take in much water, so that we had 
six feet water in opr hold. . Having freed our ship by ba- 
ling, the wind shifted to the north-w^st^ and somewhat 
dulled; but presently after the storm renewed with such 
violence, and our ship laboured so hard, that we lost our 
foremast, and our ship became as fuU of water as before. 

When the storm ceased^ the wind remained as much con- 
trary as ever, on which we consulted together how we might 
best save our lives. Our victuals were now utterly spent; 
and as we had subsisted for the last six or seven days en- 
tirely on hides, we thought it best to bear away back again 
for Dominica and the adjoining islands, as we might there 
have some relief. Upon this we turned back for these 
islands ; but before %ve could get there the wind scanted 
upon us, so that we were in the utmost extremity for want 
of water and provisions ; wherefore we were forced to bear 
»way to the westwards^ to the islands called Las Nueblas, 


so Earljf tingUdt Faifages pawu. moK«ii» 

or die Goody Idanda^ towards the ide of S$m Jutm di 
Porto J{tc9» At these idmds we fovmd laod^nlbs and freih 
water, and sea-tartoiaesi or turtle^ which eome mostly mi 
Jand aboat foil noon. Haviog rrfredied ourselves there ftr 
serenteen or ti^^teen days, ud havW supplied our ship 
•with firesh water and some provision oftartlei we reaeiveiL 
to latum a^aki &f Moaa, upon which determmatioii fivw of 
our mw le^ us^ reroraiiog en the isles of Niieblss» io tpite 
of every thing we coiiid say to the ooolraiy* Theae men 
^ame afterwards home in an En j^h ship. 

Departing fixna the Noebhs, wo arrivod egain at M<ma 
about the 20th December, 1599, and came to an^ihor there 
towards two or three in the morning. The captain and JL 
with a few olhers, wait on shore to the dweUi^ of an old 
Indian and his three aoDa> thinking to procure some fixxi^ 
oar vktnab being all eyppi>ded» so that we could not pofr- 
fibly proceed wSiout a supply* We spent two or tbre^^ 
days on shores seeking provisions to carry on board foir Iho 
relief of our people ; md oa going to the shore, for the.pui^ 
pose of returning with these to the ship, the wiitd beiM 
aomewhait northerly and the sea roughs our people couS 
not come near the shore wi A the boat, whidb was small and 
feeble, and unable to row ia a roiu^ sea. We reaaamed 
therefore till the next moraiBg, in bcq^es there might then 
be fess wind .and smoother se^ But about twelve o'clodl 
that night our ship drove away to sea, having on]j^ five mcto 
and a boy^ our carpenter having secretly cot the cables 
leaving nineteen of ua on shore, to our great distress, h^ 
ving no boat or any thing else. 

la this miserable situation we reposed our treat in God^ 
who had nan^ times b^re sncooured us in our greatesl^ 
extremity^ and contentiag ourselves with our poor estate^ 
soi:^bt for the meras of preserving our lives. As one piaoe 
was miable to sustain us, we dtvidfid oumelves into several 
coisfianies, six of us remaining <wkh our captain. Tho 
grea^t rdief that we could fiiul doiiag twenty-cane day«i 
was the stalks of porselin, boiled in watery with now anil 
then a pompioo, or gourde whkh we found in the gaixlwr 
of the dd Indian, who, on this onr second. arrival fled with- 
his three sons, and kept himseif cantinaafly aioft on^ the 
mountains. At the end cf these twenty^EHneibyswa espied 
a French ship, whidi we afterwards learnt was theI,«oiusa» of 
Dieppe Qommaaded by a Monsiem: Felis. A/s a signd to 


cmAs^tx^ aacr^n, i»IkJS4* 91 

tUs €hip we Iliads a fire, fdt tight ofwbwli irt^ tpakiti hat 
top^saib, aod bone up Sat the laM, •faflwi^g bis Fjrw«h €o^ 
lours* Then comiag to Miohor at the w^tern m4 of tlsia 
idandy ire caoae down with all speed towards him ; and the 
old Indian, with his three sons, now joined us, and accom- 
panied us towards the ship. This night Captain Liancaster 
went on board the ship, where he received good entertain- 
ment; and next morning they fetched other eleven of us 
on boaardt and used U4 alTveiy ^ml^ou^Iyf 

This day came another French ship belonging to Dieppe 
wliich inraaiaed till nighty wpecitihg «iiir wber ieve« allien 
la oomc down; but tbmigb aeverel »bQla wei!^ &*ed tx>i^ 
Aem, none of them ^wae* 1^%% PK^itum, thfrefoi^i Wd 
departied thence far €ke Borlh «ide of $t Bprniiago^ wbwt 
we remained tili Aprii^ 459^ apendiog two moattia iiu 
traftct i^n p^iniasioD» witfi t|ie iribabitantsy faf hide» wA 
^er articles, aix of m.being in one i»f tbe ships aiui six iii 
die other. In tbis time we were joined by a thii?d Frenwok 
ifaip of Newhaven» bnr whicbi we hfiA JwieMtg^fH^ of Uie seveA 
men who were left ^r us at tbe idaodof Moiia. Two of 
diem had broken tbeir neck$ \^ ^jaaibenng p^ tlia eli^ Iq 
cateb fowls; otber thsee w^ere aWo by tb# ^paniaifdib w^ 
eame ov«r from St Doaungv^ having reeicived i»SoiiiDtai0fk 
of our being on Mona. from our people wbo went 4wey in 
the Edward ; the other two were in this ship of Newhav^»( 
wbich bad f elieved them b^m the biopdy banda o(f the 

From this phoe Captain Laneaster asd I sbipi^d ow* 
selves in another ship belonging to Dieppe^ ^ wbieb ^net 
Monsietir Jean la Nee was cap^a, bew^the first that was 
te^dj to come away, leaving i;he resft or our men in the 
other shipsy wbei^ they w«pe aU weU treated. We s^ijJeA 
feir. Europe oq Sunday the Itk April* 1594; and passi^ 
through the CVyro% we arriiwd safe in Dieppe in Soiiy^wo 
days att^ on the 19ch o£May« AAer ataykig two days to 
refresh oaroeives^ gi^^ thanks Iq Gad and lo owr friendljf 
preservers, we took our paseage &r Rye^ whei« we lapded 
W Friday the S4(h May> 1594> bs^ifl^ spent in thia vqyage 
diree years^ six weeks^ and two days, which the Portuguese 
perform in half the time, chiefly because we lost the fit time 
and season to begin our voyage. 

We understood, in the East Indies^ from certain Portu- 
uese^ that tlu^y bave lately discQV^eared the coast of China 

62 Early EnglUh Foydges paet lu book iiu 

high as the-Iatitude of .59^ N. findmg the sea still opeix 
to the northwards, by which great hopes are entertained of 
finding the north-east or north-west passage. 

Witness, James Lancaster* 

Supplementary Atcount of the former Voyage^ by John May^ 

We departed from Plymouth on the 10th April, 1591^ 
with throe tall ships; the Penelope^ Captain Raimond 
admiral; the Merchant Royal, Captain Samuel Foxcroft* 
vice-admiral : and the Edward Bonadventure, Captain Ja-' 
mes Lancaster rear-admiral; on board of which I sailed^ 
together with a small pinnace. In Mav following we arrived 
at Gran Canaria, one of the Fortunate Islands; and towards 
the end of that month, being within three degrees of the 
equator on the north side, we took a Portuguese ship, bound 
fi)r Brasrl, which tendeti much to our refreshment. The 
£9th July we came to Saldanha Bay, (Aguada Satdania^) a 
good harbour, near the Cape of Good Hope, where wc staid 
about a month, and whence we sent home the Merchant 
'Royal for England, because of great sickness among our 
people, with a considerable number of our weak men* We 
here bought an. ox for a knife worth three-pence, a sheep 
for a broken knitie, or any other odd trifle, from the na« 
tives, who are negroes, clad in cloaks of raw-hides, both 
men and women. 

The 8th of September the Penelope and Edward Bon* 
adventure weighed anchor, and that day we doubled the 
cape. The 12th following we were assailed by a fierce tem- 
pest^ or hurricane \ and in the evening we saw a great sea 
break over our admiral, the Penelope, which struck out their 
light, and we never saw them any more. In October we 
in the Edward fell in with the westernmost part of the island 
of 8t Lawrence about midnight, not knowing where wq 
were. Next day we came to anchor at Quitangone, a place 


' Hakluyt, III. 52. 

^ In the account of this voyage, penned from the relation of Edmund 
Barker, forming the immediaieJy preceding section, the captain of the 
Merchant Royal is named Abraham KendaI.---£. 

«IU^. is^ cfficT. m. to India. Sft 

Oti Ae main*laBd of Africa, two or three leases *north of 
Mozambique, which is supplied from hence with fresh wa- 
ter* We nere took a pangaia^ in which was a Portuguese 
boy, being a vessel like a barge, with one mat-sail of cocoar 
nut leaves. The hull of this barge is pinned with wooden 
pins, taxd sewed with cord made of the bark of trees, in 
this pangaia we found a kind of com called millio, or liiillet^ 
a consi^raUe number of hetis, and so^e bales of blue 
Calicut cloth. We took the Portuguese boy with \A, and 
dismissed the rest. From this place we went^to an island 
called Comoro^ off the coast of Melinda^ in about 11* &^ 
where we staid all November, finding the people black and 
comely, but very treacherous ; for 3ie day before we left 
that island they killed thirty of our men on shore, mnong 
whom was William Mace our master, and two of his mates^ 
<me of them being in the boat along with him to fetch wa- 
ter, and the other on shore, over against the ship. They 
first took possession of our boat, and then slaughtered out 
meii. From thence we went to the island of Zanzibar, on 
the cMst of Melinda, where we staid to winter^ tiH the be* 
^ning of February, 1592. 

The 2d February, 1592, we weighed anchor, and set sail 
for the East Indies; but, having caJms and contrary winds, 
we were not able to fetch the coast of India, near Calicn^ 
till the inonth of June^ by wfaidi long delay many of our 
men died for want of refreshm^its, in this x^ontb of June 
we came to anchor at the ishrnds of Pulo Pmaonij where 
we staid till the Ist September, our men being very sick, 
and dying fast. We set s^ that day, directing our course 
for IMudacca, and had not gone fiur at sea wh^i we took a 
ship of the kingdom of Pegu, of about eighty tons, having^ 
wooden anchors, a cr^ of about fifty men, and a pinnace 
of some eighteoi tons at her stem, laden with pepper x but 
the pinhace stole from us in the morning in a gust of wind. 
We might likewise have taken two other Pegu vessels, 1^ 
den witn pepper and r|ce. In this month also we took a 

eat Portugese ship of six or seven hundred tons, chiefly 
aden with victuals, but having chests of hats, pintado^ and 
Calicut cloths.' We took likewise another Portuguese ship, 
of some hundred tons, laden with victuals, rice, white and 
painted cotton doth, (or cocoes and chintzes,) and other 

VOL. Till. pAltT I. c commodities. 

' Painted and white calicoes or cotton doths.— >£• 


S4f Early Englkk Vcyaget part lu 300X »^* 

commodities. These ships were bound for Malacca^ niiostly 
laden with victuals, as that place is victualled from Goa, 
San Thome, and other places in India^ provisions being 
\ex\ scarce in its own neighbourhood. 

In November^ 1592, we steered for the Nicobar Islands^ 
some degrees to the north-west of the femous island of Su- 
matra, at which islands we found good refreshment, as the 
inhabitants, who are Mahometans, came on board of us in 
their canoes^ with hens, cocoas, plantains, and other fruits; 
and within two days brought ryals of plate, which they gave 
us for cotton doth, which ryals they procured by diving in 
the sea, having been lost not long before in two Portuguese 
ships bound for China, that had been there cast away. Our 
ship's company was now so much wasted by sickness, that 
we resolved to turn back to Ceylon, for which purpose we 
weighed anchor in November^ and arrived off Ceylon about 
the end of that month. In this island grows excellent cin- 
namon; and the best diamonds in the world are found 
there. Our captain proposed to have staid at this island to 
make up our voyage, oi* which he had great hope, in con- 
sequence of certain intelligence we had received ; but our 
company,, now reduced to thirty-three men and boys, mu- 
tinied, and would not stay, insisting upon going home^ and 
our captain was very sick, and like to die. 

We accordingly set sail, homeward bounds on the;8tl> 
December, 1592; but some days before our arrival within 
sight of the Cape of Good Hope, we were forced to divide 
our breads to each man his. portion, in his own keeping, as 
certain flies had devoured most of it before we were aware. 
We had now only thirty-one pounds of bread a man to 
carry us to England, with a small quantity of rice daily. 
We doubled the Cape of Good Hope on the Slst March, 
1593, and came next month to anchor at the island of St 
Hdena, where we found an Englishman, a tailor, who had 
been there fourteen months. Having sent ten men on shore 
in the boat, they found this man, in the chapel, into which 
he had gone to avoid the heat ; and hearing some one sing 
in the chapel, whom. our people supposed to have been a 
Portuguese they thrust open the door, and went in upon 
him : out the poor man, on seeing so many men of a sud- 
den, and believing them to be Portuguese, was at first in 
great fear, not having seen a human being for fourteen 
months^ and afterwards knowing them to be English, and 


cMAPk IX, SECT, VII. to Indid. S5 

6ome 6f them his acquaintance, he became exceedihg joyfolt 
insomuch that between sudden and excessive fear and joy^ 
he became distracted in his wits, to our great sorrow. We 
here found the carcasses of forty goats, which he had dried. 
The party which left him had made for him two suits of 
goati^-skins, with the hairy side outmost, like the dresses 
worn by the savages of Canada* This man lived till we 
camef to the West Indies, and then died. 

We remained at St Helena all the month of April, and 
arrived at the island of Trinidada, in the West Indies^ in 
Jun&, 1593^ hoping to procure some refreshments there^ but 
could not^ as the Spaniards had taken possession. We got 
here embayed between the island and the main ; and, for 
want of victuals, our company would have forsaken the ship, 
on which our captain had to swear every man not to for* 
sake her. till the most urgent necessity. It pleased God to 
deliver us from this bay, called Boca del Dragone, from 
whence we directed our course for the island of San Juan 
de Puerto Rico, but fell in with the small island of Mona^ 
between Porto Rico and Hispaniola, where we remained 
about fifteen days, procuring some small refreshment. There 
arrived here a ship of Caen, in Normandy^ of which Mon- 
sieur Charles de la Barbotiere was captsijn^ who greatly 
comforted us by a supply of breiu} and other provisions, of 
which we were greatly in need, after which we parted. 

Having foul weather at Mona, we weighed andior and 
set sail, directinff our course for Cape Tiberoon, at the west 
end of Hispanic^; and, in doubling that cap^ we had 90 
violent a gust of wind from the shores that it carried away, 
all our sails from the ]^ards, leaving us only one new fore* 
course, the canvass ot which we had procured from the' 
Frenchman. Having doubled the cape in that distress, the 
before-mentioned Captain de la Barbotiere gave us chase 
with his pinnacef and when come near, I went 01^ board, 
to inform him of our distress; and be now said, there was. 
nothing in his ship but what he would spare for our assist- 
ance ; so we agreed with him for some canvass. . He said 
likewise, if we would accompany him to a harbour called. 
Gofmavy/^ to the northward of Tiberoon, that he would 
procure us plenty of fresh provisions. I went back to our. 
^ ... ship, 

* Hakluy t^ on the margin, gives Guanaba as a synonime : it was pro- 
bably Gonaives' Bay, in the oorthern part df the west end of Hispaniola. 

S6 Earh/ English Voyages PART il. BdOK Itft 

sliip^ iEtnd reported this to bur captain, who made it known 
to the company^ and it was unanimously agreed to go there^ 
which was done accordingly. We remained there fifteen 
days along with the ^Frenchman, but could get very small 
refreshment, as the Spaniards were in great fear of the 
Frenchman, supposing him a man of war, and that out 
ship was Portuguese, which he had eaptai^, and dduld not 
be persuaded to the contrary by any thing he could say^ 
Thus staying long, and procuring very little refreshmentf 
our people begun to grow mutinous^ pretending that the 
captain and I went on board the Freudhmaa to mtdce good 
chear ourselves, taking no care of them ; but I protest be- 
fore God that our sole care was to procure victuals that we 
might leave him. 

in the mean lime a great part of our people entei'ed into^ 
a conq)iraey to seize the Fn^iidbman's pinnace^ and with 
her to board the French ship ; but while this was concert- 
ing among them, one of tnemselves went on board the 
Fr^ichman, and revealed the plot. Upon this Monsieur de 
la Barb(^tiei^ sent for the captain and liie to dine with him. 
We weilt accordingly, and remained all the afternooh^ 
betng invited Itk^ise to su{^e£. Wh3e we ^ere at supper 
die Ftienoh captain did ncM; oome to ds fer a long lime, aiKt 
when he at length came into the cabin, he tcM us ive must 
either ieanre him, or he must go seek aak^hier jport. Inform- 
ing CSaptaan Lanicaster df diis, he desired me to say^ that 
rather as be any hindrance to him we would depart. While 
we weite thus talking tOj^edier, the Frenchman weighed and 
set «aal^ whidi we perceived^ and asked ^hat he meiiht. tie 
said he proposed to keep us as his sureties^ because our men 
had plotted to seize his shtp^ as before mentJonedL 

When the French Aip came athwart ours^ it blowing 
liien a stiff breeze, their boat, which was astern^ a«d had in 
her two Moors and two Peguers, whom We had given to 
l^em, broke away^ The FreiKsh captain wafs now worse 
than b^(Me, and threatened sore to make us pay for his 
voyage. Seeing us pass, the Edwai^d weighed and set sail, 
meaning to go for £ngiand ; and the people shared among 
them all the captain's victuals and mine^ when they saw us 
kept as prisoners. 

Next morning the French ship went in search of her 
pinnace, which was at Laguna, and on firing a gua she 
came off, having three of our people oa boardy Edmund 


CBAP. IX. flBct« Til* ia hidiom 87 

BnAer our lie«Ceiint» oiie Jc&n West> and Riehard Ladc- 
IttidsOneofoiirinQtiiie^s. Of this I told the Frenthz-wytnin, 
which Lackland could not doiy hot that wich a sdieroe was 
intended. I was then pat into the Frsn«^ pinnace to aedc 
their boa^ whiletheywent to see if they oonJd overtake oor 

Next day we all met at Gape St Nicholai^ but could hear 
BO tidings of the French boaL As there were Spaniarda 
and negroes on board our ship. Captain de la Barbotiece 
requested to baye them ; on which our captain desired him 
ta send his boat for them, and he might luYe them with afl 
his heart. After much ado this was done^ and they wane 
brought on board* He then donanded of these people if 
his boat vrere in our ship, and bdng assured she was nol^ 
we became good friends again, to our great joy. The 12th 
August, 159S, our captain was again smt on board his own 
ship ; but, before his departure, he requested the Fraich 
captain to take me home with him, that I might certify to 
the ownors all that had passed in our unfortunate voyage, 
as also the mutinous behaviour of our crew. Accordingly 
we took our leaves of each other, the Edward setting sau 
for England, while we in the French ship bore up again 
for Gwmaojff or OonaiTesi where we afterwards found the 
Fraach boat.' 

The last of Novanber, 1593, Monsieur de la Barbotiere 
departed from a port called Laguna, in Hi^nniola. The 
17th iji December we had the misfortune to be cast away 
on the north-west part of the island of Bermuda, about mid- 
night. At noon oS that day the pilots reckoned themselves 
twelve leagues to the south of that island, and certifying the 
^i^>tain that the ship was out of all danger, they demanded 
and received their wine fif hdgkt? Afler having their wine, 
it would seem that they became careless of their charge, so 
that through their drunkenness and n^ligenoe a number of 
good mra were cast away. It pleased God that I, a stranger 
among above fifty Frenchmen and others, was among those 
who w^e saved : I trust to his service and glory. At first 


3 In diis part of the narrative, May is somewhat different from that for* 
ineri|r gtvcai fiom Edmund Barker, in the preceding section, or ratiher be 
ia more minutely particular. The remainder of the narrative has no far- 
ther connection with the unfortunate Edward fimiadventure. — E. 

^ Probably alluding to some customary perquisite on getting safely 
tbnMigh the dangerous navigation of the Bahama IslandSi^ — ^E. 

38 Early EngUthVmfoges partii. book hi. 

•we comforted ourselves in the hope that we were wrecked 
hard by the diore of the island, being high cli£fe; but we 
found cursives seven leagues ofl. By means of our boat, 
and a raft which we made^ about twen^-six of us were 
saved, among whom I was the only Englishman. Being 
among so many strangers, and seeing there was not room 
for half the people^ 1 durst neither press to get into the 
boat or upon the raft, lest they should have thrown me over- 
board or killed me; so I remained in the ship, which was 
.almost full of water^ till the captain called me into the boat, 
in which he was; so I presently entered, leaving th^ better 
half of our company to the mercy of the sea. 

We rowed all day, and an hour or two of the night> tow- 
ing the raft after us, before we got to land : and, oeing all 
that day without drink, every man dispersed in searcn of 
;water, but it was long before any was fcnind. At length one 
of the pilots, by digging among a tuft of weeds, found water, 
to omr great comfort. As there are many fine bays in this 
island, I think abundance of ftesh water might be got by 
digging for it. Bermuda is all divided into broken islets; 
the largest, upon which I was, might be about four or five 
:miles long, by two and a half miles over^ all covered with 
.wood, as cedar and other kinds, but cedar is the most 

It pleased God, before our ship broke to pieces, that we 
«av£d our carpenter's tools, otherwise we must have remain- 
ed on the island. With these tools we went immediately to 
work, cutting down trees, of which we built a small bark of 
about eighteen tons, almost entirely fastened with trunnek, 
having very few nails. As for tackle, we made a trip to our 
^hip in the boat, before she splits cutting down her shrouds, 
and some of her sails akid other tackle^ by which means we 
rigged our bark. Instead of pitch, we made some lime, 
which we mixed with oil of tortoises; and as soon as the 
carpenters had caulked a seam, I and another, with small 
sticks, plastered the mortar into the seams, and being fine 
jdry warm weather, in the month of April, it became dry, 
and as hard as stone^ as soon as laid on. Being very hot 
and dry weather, we were afraid our water might fail us, 
iind made therefore the more haste to get away. Before our 
departure, we built two great wooden chests^ well caulked, 
which we stowed on each side of our mast, into which we 
put our provision of water, together with thirteen live sea- 

. tortoises 

eakp. IX. s&cr. vii. to Indian S9 

tortoises for our food during the voyage^ which we pro- 
posed for Newfoundland. . .< ' 

There are hogs in the south part of Bermuda ; but they 
were so lean, owing to the barrenness of the island, that we 
could not eat them. It yielded us, however, abundance of 
fowl, fish, and tortoises. To the eastwards this island has 
very good harbours, so that a ship of 200 tons might ride 
in them^ perfectly land-locked, and with enough of water. 
This island also has as good pearl-fishing as any in the West 
Indies; but is subject to foul weather, as thunder, lightnings 
and rain. In April and part of May^ however, when we 
were there, the weather was hot, and quite fair. 

On the 11th of May it pleased God that we got clear of 
this island, to the no small joy of us all, afier we had lived 
in it for five months. The 20th of that month we fell in 
with the land near Cape Breton, where we ran into a fresh 
wfU:er river, of which there are many on this coast, and 
took in wood, water^ and ballast. Here the people of the 
country came to us, being cloathed in furs^ with the hair 
side inwards^ and brought with them sundry sorts of furs to 
sell, together with great quantities of wild ducks; and as 
some of our company had saved a few small beads, we 
bought a few of their ducks; We ^aid only about four 
hours at this place^ which seemed a very good country, as 
we saw very fine champaign ground and woods. We ran 
firom this place to the Banks of Newfoundland, where we 
met several' vessels, none of which would take us in. At 
length, by the blessing of God, we fell in with a bark be 
louring to Falmouth, which received us all for a short time; 
ana in her we overtook a French ship, Jin which I lefi; my 
dear friend, Captain de la Barbotier^ and all his company, 
remaming myself in the English bark, in which I arrived 
at Faimout];i m August, 1£94* 


*^ JEflr/y EngUsk Voyages . war lu book iiif 


The ur fortunate Voyage of Captain Benjamm ff.ood, tominb 

the East Indies, in 1596*' 


In the year 1596» a aqpi^dcoft of three d^p$, the Bear^ 
B^r's Welfv and Qesgainliii was fitted oul, chiefly at the 
char^ of l^ir Robert j>u(Uey> aod the cosuoand given to 
Mr JB^jaiKiiiaL Wood* The merchants oaployed in this 
voyage were» Mr Richsjrd Allot and Mr Thomas Broov- 
fields both of the ci^ of L<»idon« As they intended td have 
proceeded ^ fai^ as China, ikey obtained the eraeious letters 
of Queen Elizabeth, of fiunous memory^ tb the king or euF 
peror of that countxy^ recommending these tw,o merchaal% 
o^ factors,, to his protection^ 

. Thi9 their honour^le eaipedition, and ffracious reccHn- 
i^nda^tipQs Stoi^ her majesty, lor the furtherance of their 
iaercantil^,affaicfi» had no answerable e&cts^ but suffered a 
dQuj^le disaster; ^9t> in the miserable. perishme of the 
s(g[uadron; andnei^t, in losing the history^ or x^adon^ of 
that tTKedy^ Some broken |dank» however, ds after a shii>^ 
wreck, have yet been encountered from the West Indi^ 
which gives us some notice of this East-Indian misadveo* 
tur:e- Haying the following inteSig^ice by the intercepted 
lettei:s of the licentiate Jlcasar de FiUa Scnar, auditor in 
the r^yal audience of St Domingo^ judge of the comnnssipa 
in PoriK> S'i^) and cajHain^gesieral of the province of New 
Andalusia, written to the.King of Spain and his royal cooqp^ 
cii of the Indies ; an extract of whicbi so far as concerna 
this business, here follows; wherein let not the imputation 
of robbery and piracy trouble the minds of the reader, being 
the words of a Spaniard concerning the deeds of English* 
men, done in the time of war between us and them. 

So far we have exactly followed the introductory remarks 
of Purchas. In the sequel, however, we have thought it 
better to give only an abridgement of the letter from Alca- 
sar de Yula Senor, which Purchas informs us, in a side 


' Purchas his Pilgrims, 1. 110. AstL 1. 252. 

caouLP. n. 8BGT^ Till. to India. 41 

bote, he bad fottnd amoit^ tbe papers of Mr Ridiard Hak« 
luyt. In this we have followed tbe exaDaple of the editor of 
Astley's Collection, because the extract giTen by Parefaas is 
▼ery tedious, and often hardly intdligible* This letter, dated 
firom Porto Rico, 2d October, 1601^ gires no light what^ 
ever into the voyage itself, nor by what accident ihe ships^ 
which had «dt out for the East Indies, had come into the 
West Indies ; neither what became of the ships, nor thd 
natote of the sickness which bad reduced their men to four^ 
but wholly refers to what passed after these sailors had quit* 
ted their ship, and landed on the iriand of Uiia$, near Porto 
Bido* All Acte cireiiHi8taii4es'#ere probably commimicated 
m a former letter, alluded to in the oomm^cement of that 
which was intercepted^ as it proceeds upon having received 
a comnussi^m from the royal f(ndiimc% to punish certain 
ofiendofs who had usuipped a great quantity of property be# 
loo^ng to the King of Spain In the islaod of Utias; the 
plunder taken by the En^ish, and with which these four 
men had landed in that imnd«**-'£. 

» ■»■»*■ 

It appears by this lett^, that three Englkh shipa bound 
finr the East Indian bdmigviig to Portuf^, had eq>tuntd 
three P<»rtiQguese riiips, one of ibem from Goa, from tbe 
captain of wfaidbt tbey took a lai^ rich precious stonoy 
which the captain had (4iarge of for the King of Spain ; the 
particulars of whleh had been communtcatw the year be- 
tore in a letter ^om Alcasar to the king, togedier with a 
co|^ of the declaratioa of one Thomas, o? the mods he^ and 
his three companions had in the said island of iJtias# They 
had also many bags of ryals of eigh^ and four^ intended for 
tiie pay <^ the ffarrison fai a frontier castle of India, and 
much more gooos bdonging to the Portuguese. 

.AAer this all the men died of some unexplained sickness^ 
e^Ecept ^r men, whose names were Richard, Daniel, Tho«^ 
mas, and Greorge. These men, with ail the jewels, money^ 
and rich goods they ^pould remove, put into a river or bay 
of the ishmd of Utias,* three leagues (eom Porto Rico; 
where» alter ktfiding their gooda^ their boat sunk, and tbej 


^ From the context, it would appear, tbst the island of Utias is to the 
cast of Porto Rico, among or towards the group called the Viigin isles^ 
The ships of Wood were probably sufiering from scurvy and famine, like 
the Edward fionadtenture ; and, endeavouring, like Lancaster, to sedk r&< 
lief in the West Indies, may have perished among the Virgin isles. — £• 


42 Early, English V6ffage$ pArI* it: b6'Ck hi. 

remained on that island with only a small' boat made of 
boards, which they had taken from some fi^ermen at Cape 
San Juan, the north-east headland of Porto Rico. With that 
small boat they crossed over to Porto Rico in search of wa- 
ter, and, on their return to Utias, left George behind them 
on Porto Rico. He, being found by Don Rodrigo de 
Fuentes and five others, gave information of aD that had 
happened to them, and of the large stone, jewels, gold, plate^ 
testoons, and other rich goods uiat were in the said island, 
and of the places where the other three Englishmien and 
their goods might be found. 

Consulting together on this information, they agreed to 

Kass over into the island, to take possession for their own- 
enefit of these rich goods, and did so, carrying with them 
a letter from George the Englishman to his comrades, ad-^ 
vising them to submit to the ^aniards, and to deliver up- 
to them their arms and riches. Coming nea;r to where the 
three .Englishmen dwelt, these %>aniar£ displayed a white 
flag in token of peace, and the Englishmen set up another ;- 
after which they held a friendly conference together, the 
Spaniards pledging their good faith and friendship. Upon 
which the Englishmen yielded themselves to Don Rodrigo 
and his companions, with their arms and aU their goods, 
which they took possession oi^ and parted all the money 
among themselves. They hid and kept secret the great 
stone and other jewels, with a great quantity of gold, suver, 
and other rich goods ; keeping out only a small quantity of 
silver in bars, and some silks, as a cover for the rest. And, 
that it-fiiight not be known what quantity of jewels, gold, 
silver, and other rich goods they had usurped, they agreed 
to murder the three Englishmen with whom they had eat- 
en, drank, and slept in peace. They accordingly killed 
Richard and Daniel, and would have slain George, but he 
escaped from them to a mountain. They then returned to 
Porto Rico, where they. put George to death by poison, 
and sent to Utias to seek out Thomas and put him to death ; 
but he got over to this island in a wonderful manner by 
means of a piece of timber; which they bearing of, sought 
by all the means diey could to kill him, but to no purpose. 
Meanwhile Don Rodrigo, and two others of his accom-* 
pUces, came to the city of San Juan, and informed the go- 
vernor that they had found a small quantity of goods in the 
island of Utias, having slain three Englishmen in fight to 

jCHAP. iiu SECT. IX. io India. 43 

get them ; and their other accomplices presented themselyes 
as witnesses, falsely deckrlng that they had found no more 
goods. > But not agreeing in their story on farther investi<- 
gation, and Thomas the jSnglishman being at lengUi pro- 
cored as evidence against them, they were all sent to pri-* 
.fion ; iiribence Don Rodriga^ though bolted and guarded by 
two soldiers, contrived to get out by filing off his irons in the 
Jlight. After Don Rodrigo^s escape, the rest confessed the 
whcJe affair; but either through favour or fear, no one 
would assist Alcasar to bring this rascally ringleader to jush 
tioe. He pronounced sentence on all the rest, with a de« 
nunciation that they were ^to be put to death in five days^ 
unless the goods were delivered up. 

. How this affair ended does not appear, as the letter was 
written before the expiry of the. five days. Neither indeed 
is this letter of much importance, except to shew the mise- 
rable end of that imfortunate voyage, the villainy of Don 
Rodrigo and his comrades in murdering the poor English- 
men to conceal their plunderi and that Alcasar, in the pro- 
secution, was solely intent upon recovering the treasure for 
the King of Spain^ without toy consideration of the mur- 
der of the three Englishmen $ who, in his letter, are treated 
as robbers and thieves, though England was then at war 
with Spain, and they were consequently^justifiable in taking 
the Portuguese ships as lawful prizes. 


Voyage of Captain John Davis to the East Indies, in 159S, 

as Pilot to a Dutch SMp/^ 

<< This voyage was written by Davis himself and ap- 
pears to have been sent by him in a letter to Robert Earl 
of Essex, dated Middleburgh, 1st August^ 1600. From 
this letter we learnt that Mr Davis had been employed by 
his lordship, for discovering these eastern parts of the 
world, for die service of Queen Elizabeth, and the good of 
England. He informs his noble patron, that his journal 
only contains such things as had fallen under his own ob- 
servation ; but^ when lavoured with an opportunity, he 


' Purch. Pilg. 1. 116. Astlejr, L 254^ 

44 Early EngUih Voyages fart n. book nx. 

woold give bim an account of all that he had leamt abroad 
relating to the places of trade and strength betongmg to th^ 
crown of Portugal, and respecting the commerce of tiiose 
eastern nations with each other. The Portuguese posses* 
sions) he says, beginning at Sofala, being the first beyond 
the Cape of Good Hope, are Mozanibi<]ue, Omnus, Diu^ 
Oor, Coulan, Qnore, Mangalore, Cochin, Columbo, Kega** 
patam, Portogrande or Chittigong in Bengal, Malacca^ 
and Macao in China, with the islaims of Molucca and Am^ 
boyna. That the Portuguese likewise trade to Monomo^ 
tapa, Melinda, Aden, Arabia, Cambaya or Ouzerat, the 
poast of Coromandel, Balagate^ and Orissa. 

<< Of all these nations, as he says, there are some tradert 
rending at Acheen, in l^e island of Sumatra; where like- 
wise he met with Arabians, and a naticm called RumoSy^ 
from the Red'-Sea, who have traded there many hundred 
years. There are there also many Chinelie engaged in traded 
who have been used to trade there for many nundred years, 
and used Davis kindly, so that he says he was able to give 
bis lordship much information concerning the great empire 
of China. He concludes by saying, that the Portuguese 
had long industriously concealed all these things, which 
were now providentially laid opeti. He concludes by say- 
ing, that be had inclosed ^e alphabet of the Acheen laii*> 
guage^ with some words of their language, written from 
right to left, after the manner of the Hebrews ; but this has . 
not been printed in the Collection of Purchas. He says 
that he had also sent by one Mr Tomkins, probably the 
bearer of the letter and journal, some of the coin used there 
in cojinmon payments; The gold piece called m^ being 
worth about ninepence half^penny ; and those of lead called 
coxas, of which it takes 1600 to make one mas. 
. *^ llie reiatloh which follows, titled ^ A brief Relation of 
Master John Davis, chief Pilot to the Zealanders in thdr 


^ C6tistantifi0ple is called New Rome, and thence in the east the 
Turks are called Rumos. — Purchas 

. By tiie Bjimoi, ot Mikmt, are to be understood the people of Egypt ; 
which, biiviikg b<»en a part of the Roman empire, is, £ke Anatolia and 
other provinces of the Turkish empire, caUcd RHim bv the orientali* 
Heuce likewise the Turks are called Rums; and not, as Purchas says, be« 
cause they are in possession of Constantinople* which was called New 
Runit : For these provinces were called Rum several ages before the 
Turks took that city^-^^AsTLEify 1. 854, b. 

jCHAjP* IX sxcT« tx. to Ih£a. 4t6 

BaiKt Indii YojugBy depMlug from TAidAhhvaahi^ is ob* 
■ettHe in some placesi but mait onhy be cohKid^rdd as an ab^ 
stract of his large journal,^ perhi^ written in haste* Th% 
latitudes ai'e by no means to be commended fer exactness^ 
aild seem to nave been taken on shipboard^ onlj two or 
three of them with any care.' It is rather dngtilar that he 
gives no observation for Acheen, though the chief objected 
the Voyage^ atid that he staid there so locg."-^ Astley. 

i> im*»»**^ 

We departed from Fludiing on the l^^th of Mareh^ 1598^ 
b^ing two ships in company^ die Lion of 400 mns, having 
129 persons on boards ana the Lioness of 250 tons, with 
100 men. These ships were the sole property of Messrs 
Mushrom, Clarke^ and Monef of Middlebtirgh, and entire^ 
}y at their risk« G;>meiius Howtonan was chief commandel> 
of both ships, with the title of general^ having a commission 
from Prince Maurice. 

The seventh day after^ bring the fiSd, we aadbored in 
Torbay^ having a contrary win£ We sailed theofce on the 
?th of Aprils and had sight of Porto Santo on the 20th f 
^U in with Paima on the 23d, and the SOth reached the Cape 
Verd islands. We first anieboiied at St Nicholas in iat. l^** 
16' H We here Watered on the 7th of May^ and setting 
sail on thie ith, fell in wit^ St Jago. The odh June we got 
sjg^t of Brasdl, in Iat. 7^ &, not being able to double Capo 
St Augustine ; for, b^g near die equator^ we had very in* 
constant weather and bad winds ; in which despemte ease 
we shaped our course for the island of Fernando Noronho^ 
in iat. 4"* $. where on the 15th June we ancl^ored on the 
north side in eighteen fathoms. In this isUind we found 
twelve negroes, <^ght men and four women. It is a fertile 
isiand, having good water, and abounds in goats; having 
dso beeves, hogs, hens, melons, and Guinea corn, with 
pioity of £sh and sea^fi^wi. These m^^roes had been left 
here 1^ the Portuguese to cultivate the lsland> and no ships 
had been there for thrtee years. ' ' 

Leaving, this island on the 26th August, with the wind at 
E. N. £. we doubled Cape St Augustuie on the SOth. The 
lOdi Septeniber we pas^ the Ahrolhos, which we were in 
much fear o^ these shoals being far out at sea in Iat. 21*^ & 
and are very dangerous. On this occasion our Bcuxs^ for 
so a Datch captain is called, app<»nted a MaUer o/' Migrulef 
named the Keuir, the authority of whidt disorderly officer 


46 Early English Voyages fart it. boor iir» 

lay in riot, as after dinner he wonld neither salute his friends, 
nor understand the laws of reason, those who ought to have 
been most respectful being both lawless and wiUcss. We 
spent three days in this dissolute manner, and then shaped 
our course for the Cape of Good Hope, sailing towards the 
coast of Bacchus, to whom this idolatrous sacrifice was made^ 
9S appeared afterwards. 

The 11th November we came to anchor in Saldanha hayi 
in lat. 34?° S. ten leagues short of the Cape of Good Hope, 
where there are three fresh water rivers.' The people came 
to us with great plenty of oxen and sheep, which they sold 
for spike nails and pieces of old iron, giving the best for not 
more than the value of a penny. Their cattle are large, and 
have a great lump of flesh on the shoulder, like the back of 
a camel. Their sheep have prodigiously large tails, entirely 
composed of fat, weighing twelve or fourteen pounds, but 
are covered with hair instead of wool. The people are not 
circmncised ; are of an olive black colour, blacker than the 
Brazilians, with black curled hair like the negroes of An- 

§ola. Their words are mostly inarticulate, and in speaking 
ley cluck with the tongue like a brood hen, the cluck ana 
the word being pronounced together in a very strange man- 
ner. They go naked, except a short doak of skins, and 
sandals tied to their feet, painting their faces with Various^ 
colours, and are a strong active people, who run with ama^ 
zing awiftness. They are subject to the King of Monomo- 
tapa,^ who is reported to be a -mighty sovereign. Their> 
only weapons are darts. 

As the Dutdbmen offered them some rudeness^ they ab- 
sented themselves from us for three days, during which 
time they made great fires on the mountains. On the 19th 
of November, there came a great multitude of them to us, 
with, a great number of cattle, and taking a sudden oppor* 
tunity while bartering, they set upon us and slew thirteen 
of our people with their hand-darts, which could not have 
hurt any of us at the distance of four pikes' length. The 


■ . • ■ 

^ It has been before remarked, that the Saldanha bay of the older n»^ 
Tigators was Table bay. What is now called Saldanha bay haa no river, 
or even brook, but has been lately supplied by means of a cut' or canal 
from Kleine-berg river, near twenty-five miles in length.— E. 

^ This is an error, the Hotentots having been independent nomadic- 
herders of cattle and sheep, divided into a considerable number, of tribes^ i 
and under a kind of patriarchal government.— £. 

CHAP. IX. SECT; IX. to India. 47 

JDutchmen fled from them like mice bdbre cats, basely 
throwing away their weapons. Our Baas or captain kept 
on boara to save himself, but sent us corslets, two-handed 
swords, pikes, muskets, and targets^ so that we were well 
laden witn weapons, but had neither courage nor discretion, 
for we staid at our tents besieged by savages and cow?. We 
were in muster giants, with great armed bodies ; but in ac- 
tion babes with wrens' hearts. Mr Tomkins and I under- 
took to order these fellows, according to that excellent way 
n^hich we had seen in your lordship^ most honourable ac- 
tions. Some consented to go with us, though unwillingly; 
but most of them ran to me pottage pot, swearing it was 
dinner time. We went all on board this night, except our 
great mastiff dog, which we could not induce to follow, us^ 
for I think he was ashamed of our cowardly bdiaviour. The 
land here is of an excellent soil, and the climate is quite 
healthy; the soil being full of good herbs, as mints, cda- 
mint, plantain, ribwort, trefoil, scabious, and such like. We 
set sail from Saldanha bay on the. 2 7th of December, and 
doubled the Cape of Good Hope on the last day of the 
year. . 

The 6th of January, 1 599, we doubled Cape Aguillas, the 
most southern point of Africa, in lat S5^ S. [34* 45'] where 
the compass has no variation.' The 6th of February we fell 
in with Madagascar, short of St Romano, [pr Cape St Mary, 
at its. southern end;] and not being able to double it, we 
bore room with [bore away to leeward for] the bay of St 
Augustine on the south-west side of that island, in lat 23^ 
50' S. [2S^ 30'.] The 3d of March we anchored in that 
bay, where we sawiuany people on the shore, but they all 
fled when we landed ; for when our. baas was in this bay on 
the former voyage, he creatly abused the people, and, ha- 
ving taken one m thenv he had him tied to a post and shot 
to death, having. besides used them otherwise most shame- 
fully. Aiier seven days, we enticed some of them to come 
to us, from whom.we bought some milk and one cow; but 


^ This, it must be noticed, was in the year 1599. The variation alten 
progressively, increasing, to a maximum in one deflexion ; it then retro- 
grades till it points true north, which it progressively overpasses in the 
opposite deflexion to a maximum again. But these changes do not pro- 
c^d with sufficient regularity to admit of being predicted with any cer- 
tainty.*— £• 



48 Early English Voyages. »art n« sook lit* 


they soon left u% and would not have any more connesioa 
with us. They are a strong. well*«hq)ed people^ of a coai<^ 
black colour, having a sweet and pleasing language* Their 
weapons are spears or half pikes, headed with iron, which 
they keep very clear ; and they go quite naked. The soil 
appeared very fertile, and we saw a vast number of tamarind 
trees. We found another high tree producing beans very 
good to eat, in pods two feet long, and the beans of a jm>^ 
portional size. We saw here many camdeons. We EngUsh 
suffered no small misery, especially in this bay : but uod^ 
the ever livinff commander, was our only succour. 

The 8th of March we eatpe on board hungry and m#al* 
less, and on the 14th we set sail from this place, whidi we 
called Hungry bay, shaping our course to the ncMrthward 
along. the west side of the island. The 29th, we came to the 
islands of Comoro, between 12** and 13^ S. [12^ 32^ and 
15^ 16^] There are five of these islands, namied Mayotta» 
Anzuame, Magliafflie^ San Christophero, and Spiritu 3anto.^ 
The 30th, we ancnored at Mayotta close by a town, where 
there were many people who seemed rejoic^ atottr avrival^ 
and came on board, bringing us presents of victuals. Th^ 
king sent a message to our 6a£U, inviting hint on shore with 
promise of much kindness; ^nd when he landed^ the king 
met him with a great retinue, having thvee drums beatm 
before him. He; and his principal followers were ridily 
dressed, in long silken robes, embroidered in the Turkisk 
fashion : and after using us with great kindness, gave us a 
letter of recommendation for the Queen of Anzuame, or 
Hinzuan, as that island has no king. 

We sailed from Mayotta on the 17th of April, and. an-* 
chored at Hinzuan on the l&th, before a town named De* 
moif which appears from its ruin^ to have beeSn a strong 
place, the hopses being built of hewed freestone, and what 
remains being as large as Plymouth, but th0 walls are almost 
ruined. The queen used us in a most friendly manner, yet 
would not allow any (tf us to se^ her* In these isianite we 
had rice^ oxen, goats, cocoas, banimasy oranges^ lemons, and 


^ There are six islands in the ComoM greup : 1. Comoro, Gasidza, oi 
Angazesio : d. Malallo, Senbraeas, or Mc^ia : S. Majrotta t 4. St Chris* 
tophers : 5. Hinzuan, Angouan, or Joanna: 6. St Esprit Which last has 
four inlets off its western sidei wad one to the N.£. of its aorthem 
eodr— £. 

qiQ(^. 0E* 8X€T. IX. to InAa* 49 

Qitrons. The inkalataiita are n^^roeS) bul smooth-kaired, 
and follow the Mahometan jrdigion. Their weapons are 
swords, targets, bows and arrows. These islands are very 
beautiful and fertile; and amons them we found merchants 
of Arabia and India, but I ocmld not learn what commodi- 
ties they yielded. They greatly coveted weapons and iron» 
^nd were fond of procuring ptq^er* The 2Sth we departed 
£r€sn Hinzuan, passing throu^ the islands of Mascarenhad 
and the Shoak (^ Ahmrante 

The 2dd of May^ we fell in with ilie idands called Mai* 
djives, which are'very low close to the water, and are so co* 
▼ered with cocoaHuut trees, that we saw only trees and na 
shore. Many of the native boats passed close by us, but 
none would come to us^ wher^re our baa» sent a snip's boat 
to take one of them, which on the d4th Inrought a boat ta 
us, winch was covered with maCs like a cbse barge. In thia 
boat was a gentleman and his wife. He was dressed in very 
fine white nuen, rnnde after the Turkish fashion, having 
several rings with red stones ; and his oountenance was so 
modest, his bdmvioar so sweet and aflbble^ and his speech 
so graceiy, that we ccMiduded he could not be less than a 
nol^eman. He was venr unwilling to let hia wife be seat;, 
^t our beuis went into the boat along with him to see her, 
and even opened her cadset^ in whicft were some jewels and 
ambergris. He reported thAt she sat in moumfixl modesty^ 
]H>t speakii^ a wcHrd. What was taken fixm them I know 
not, Dttt on departing^ this gentleman diewed a prineely 
spirit. He was a moa of middle stature, of a blade ixifeury 
vnth smooth, cmt lank hair* There is considerable trade in 
these islands, by reaaim of the eocoa-trees ; for they make 
Topes, cables^ saajs, wine^ oa^ and a kiiid of bread from that 
^ee md its fruit It is said that there are 11,000 of these 

The 27tb of May we set sail, and that morning there 
came on board of us. an <dd man who could speak a litUe 
Portuguese^ who pUoted us through the d»annel, as by 
ehanee we had fidlen upon the right channel called Makii-^ 
via, in lat 4^" 15' N. Here the compass varied 17^ wester- 
ly. It is a v«ry dangerous thing to nuss the ri^t chan- 
nel, the trade and navigation through which is very great 
of various nations, to most places of India, as I hope in your 
lordship's presence to inform you at large. The 3d June 
we fell in with the coast of India near Cochiui in lat. S^ 40^ 


JO Earfy English Vcgag^ i^ART lU MoH iin^ 

K.^ and toafidng along the shores we shaped our course 
aastwards for Cape Comorin, and thence to the island of 

The ISth June we saw the coast of Sumatra) in lat 5^ 
40' N* at its most northerly extromity; and when stopping 
at an island near the shore to take in water, on the 16th, 
we spoke with some of the people. The 2l8t, we anchored* 
in the bay of Acheen in twelve fathoms, on which the king 
sent off his officers to measure the length and breadth of 
our vessels, and to take the number of our ordnance and 
men, which they did. Our btms sent two of his people on' 
shore along with th^ese officers, with a present to the king, 
consisting of a looking glass, a drinking glass, and a coral 
Inracelet Next day our people returned on ''^oard, being 
apparelled bv the king after the country fashkHi, in dresses 
of white calico, and brought a iriendly message c^ peace, 
welcome, and plenty of spices* We found three barks be* 
longing to Arabia and one of Pegu riding in the bay, whicb 
had come to lade pepper. There was here also a Portu^ 

Sese officer, Don Alfonso Vincente, with four barks from 
alacca, who had come expressly to endeavour to prevent 
our trade, aft was shewn in the sequel. 

On the 2Sd June, the king sent at midilight for our baan 
to come to wait upon him^ sending a noble as hjs hostage. 
He went immediately on shore, and was kindly used byUie 
king, who nromised him a free trade, and cloathed hiia' 
lifter the fasnion of the country, giving him likewise a cms 
of honour. This crist is a dagger, having a haft or handle 
dl a kind of metal of fine lustre esteemed fiur beyond gold, 
and set with rubies. It is death to wear a criss of this kind, 
except it has been given by the king $ and he who possesses^ 
it is at absolute freedom to take victuals without money, 
and to command all the rest as slaves. Our baas^ or captain^, 
came on board the 26th with a boat*load of pepper, making 
incredible boasts of his mighty good fortune, and the won- 
derful trade he had procured, with no small rejoicing in his 
pride. He said likewise that the king had often asked if 
he were from England, which he strongly denied, using-' 
many unhandsome speeches of our nation ; and after com- 
ing on board, he said he would have given a thousand 


** § 

7 Cochin is in lat. sP 66' 30" N. 8° 4(y, the lat in the text falls very 
Anjengo, to the south oi'CouJan.— £• 

^CBAP. lit. eE<JT. ix« to India. $1 

pdiiiids to have had no English with him, thus thhigthig us 
pbor souls into a comer. 

The sVth of June, our merchants went on shore with their 
gbods^ having a house appointed for their residence by the 
king.' On the 20th July, our captain being with the king^ 
was well entertained by him^ and on this occasion the king 
wfes very importunate to krtow if he were English. " Tell 
rtke truly," said he^ ^^for I love the English ; and I must far- 
ther teli you that Alfonso Vincente has been earnest with 
iiie to betray you, but it shall not be, for I am your friend.'' 
With that he jgave him a purse of gold. The captain gave 
him thanks for the present and his friendly disposition, de- 
claring that he was not from England but from Flanders, 
and entirely disposed to serve his majesty. '' I have heard of 
England,'* said the king, ^^ but never of Flanders ; pray what 
limd is that?' He farther enquired who was their king, and 
what was the state and government of the country ? The^ 
captain made a large report on this topic, saying that they 
had no king, but were governed by an aristocracy. He like- 
wise requested that the king would give orders to his sub-> 
jects not to call him an Englishman, as that gave him much, 
displeasure, which the king promised should be done. The 
king then asked if there were no English in the ships ? To 
wfa£h th^ captain answered, that there were some, but they 
had been bred up in Flanders. The king then said, he un-: 
derstood there were some men in the ships that differed 
from the o&ers in apparel,' language, and manners, and de- 
sired to know who these were r To this the baas answered,- 
that they w^e English, and thut his chief pilot was one of 
them. The kfn^ thea said that he must see these roen»> 
<* As for your merchandize," added he, ^< I have war with the' 
king of Johor, and if you will assist me against him with 
your ships, your recompence shall be a full lading of pep-' 
per." To this our captain agreed* . The 28th of July, the Sa^ 
bandarsy* the secretary, the merchants of Mecca, who were 
Turks and Arabians, together with Don Alfonso Vincente 
and some others of the Portuguese, came on board with our 
baas, and all returned passing drunk. 

The 20th of August the king began to change his cpun* 


s The Shah handar, signifies in Persian, the King of the Port ; being 
ih^i title of the pr inclpal officer of the custiHBs.-*Astl. i. 257. a. 

Si Early EngUth Fojfuges fabt ii. book ui^ 

tenimce to our eaptain, demnduig why th« ^glisli pilot 
had not been to wait upon him ; fpr hitherto Mr TonuuQs 
alid I had not been permitted to go on i^hore s adding^ that 
when the Dutch had got th^r p^tpper, he supposed they 
would run away without perfi>nning the service they h^a 
promised* Upon this I was immediately seM for» a^d cam^ 
ashore on the 2 1st. I waited on the king early iies^t momr 
ing, and be treated me very kindly. I with him fpur 
hours, or more^ banqueting and driokingt After an hovur^ 
he ordered the $abandar to stand up* and me likewise ; imon 
which the sabander took off my hut* and put a roll of white 
linen about my bead. He then put about my middle ^ 
long white linen clothi embroidered with goldi which went 
twice about me, the aids hanging down h^n^y 1^« After 
l^iSf.. taking the roll from my head, .and. laying it before th^ 
king, he put a white garment on me, and iibove that a re^ 
one* Then* replacing the roll on my he^, I sat down b^ 
fore the king, who drank to me in agH4mt<H i>rJ?«rk» or 
brandy,] ana made me eat of many strano^ m^^ts^ Ailhifl 
service was in gold, except some of the oisbes) whioh wer« 
fine porcelaiB. These were aU set upon the.&0Pt:% without; 
table, nar^insy or other linen* He a^ked me m«ny quesr 
tions about Englandf about the qu^en, and h^r basba^f, qjp 
nobles ; and enquired how she .could c^rry on war upn^t 
so great a monarch as the king of Spain, for he l^Uev^ 
that all Europe wai» under his governments I satisfied bimi 
as well as I could on all these pomts» and he soenied n^ery 
mnch pleased* v<. 

On the 23d I was sent for by the prince .and rode, to his 
court on an elq>hant. He used me e:^emfjy weU# our en- 
tertainm^t eon^i^ng in excessive eating. and drJMpJung* 
While I was on shores I met with a very sensible merchant 
of China, who spoke Spanish, and of whom I learnt soma 
things which I hope wUl give your lordship good content- 
ment hereafter. There are many people here from China 
who follow trader and who have their separate town. So 
have the Portugueses the Gusurates, the Arab^ Bengalese^ 
and Peguers. As our. baas disliked that I should so much 
frequent the company of the Chines^ he ordered me pn 
boardf and came off himself next day in a veiy dull humour, 
having had some sour looks from the king. 

The 1st of September the king gave out that we were Co 
receive ordnance on board for battering Johor, and to take 


CHAP tx. SBcr. !%'• to FncHa^ 58 

in gbldien fm that service^ Matiy gsBies' were iqitoned tod 
brou^t oat ef Ate river, and rdde at anchor abbut bsif a 
mile from our i»bips. The sea was all full of paratm and 
boats. There eame tbat day on board our ship the secre- 
tarjr, naittdd Corcoti/i, and the chief sabander, nanied -4fr- 
datOf actmnpamed by many soldiers armed with cutlasses 
dartS) cris«e»y dnd targets. They brooght with them many 
kinds 6f meats^ and a great jar of aquavitce, making a great 
sbew of friendship and banquetibg. Suspecting sometreacbt- 
ery, we filled onr tops with stones, mitde fast and prepared 
onr gratings, all without orders from our haas^ who was ex«» 
oeedingly angry, and ordered us to discontinue, but we 
Would not 

There is a kind of seed in this country^ by eating a little 
tf whkh a man becomefs quite foolish, all things seeming 
to he metamorphdsed ; but, above n certain quantity, it is 
d^iadly poison.^ With this att the meat and driim thqr 
brought oD' board was infected. While banqueting, the sa* 
bandar sent fbr me and Mr Toiffkms^ who kept me compa- 
ny, and said some words to one of their attendants, whioh 
I did not understand; In a short time we were foolishly 
froliesome, gaping one upon another in a most ridiculous 
manner, our captain, or baaSf being at tbat thne a prisoner 
kf tfa^ir hands, yet knew it not* A 'signal was made from 
Ae other iship, where the like tr^sushery Was goine on un» 
dei^ the dfansction of the secretaiy, who went there nrcmi our 
ship for that purpose* They immediately set upon us, muxw 
dered our bcuxs^ and slew several others.' ^r Tomkins and 
I, with the asststance of a Frenchman, defended (he poop,^ 
which, if they had gained, our ship had been lost, fer they 
Already had tne cabin, and some of their fellows were below 
among our guns, having crept in at the port-holes. The 
ihaster of our ship, whom the Dutdh call captain, leapt into 
the sea, with sevend others, but came on board again when 
all was over. In the end, we put them to flight, for our 
people in the tops annoyed them sore; and, when I saw 
them run, I leapt from thepoc^ to pursrue diem, Mr Tom* 
kins following my example. At this time a Turk came out 
ef the cabin, who wounded him grievously, and they lay 
tumbling over each other on the deck. On seeing this, I 
ran the Turk through the body with my rapier, and our 
skipper thrust him down the tiiiroat into the body with a 


Early EngUsh Voyaged TAjet ii. book xiu 

All the principal people in the other ship were murdered^ 
and the ship obviously in possession of the Acheenese ; <m 
which we instantly cut our cables and drove towards her, 
and, with our shot, made the Indians abandon her, so that 
we recovered her likewise. The gallies did not venture 
near us. In our great distress, it was some comfort tp see 
how these base Indians fled, how diey were killed, and how 
they were drowned ; the whole sea being covered with dead 
Indians, floating about in hundreds. Abdala, the saban^ 
dar, and one ofthe king's near kinsmen, were slain, with 
many others, and the secretary was wounded. The king 
was by the shore at this time, attended by a vast many 
people; and, on learning the death ofthe sabandar, and 
the overthrow of this treachery, the furious infidels murder- 
ed all of our people who were on shore, except eight, who 
were put in irons as slaves. In this great calamity we lost 
sixty-eight persons, of whom we are not certain how many 
may be in captivity, having only knowledge of these eight. 
We lost at this time two fine pinnaces of twenty tons each^ 
and our ship's boat. 

We left Acheen that same day, and anchored at Pedier^ 
where we had sent a small pinnace for rice, but could get 
no tidings of her. Next day, the 2d September, there came 
eleven gallies to take our ships, having Portuguese in them^ 
as we tnought. We sank one of them, and defeated all the 
rest, so that they fled amain. That same afternoon, die 
son of Lafort, a French merchant, dwelling in Seething- 
lane, London, came on board of us, being one ofthe eight 
prisoners. He brought the following message from the 
king: — '^ Are you not ashamed to be such drunken beasts, 
as, in your drunkenness, to murder my people whom I sent 
on board of you in kindness?" He farther required of us, 
in satisfaction of his pretended wrong, that we should give 
up our best ship, on which he would release our men, tell- 
ing Lafort, if he could succeed in this, that he would make 
him a great nobleman. To this ridiculous proposal we gave 
aflat denial; and, being in distress for w^er, we went over 
to Pulo Lotum, on the coast of Queda, or northern part of 
Malacca, on its western coast, in lat. 6^ 50' N. where we re- 
freshed and watered. 

During our stay at Acheen, we received into both our 
ships HO tons of pepper, what precious stones and other 
merchandize besides I know not. But, on the day of trea- 

.i»j^* IX. SECT. IX. ' to Injjia. . if 

.flon, our merchants lost all the money and goods they had 
^<m ahore> which was said to be of great value. On this oo- 
<<;asion9 mayy of our young adventurers were utterly ruined; 
amongwboni} I most grieve at the loss sustained by poor 
^Qhn Davi$9 having not only lost my friendly factor, but all 
my Eur(^ean comn^odities^ with those things I had provi* 
<]cd to shew my love and duty to my best friepds ; so that, 
.though India did not receive me rich^ she hath sept m^ back 
^ufliciently poor, 

The island of Sumatra is pleasant and fertile^ abounding 
in many excellent fruits; but theii* only grain is rice, which them for bread. They, plough the land with bufia- 
Joes, which they have ip great numbers, but with small skill, 
aq/d.less industry. The rice grows in all respects like our 
..hafley. They have plenty of pepper, which is grown in 
large gardens or plantations, often a mile square. It grows 
like hops, from a, planted root, winding about, a stake set to 
support it, till it grows .like a great bushy tree, whence the 
pepper hangs in small clusters, three inches Jong, and W 
inch about, each duster. having forty pepper-corns; aqd i( 
yields as great increase as mustard-seed. At Apheen they 
^re able to load twenty /ships every year, and might supply 
more, if the people vere industrious. The whole country 
resemble? a pleasure-garden, the air be|ng temperate jand 
wholesome, having every mprning a fri^itnil dew, qr small 
rain. The harbour of, Ach^en is very suiall, having only 
six feet water on the bar, at which there is a stone fort, the 
ramparts of which a|'e covered or flanked with battlements, 
all very low, and v§ry despicable. In froqt of this fort is an 
excellent rpad, or ancharing ground for ships, the wind 
.being always off shore, so that a ship may ride safely a mile 
from the shore, in eighteen fathoms, ai^d close in, in six 
^nd four fp.thoms. 

In Uiis ippuntry there are elephants, horses, buffaloes 
oxen, and goats, with many wild-hogs. The land has plenty 
of mines ot gold and copper, with various gums, balsams, 
many drugs^ and much indigo. Its precious stones are ru- 
bies, sapphires, tod garnets ; but I know not whether t^iey 
are found there, or are brought from other places. It has 
likewise most excellent timber for building ships. The city 
i)f Acheen,' if such it n\ay be called, is very spacious, and 


^ Thi^pl^c^ called likewise Achin and Achlen by Davis, Is commoaly 

56 Early Eng^ Voyages »^M it. book tiu 

is bnilt in a wood^ bo diat the houses ai^ not to be >ieea iffl 
*we are close upcm them ; neither oovdd we go into any plaee 
but we found houses and a great concourse of people^ so 
that the town seems to q>read over the whole land. Their 
houses are raised on posts, eight feet or better ff can the 
ground, leaving free passage under them, the walls sfA 
roofs being only of mats, the poorest and weakest things 
Ihat can he conceived* I saw three great market*place% 
which were every dav crowded like fairs, with all kinds dT 
commodities exposea for sale. 

The king, called Sultan Ahdin, is said to be ah hundred 
vears old, yet is a Uvelj man, exceedingly gross md fat. la 
his young days he was a fisherman, of which there are mwiy 
in this place, as they live mostly on fish. Going to the 
wars with the former king, he shewed himself so vauant and 
discreet in ordering the Sing's gallies, that he acquired the 
royal favour so much as to be appointed admiral of all the 
sea-force, in which he conducted himself so valiantly and 
wisely, diat the king gave him one of his nearest kinswo« 
men to wife. The King had an only daughter, whom he 
married to the king of ^hor, by whom she had a son, who 
was sent to Acheen to be brought up as heir to his grand*- 
&th^. The king who now is, being comn^ander in chief 
by sea and land, the old king died suddenly ; on whidbi the 
present king took (he child under his ^ardianshlp, agfdhsl 
which the nobility protested : but, as he had the conunand 
of the whole armed force, he maintained his point, putting 
to death more than a thousand of the nobles, raised the ras« 
cal people to be new lords, and made new laws* Finally, 
the young prince was murderedi and he proclaimed himself, 
king, in right of his wife ; on which there arose great wars 
between him and the king of Johor, which continue to this 
day. He has held the kingdom by force these twenty year% 
and seems now secure in his usurped and ill-got power. 

The king's court, or residence, is situated upon the river, 
about half a mile from the city, having three indosures, and 
guards, before any one can come to him, and a wide ffceen 
between each guarded indosure. His house is built like all 
the rest, but much higher, so that he can see, from wher6 
he sits, all that come to any of his guards, yet no pne can 


called Achen ; but in the letters from the king to Queen Elizabeth, whidl 
will be mentioned in the sequel, it is called Ashu-^A&d. 1. 2d9« b* 

4lBAFi fii. «SCT# n« to Iniia* SI 

mt him. The wiUs uid covering of his house are made of 
mats, mhi^ aire somettmes hmig with cloth of gold^ some^ 
Citnei with velyet, and at other times with damask. He 
fiks on the gnnmd, cross-legged, Bke a tailor, and so must 
tdl do who are admitted into ois presence. He always wears 
Ibor erimes^ two before and two behind, richly ornamented 
with diamonds and rubies, and has a sword lying in his lap. 
He is att^ided hj at least forty women ; some with fans to 
eool him, some with cloths to wipe off sweat, others to serve 
him with aquavitae or water, and the rest to stn^ pleasant 
songs. He doth nothing aU day but eat and dnnk, there 
iieing no end of banqueting from morning till night ; and, 
when ready to burst, he eats areka bettdUf*^ which is a fruit 
like a nutmeg, wrapped in a leaf like tobacco, with sharps 
^haUc £lime] made c^ the shells of pearl oysters. Chewing 
these ingredients makes the spittle very red, causes a great 
flow e£ saliva, and occasions a great appetite ; it also icuakes 
the teetih very black, and the iriacker they are is considered 
as sd much (he more &shionable. Having recovered his ap- 
petite by ihis means, be returns again to banqueting. Bj 
w^ of diang^ when his belly is again gorged, he goes in- 
to the river to bathe^ where ne has a place made on pur- 
f&sei and gets a fresh appetite by being in the water. He^ 
with his women and gi'eat men, do nothing but eat, drinl^ 
imd taik of venery ; so that, tf the poets liave any truth, 
then is this king^Ae great Bacchus, for he practises all the 
ceremonies of ^ottony. He spends his whole time in eat- 
ing and drinking with his women, or in cock-fighting* 
Such is the king, and such are his subjects ; for the whote 
land is entirely eiven to such habits of enjoyment. 

While, in au parts of Christendom, it is the custom to 
DliGOV^r tlte head in token of reverence, it is here the direct 
contrary ; as, before any man can come into the presence of 
this king, he must put off his shoes and stockings, coming 
before him bare-footed and bare-legged, holding ^s hands 
joined over his head, bowing his body, and saying dowlat ; 
whidi duty perfearmed, he sits down, cross-legged, in the 
king's presence. The state is governed by five principal 
officers, his secretary, and four others, called sabandars, in 
i^om are all the authority of government, and who have 


^ Areka is the nut, and hetelihe leaf in which it is wrapped^ along 
with chunavif or Ume^ called skarp^halk in the te^t.— E. 

58 Early English Forges . tkWT u. book xzi^ 

inferior officers under them. The -mill of. the king is th# 
jaw.: as there seemed to be no. freemen. in all the lan4» the 
lives and properties of all being at the^king^s pleasiure. In 
punishing offenders, he makes no man; happy by death, but 
orders their hands, and feet to be ciit off^ and then banishes 
them to an island called Pulo fV&f. When any one is con- 
demned to die, he is either trodden to death by elephants^ 
or empaled. Besides those in jails, many priscmers in fetr 
ters are seen g<nng about the town. The king has three 
wives, and many concubines^ who are very close^ kept) and 
bis women are' his chief counselors. 

. The king has many gallies, an hundred, as I think, some 
of them so large as to carry four hundred men. These ate 
-all made like wherries, very long, narrow, and open, with** 
out deck, forecastle^ or poop, or.anyupper works whatever* 
Instead of oars,, they have paddles, about four feet longy 
made like shovels, wnich they hold in their hands, not rest* 
ing them on the gunwales, or in.row-'locks, as we do. The 
gallies have no ordnance;, yet with these he hokls aH his 
neighbours under subjection. His admiral is a woman, as 
he trusts no man with that high, office. Their weapons are 
-bows and arrows, javelins, swords, and targets, having no 
defensive armour, and fighting entirely nak^. They have 
a great many pieces of brass ordnance, which they fire ly- 
ing on the ground, using no c;arriages. Some of these are 
the greatest I ever saw^ and the metal of which they are 
made is said to be rich in gold. The great dependence of 
his land-force is in the elephants. 

These people boast of being descended from Abraham^, 
through Ismael, the son of Hagar, and can distinctly reckon 
the genealogies in our Bible. They follow the Mahometan 
religion, and use rosaries, or strings of beads, in praying, 
like the papists. They bring up their children in leamiiig^ 
and have many schools. They have an archbishop, and 
other spiritual digiutaries. There is a prophet in AcheeUf 
ivho is greatly honoured, and is alleged to have the spirit 
of propliecy, like the ancients. This person is distinguished 
from all the rest by his dress, and is in great favour with 
the king. The natives are entirely addicted to commerce 
in which they are very expert ; and they have many me- 
chanics or artisans, as goldsmiths, cannon-founders, ship- 
wrights, tailors, weavers, hatters, potters, cutlers, smiths, 


^A^. IX. 8£C7r« IX. { to Indiam ' . 59* 

^nd distiBerg of aquavitse, [arrak^] which is made fraoa rice^ 
as they must drink no wine. 

* Every family or tribe has its own particular place of bu- 
rial, which are all in the fields. The bodies are all deposit-* 
ed'in graves, with the heads laid towards Mecca, having 9 
stone atthe head, and another at th^ feet, curiously wrougnt, 
$o:as to designate the rank and worth of each person. . In 
the burial'-place of the kings, as we wiere told, every grave 
haiB a piece ofgokl at the head, and another at theieet, each 
weighing 500 pounds, curiously embossed and carved. I 
was very desirous to see this royal cemetery,* because of its 
great riches, butr^d not obtain permission ; yet am dis* 
^osed to belie^^ ir tjd be true, as the reigning king has made 
two such costly omamaits for his own grave, wluicb are al- 
most finished. They are each of gold, a thousand pounds 
iveight a-piecc) and are to be richly ornamented with pre- 
cious stones.^' 

* > The people who. trade to thbport are from China, Ben* 
gal, Pegu, Java, Coromaude!,; Guzerata, Ard^ia, and Ru* 
mos. 'Sunios is in the Red-Sea, whence Solomon sent his 
ships to Ophir for. gold; which Ophir is now Acheen, as 
they affirm upon tr^ition ; and the Rumm people have foI« 
h>wed the same trade from the time o£ Solomon to this day/* 

. Their payments are made in different denominations,, called 
cash, mas, cowpan^ pardaw, and tayeL I only saw two 
sorts of coin, one of gold^ and the other of lead : The gold 


^ * In the Portugese Asia is a stoiy which oftDfinns this report George 
Brito, who went in 1521 to Acheen with six ships, and three hundred 
inen, having been informed, by an ungratefol Portuguese, whom the king 
bad relieved from shipwreck, that there was a great treasure of gold in 
tbe tombs of the kii^y and having made other inquiries on this subject, 
picked a quarrel with the king, and landed with two hundred men in or* 
der to seize it : But bemg opposed by the king, at the head of a thousand 
inen, and six elephants, he, and most of his men, were siain ; a just re- 
ward of injustice, ingratittide^ and avarice.— Astl. 1. 260. a. 
. ** The Turks are called Rumot in India, because their chief city. Con* 
stantinople, was called New Rome. Their tradition of Ophir is more to 
be marked than this conceit of Runun in the Red-Sea. — Purduu, in a 
marginal note. 

' I^e Egyptians might follow this trade from the days of Solomon^ bat 
the RumSf or Romans, could not, as they did not possess Egypt till long 
after Solomoou — ^AstL 1. 260. c 

It would be too long, in a note^ to enter upon any critical discussion 
respecting the Ophir of Solomon, which was more probably at Sqfala, on 
f^ eastern coast of Africa.— £• 

60 Early EfigUsh Vcyaf^ei part ix. book if n 

coin» or mas, is of the sise of a silveivpminy^ and 16 as com- 
mon at Acheen as pence are in England. The other, of 
lead, called casH^ is like the little leaden tokens used in Lon- 
don by the vintners: 1600 cashes make one mas ; 400 eashts 
make a cotvpan, and four cowpans a ttias ; five mases ate 
equal to four shillings sterling ; four mases hiake a pard/am^ 
and four pardaws a tayeL Hence one mas is 94d« sterling $ 
one pardaw, 5s. 2|d« ; one tayel, 128< 9fd. ; one cowpail# 
2|d. ; and one cash is a two-hundredth part of a penny. 
Pepper is sold by the Bahar^ which is 360 English poandu% 
for Si. 4s. Their pound is called eatt, being twenty^one of 
our ounces; and uieir ountie is larger than ours in the 
proportion of sixteen to ten* They sell predous stones by 
a weight named masse , 10| of which make an ounce. 

Once every year they have the following strange custom^ 
which happened while we were there. The king and att 
his nobles go in great pomp to the church, or mosque, to see 
if the Messias be come. On that occasion, I think, tnere were 
at least forty elephants, all richly covered with silk, velvety 
and cloth of gold, several nobles riding on each elephant. 
One elephant was exceedin'gly adorned beyond the restf 
having a little golden castle on his back, whidi was led for 
the expected Mesdas to ride upon. On another el^hant^ 
the king sat alone in a little castle, so that the whole made 
a very splendid procession ; in which some bore targets of 
pure massy gold, others large goMen crescents, with stream-* 
er% banners, ensigns, drums, trumpets, and various other 
instruments of music. Going to the church with great so- 
lemnity, and using many ceremonies, they looked into the 
church, and not finding the Messias there, the king descends* 
ed from his own elephant, and rode home on that prepared 
for the Messias, Aft^r which^ the day was concluded n^itb 
great feastings, and many pleasant sports. 

The island of Sumatra is divided into four kingdoins^^ 
Acheen, Pedier, Monancabo, and Aru, of which Acheen is 
the chief, Pedier and Monancabo being tributary to it ; but 
Aru refuses subjection, and adheres to the king of Johor, 
in Malacca. I only heard of five principal cities in this 
island, Acheen, Pedier, Pacem, £Pisang,] Daia, [perhaps 
Daga,] and Monancabo. 

I now return to our proceedings after the slaughter of 
Acheen. On the 10th September we anchored at the islands 


^^AP. i^f s^cT. XK. to Indifu €1 

of Puh Jjotiinh in hU 6^ 50^N• near the coast of the kim;- 
dpm of Qu^f where we watered, and procured refresh* 
ments. There were in our ship three sealed letter^ super- 
scribed A. B. C. which were to be opened on the death of 
our bagf^ or captain. On opening that marked A. one Tho- 
mas Qujmans was appointed our chief; but, as he was slain 
at A^hctenn we opened B. by which Guyan Lafort, who es- 
caped death by bringing the message from the king to us at 
Pediery was nominated our chief, and was accordingly re- 
<;eived by us in that capacity. The letter marked C. was 
Qot opened. 

. Xi^ving Puk) Lotum on the 30th September, we sailed 
^or Acheen, for the purpose of endeavouring to recover our 
men who were there in captivity* We came in sight of 
Af^heen on the 6th October, and got into the bay on the 
12th, where twelve of their gallies s^t upon us. We got up 
with one of them, and gave her several shots \ but, as the 
^eat^er was very calm, she escaped from us under ihe land, 
and the rest did not daire to approach us, for th^y are proud 
baa^ cowards* Qn the ISthp we set sail for Tanaserim,*^ 
which U a place of great trad% and anchored among th^ 
isl^ds in the bay beS^nging to that place> in lat. 11^ 20' N* 
on the 25tbr We were h^e 90 much crossed by contrary 
winds, t(hat we could not a^ up to the city> which stands 
twenty leagues within the bay. 1 and, being in great distress 
for provisions, we m^a4e sail for the Nicobar islands^ hoping 
there to find re}ie£ We andhored at these islands on the 
I2tb Npvembeir, in laU $° N* when the people brought us 
off great. abundance of poultry, orangesi, lemons^ and other 
fruili with some ambergris, which we paid for in pieces of 
linen cloth and table napkins* These islands consist of 
pleasant and fertile Iqw landi and have good anchorage for 
ships *, but the pec^le are very barbarous living on fish and 
mttural fruits, npt cjttltiy94;ing the ground^ and consequently 
having no rice* 

We departed on the 16th of November^ shaping our 
course for Ceylon^ being in great distress^ eq>eciaUy for 
rice. By the great £oodne^ of God» on the 6th Dec^nber, 
we todc a ship from NegapataB% on the coast of Coromandel, 
laden with ric^ afkd bound for Acheen. There were in her 
a))QUt sixty persons, belonging to Acheen, Java, Ceylon, Pe- 


l^ Merguiy the s2a-pork of Tanaserim, is in lat. 12^ N, 

6^ Early EnglUh Voyagn i^ARTlf. BOOK nf^ 

pfU, Narsinjsfa, and Corbitialidel. From these people weleamtl 
that there is a city in Ceylon called Matecalou,** a place of 
great trade, where we might load our ships with cinnamoD^ 
pepper, and cloves. Theyelso told us that there were great 
store of precious stoties and pearls to be had in Ceylbn ; 
that the country ab6iinded in all kinds of provisions,' and 
that the king was a bitter enemy to the Portuguese. • They 
likewise told us of a city called Trinquanmnaie, ^Trincohor 
male, usually called Trinquamalee,] at which was a similar 
trade. They engaged that we might load our ships, and 
procure a plentiral supply of provisions, at either of these 
places, for little money ; and we accordingly used our ut^ 
most possible exertions to get to them, but all to no purpose' 
as the wind was quite contrary. The Indians th'eii told usy 
di'at if we would remain till January, we should meet above 
an hundred sail of ships, laden with spiceries,' linen doth, 
[cottons^] and comtnodities of China ; but our cohmiander 
would not agree to stay there finr the purpose of war^ as his^ 
commission only authorised him to trade, but proposed tor 
rknain for traffic, paying for every thing he might be able 
to procure. To this, however, the company would not con- 
sent ; and we accordingly began our voyage homewards on* 
the 28th of December, after beating up for sixteen days to" 
endeavour to mak^ BataCblo. We had discharged our prize 
on the 18th, after taking outmost of her rice, for which our 
commander paid them to their satisfaction ; but our men 
plundered the Indians of their goods and money in a dis- 
orderly manner. We took with us twelve of the Indians,- 
belonging to different countries; and after they had been 
with us some time, they informed us that the merchants in 
the Negapatam ship had a large quantity of precious stones 
in the ship, hidden under the planks of her lining. How 
far this might be true I know not, as, for some unknown 
reason, Mr T^mkins and I were not allowed to go on board 

' The 5th Match, 1600, our victuals were poisoned, but 
Ood preserved us ; for one of our people tasting it by chance, ' 
or from greediness^ was infected. It was strongly poisoned 
before it came to us, being fresh fish ; for our surgeon took 
idmost a spoonful of poison out of one fish. But this is not 



'^ Perhaps Qataco}o Is here meant on the east aide of Ceylpn. in lat 7^ 

uSiki^. IX. s£cT. ntt' to India* '^ H} 

the first time, if the grieved would complain.'^ The 10th 
March we fell in with the Cape of Good Hope, where we 
encountered a heavy storm ; and on the 26th we doubled 
that Cape. > 

We anchored at St Heleha on the ISth March, 'this 
island is in lat. 16* S. [IS® 45'.] We here found plenty of 
water, with abundance of figs, and as many fish as we chose 
tp take. At sun-set, oh the 15th, a taravel came into the 
roads, and anchored a large musket-shot to windward of us. 
She was totally unprepared for fighting, as none of her guns 
were mounted. We fought her all night, giving her in that' 
time, as I think, upwards of 200 shots, though, in the course 
of eight hours, she did not return a single shot, nor seemed 
to regard us. By midnight she got six pieces mountedy 
which she used to good purpose^ shooting us often through^ 
and slew two of our men. So, on the 16th, in the morn-> 
ing, we departed, havingmanyof our men sick, and shaped 
our course for the island of Ascension, where we hoped to 
find relief. The 23d April we got sight of that idUoldt* 
which is in lat. S° S. [7^ 50^ J But it has neither wood, waw 
ter, or any green thing upon it, being a barren green rock,* 
five leagues broad. The 24th, at midnigbty we' agreed to 
proceedto theisland of Fernando Loromo^ [Noronho^] where 
we knew that sufficient relief could be had, as we had sU^ 
ten weeks th^e when otttward-bou&d, when imable to 
double Cape St -Augustine. 
. We arrived on we 6th May at S(Ba*nmndo Kpronho, [in' 
lat. 3<^2d' S. ofi*tho coast of Brazil,} wji0k*e we remained six 
days to take in water, aiid to refr^ ourselves. Hie 13th 
of the same month we dqgiarted, shapingiour course for the 
English channel^ and arHved at Middldlxiirgb, in Zeakad^ 
on the 29th of July, 1600. 

'^ This story is very Hniotelljgihle^ asino oircuraatance is mentioned asi. 
to where the fiish were got, nor who was suspected of ioU'oducing the 
poison. — E. 

§^ ^ Early EngJkh Foyt^cs ja^T u. book Illv 

Voyage of William Jldams to Japan, m 15&8, and long 

Residence in that Island.^ . . 


This veary carious article consists chiefly of two lettem 
from Japan, written by William Adams^ an Englishman^ 
who went there as pilot in a Dutch fleet, and was detained 
there* Hi&^rs^ letter, dated Japan, 22d October, 1611, i* 
addressed, — ^^ To my unknown Friends and Ccmntrjmen ; 
desiring, this letter, by your good means, or the news or 
copy thereof may come to the hands of onc^ or many of my 
acquaintance, ^t Limebouse^ or elsewhere ; or at GlUing^ 
ham, in Kent, by Rochester." The second letter has no 
date, the concluding part of it being suppressed or lost,, hy 
the mahce of the bearers, as Porchas suspected; but is 
addressed to his wife, and was probably inclosed in tho 
£)nner> or perhaps sent home by Saris,, whose voyi^ will 
be found in the scqud« Adams appeals to have dted about 
1620, in Japan, as rqwrted bv the sh%i James, which ar« 
med from thai; ish^nd^ in Engtand, in 1621. Purchas okh 
serves, that diough Uiis voyage was not by tlae Ci^ of 
.Good Hope^ he had yet mserted it among the €«rly ^^fi* 
lish voyages to India,, because performed to JapaEu Tm 
editor of Astley's Collection says that he once intended to 
haxe placed it in a different division of his work, as peiw 
formed hy a ^uthrwest course ; but, because Adams is fre- 
quently mentioned in the journals of Saris and Cocks, to 
whom he was serviceable in Japan^ he cliose to follow the 
example of Purchas. One of the views of Adams, in the 
first of these letters, in the opinion of the editor of Astley's 
CoUection, appears to have been to excite the English to 
repair to Japan; and they seem to have entertained that 
object at the same time, as Saris set out upon his voyage to 
that island six months before the date of the letter from 

In Astley's Collection, the editor has used the freedom, as 


.' Purchas his Pilgrims, 1. 125. Astlej, I. 5S5. 

3CHAP. ix» SECTP.' s« ^0 India* 65 

ke has done in a variety of other instances, to make great 
alterations in the arrangement of the original documenly 
and even often m^kes important changes in the sense, which 
is by no means commendable. In this article, as in all others, 
we have chosen to have recourse to the original source^ 
merely accommodating the language to that oT the present 

Before the letters of Adams, it seemed proper to give the 
following short notice of the earlier part of the voyage in 
which Adams went to Japan, as contained in &e Pilgrims 
of Purchas, vol. I. p. 78. — E. 

§ 1. Brkf Relation pfth^ Voffase of Sebalt de Wert to the 

Straits, of ]!£igeUan. 

In the year 1598, the following ships were fitted out at 
Amsterdam for a voyage to India : The Hope» of 250 tons, 
admiral, with 136 persons ; tlie Charity, of 160 tons, vice- 
admiral,' with 110 men; the Faith, of 160 tons, and 109 
men ; the Fidelity, of 100 tons, and %6 men ; and the Good 
News, of 75 tons, and 56 men ^ of which fleet Sir Jaquas 
Mahu was general, and Simon de Cordes vice-admiral ; the 
^:aptains of the other three ships being Benninghen, Bock- 
holt, and Sebalt de Wert . Being furnished with all necessary 
provisions, they set sail on the 27th June, 1598. Aft» 
much difficulty, and little help at theCape de Verd islands, 
where th^ lost their general, to whom Cordes succeeded, 
they were forced, by their pressing wants, and the wiles of 
the Portuguese, being severely infected with the scurvy in 
all their ships, to leave these islands, with the intention of 
going to the Isle of Anabon, in the. gulf of Guinea, in lat. 
l"" 40^ S. to make better provision of water, and other ne- 
cessaries, and to refresh their men. Falling in unexpectedly 
with the land, in about the lat. of S"" S. 120 miles before 
their reckoning, they determined to £0 to Cape Lope Gon- 
salves, driving a peddling trade with the negroes as they 
went along the coast. 

Arriving at the bay of Cape Lope^ the siek men were 
sent arshore <m the 10th November. The 2Sd, a Frendi 
sailor came aboard, who promised to procure them the fiM^ 
TOUT of the n^ro king, to whom Captain Sebalt de Wert 
was sent. This king was fimnd <m a throne hardly a £90t 
b^, having a lamb's skin under his feet. He was dre«wed 
in a coot of violet ckHh^ with tinsel hce, without shiH, shoes, 

roi. TiJi. B ^^ 

66 Early EnglM P^tnfages tastt u. booIc lir. 

or stocking^ having a party-coloured doth on his hea^ 
with many glass be»ds banging from his neck^ attended by 
his courtiers adorned with cows feathers. His palace was 
not comparable to a stable. His provisions were brought 
Co him by women, being a few roasted plantains and some 
«moke*dried fi^, served in wooden vessels, with palm-wine, 
in such sparing measure, that Massinissa^ and other reji- 
nowned exampks of temperance, might have been disciple 
to this negro monarch. One time the Dutch captain re£i^ 
led his majesty with some of the ship's provisions, but jie 
forgot all his temperance on being treated with Spanish 
wine, and had to be carried off mortal drank. Very little 
tefreshment could be procured here. They killed a boar 
and two buffaloes in the woods, and snared a few birds, be- 
sides buying some provisions from the negroes. The worst 
of all was, as the scurvy subsided, they were afflicted with 
dangerous fevers. 

Dq)arting from this place on the 8th December^ they 
came to the island of Aftohon on the 16th, where they pro- 
cured some provisions by force. By the scurvy and tever 
they lost thirty men, among whom was Thomas Spring, a 
young Englishman of promising parts In the b^inning 
of the year 1599, they departed from Anabon, steering for 
the straits of Magellan, being too late for passing the Uape 
of Good Hope. The 10th March they observed the sea aO 
red, as if mixed with blood, occasioned by being full of 
red worms, which when taken up leapt like fleas. They en- 
tefed the straits on the 6th April, supplying themselves at 
Penguin islands with thirteen or fourteen hundred of these 
birds. On the 18th of that month they anchored in Grreen 
bay within the straits, where they got fresh water and large 
mussels. Thev remained at this place till the «3d of August, 
in a perpetually stormy winter, and lost a hundred of their 
men. The storm found them continual labour, without any 
fortherance of their intended voyage ; suffering continual 
rain, wind, snow, hail, hunger, loss of anchors, and spoiling 
of their ships and tackling, sickness, deaths and savi^s^ 
want of stores and store of wants, so that they endured a 
fulness of misery. The extreme cold increased their appe- 
tites, which decreased their provisions^ and made them anxi- 
ous to look out for more. 

On the 7th May, going in their boats to take gudceons 
on the south side of the straits, opposite Green bay, they 
descried seven canoes with savages, who nmed ten or eleven 


feet higli, with red bodies and long hair.'* The Datoh were 
imich amazed at these men, who likewise terrified them widi 
ttones and- loud cries; The Dutch got immediately into 
their boats^ and stood on their defence ; but when the sava*- 

Ss saw four or five of their companions ikll down dead» 
in bjr Dutch thunder, they fled to the land; and pluck*- 
dag up lai^e trees, barricaded themsdves against the Hol- 
iandexs, who left them. After this, three oAhe Dutchmen^ 
in seeking food to preserre thdr life, found death at die 
hands of naked savages, who were armed with baii)ed darts, 
which, if they entei^ the flesh, had to be cuit out. 

This Green bay, in which they staid so lorigi was named 
Cordes bay after the commander. In another, called Horse 
bay^ they erected a new guild or fraternity, binding thepw 
aelves with much solemnity snd many oaths to certain arti- 
tdes^ and calling it the Fraternity of the Freed lion. The 
general added six chosen men to himself in this society, 
«nd caused their names to be engraven (Hi a board, which 
was hung up on high pillars, to be seen by all passing that 
way; but it was deniced by the savages, who likewise dii- 
toterred the dead bodies from dieir graves and dismember*- 
leA them, carrying one away. 

. The 3d Sept^nber, they Idl the straits, and continued 
4iB the 7th, when De Wert was forced to stay by a storm, 
4aaA the Faith and Fidelity were left behind in much misery, 
Imnger, tempests, leaks, and other distress. The death of 
^eir master, and the loss of their consorts^ added much to 
their misery, and in the end of the month they were forced 
again into the straits ; after which, in two months, thef had 
not one .fair day to dry their sails. The 14th October, the 
f*a]th lost two anchors. To one place they gave the name 
iof Perilous bay, and called another Unfortunate bay, in re- 
membrance of their distresses, to all of which the devil add- 
ed .mutiny aniong their people and thieving. They took a 
jgavage woman who had two children, one of whom they 
"tfaoughtto be onfy six months old, yet it could walk readily, 
-taiA had all its teeth. I loath to relate their loathsome feed- 

* This is the first notice we have yet met with of the long-famed Pata- 
.goiuans ; but therr enormous stature in the text is veiy diffidently asseited. 
We shall have future ojpportuBitieft of becoming better acquainted with 
these South American giants. Perhaps the original m^y only have said 
they seemed ten or eleven spans high, and some careless editor chose tp 

68 Early English Voyages part it. book iiU 

ing, with the blood funning from their months. They'hei^ 
met General Oliver Noort, whose men were all lusty, and 
was yet unable to spare them any relief. After. a woM^ci 
straits in these straits, too long to rehearse, they departed 
thence on the 22d January, 1600, and arrived in the Maese 
on the 14th July. Without the straits, in lat. 50** 40^ ^S. 
they saw three islands, sixty .miles from land^ stored with 
penguins, which they called the Sebaldines of the. Indies^ 
but which are not inserted in maps.^ 

§2. First Letter of William Adams. 

Hearing that some English merchants are residing in the 
island of Java, although by name unknown, and having an 
opportunity, I presume to write these lines, desiring your 
.worshipfiil company, being unknown to me, to pardon my 
boldness. The reason of my writing is chiefly that my con^ 
science binds me to love my country and country men. 
Your worships will therefore please to understand thati am 
a Kentish man, born in the town of GHlingham, two miles 
from Rochester and one mile from Chatham, where the 
Icing's ships lie ; and that from the age of twelve years I 
(Was brought up at Limehouse near London, being appren<^ 
tice twelve years to one Mr Nicholas Diggines. I have ser-*' 
ved both as master and pilot in her majesty's ships ; and 
served eleven or twelve years with the worshipful company 
of Barbary merchants. When the Indian trade of Holland 
began, I was desirous of making some trial of the small 
knowledge which God hath given me in that navigation. 
:So, in the year 1598, I was hired as chief pilot of a fleet of 
•five sail, which was fitted out by Peter Vanderhag and 
Hans Vanderuke, the chiefs of the Dutch India company. 
•A merchant named Jaques Mayhay,* was general of this 
fleet, in whose ship I was pilot. 

It being the 23d or 24th of June before we set sail, we 
were too late in coming to the line to pass it without cons* 
trary winds, for it was then the middle of September, at 


3 The only islands which agree in any respect with the position assigiw- 
ed in the text, are the north-westermost of the Malouines or Falklmid 
islands, which are nearly in that latitude, but much farther from tb€\ 
land.— ^E. 

t Called Mahu in the preceding narrative.— •£• 

tHAF« IX. sect; X, to InAa. 60 


trhieb time we found much southerly winds, and many of 
our men fell sick, so that we wore obliged to go upon the 
coast of Guinea to Cape Lopo Gonsalves, where wfe landed 
our. sick men, many of whom died. Few recovered here^ 
as the cfimate was very unhealthy, and we- oouid procure 
little or no refreshment. We determined therefore, for the 
foifflment of our voyage, to sail for the coast of Brazil, and 
to pass through the straits of Magellan^ By the way we' 
came to an island called llha da Anobon, where we landed 
and took the town, consisting of about eighty houses*' We 
refreshed in tikis island, where we had plenty of lemons^ 
oranges, and various other fruits; but such was the un- 
heakhiness of the air, that as one grew better another fell 
sick. We spent upon the coast of Cape Gonsalves and at 
Anobon about two months, till the 12th or l-Sth of Novem- 
ber,- when we sailed from Anobon, having the wind still at 
S. by E. and S.S.E. till we got four degrees south of the line ; 
at which time the winds became more favourable, coming- 
to S.E. E.SbE. and E. so that we ran from Anobon to the 
straits in about five months. During this passage, one of 
our ships carried away her mainmast, by which we were 
inuoh hindered, having to set up a new mast at sea. 

The 29th of March we espied the land in the latitude of 
5€P S. after having the wind tor two or three days contrary ; 
but the wind becoming again fair^ we got into the straits of 
Magellan on the 6th ^ril, 1599, by which time the winter 
was come on, so that there was much snow. Through cold 
and hunger combined, our men became very weak. We 
had the wind at east for five or six days, in which time we 
might have passed throu^ the straits ; but we waited re- 
freshing our men, taking in wood and water, and setting^ 
up a pinnace of about fifteen or sixteen tons. At length, we 
would have passed the straits^ but could not, on account of 
jBoiitherly winds, attended by much rain and great cold, with 
snow and ice; so that we had to winter in the straits^ re- 
maining ;tbere fttmi the 6th April till the 24th September, 
by which time almost all our provisions were spent, so: that 
many of our men. died of hunger. Having passed through 
the straits into the South Sea, we found many violent cur- 
rents, and were driven south into 54 d^rees, where we 
found the weather excessively cold. Getting at last favour- 
able winds, we prosecuted our intended voyage towards the 


7a Early English Fojfagis fart n* book im 

ooast of Peru ; but in tbe end lost our whole fleets being' all 
aq>firated from each other. > 

Before the fi^ separated, ve had appointed^ in case of 
m^aration by foul weather, that we shonld wait on tbe coast 
of Chili, in tbe latitude of 4^^ S. for thirty days, in faopei 
of rejoining. Accordiuffly, I went to that latitude, where 
we remained twenty--eight days, and procured rdredbsneuls 
from the natives, who were very good-natured^ thowh the 
i^aniardft had nearly prevented uiem at first firom cfealing 
with us. They brojagbt us sheep and potatoes, for whica 
we gave them bells and knives ; but at length tfaiey r^ired 
into tbe oonntrr, and came no more near m. Having set 
up a pinnace which we broudit with us, and ranained in 
waiting for our consorts durmg twenty^etgfat davs^ we prcw 
ceedea to the port of BtdcUvia m lat. 40^ 20f S; but entered 
not by reason of contrary winds, on which we made for the 
^lana otMochoj where we arrived next day. Finding none 
of out ships there, we saifed for the island of Sanfyi Maritfy^ 
and came next day to the Cape, which is widiin a league and 
half of that island, where we saw many people; being much 
tempest-ftost endeavouring to go round that cape, and find* 
ing good ground, we came to anchor in a fine sandy bay^ 
in fifteen mthoms water. 

. We went in our boat, to endeavour to enter into a firiendly 
conference with the natives^ but they c^yposed our landing, 
and shot a great many arrows at our men. Yet, having no 
victuals in our ship, and hoping to procure refreshmaita 
here, we forcibly landed between twenty-seven and thirty 
men, driving tbe natives from the shore, but had most of 
our men wounded by their arrows. Being now on land^ 
we made signs to them of friendship, and, at length succeed* 
ed In bringing them to an amicable conference, by means <£ 
Signs and tokens which the people understood By our 
signs we communicated our desire to procure proviskms, ia 
exchange for iron, silver, and cloth. They gave us some wine^ 
potatoes, and fruits; and desired us by smis to return to 
our ship, and come back the next day, when they would 
supply us with victuals. It being now kte, our people came 
en Doard, most of them more or Jess hurt, yet glad of having 

brought the natives to a parley 


5 The island of Santa Maria, or St Mary, is on tlie ooast of Chifi near 
C(xiceptioDy in about the latitude ss° 50' N. 

ca^. I2U ugC9*x^ to India. 71 

N^t d«j, tbe 9th Vior&apiier^ 15999 our capUUD and all 
our officers prepared to land, having come to the resoIu«* 
ttont of only goii:^ to the shore, and landing two or three 
tuen at the most, as the people were very numerous, and ous 
peeple were, not willing to put too anuch trust in them. Our 
captain went in one of our boats, with all the force we were 
able to master ; and when near the shore^ the natives made 
nigOB io^ him to land, which our captain was not willing to 
do. But as the natives did not come near the boats, our 
eap^n and the rest determined to land, notwithstanding 
what had been agreed upon Jn the ship. At length twenQr- 
tliree men landed, armed with muskets, and marched up 
lowarda finir or five houses; but had hardly got a musket* 
shot from the boats, when above a thousand Indians fell 
«pon them from an ambush, with such weapons as they 
bad, and slew than all within our sight Our boats waited 
loi^y to see if any of our men would return; but seeing no 
hope to recover any of them, they returned to the ship with 
'tiie sorrowful news that all who had landed were slain. This 
was a most lamentable affiur^ as we had scarcely as many 
men remaining as could wdgh^our anchor. 
' We went next day over to the island of St Maiy, where 
we found our admiral, who had arrived there four days b^ 
Ocope us, and had departed from the island of Mocha tne day 
n&eat we came from thence, the general, master, and all the 
officers having been wounded on shore.^ We were much 
grieved for our reciprocal misfortunes, so that the one be- 
moaned the other, yet were glad that we had come together 
again. My good iriend Tiiuothy Shotten of London was 

Eilot of this ship. At this island of St Mary, which is in 
iU ^V S, [SG^" 5Qr\ near the coast of Chili, it was coaclui- 
ded to take every thing into one c^ the ships, and burn the 
other; but the new captains could not agree which of the 
ships to bum, so that this agreement was not executed. 
Having much cloth in our ships, it was agreed to steer for 
Japan, which we understood was a good market for cloth; 
and we were the more inclined to this measure, because the 
'King of Spain's ships upon the coast of Peru having now 
intel%enGe oi- us, would come in search of us, and knew 
that we were weak by the loss of our men, which was all 


^ In th«L second letter, the general and twenty-seven men are said Xm 
have been $lain at Mocha.— £. 

73 . Early English Votfoge^ VAnT il« book ixx.^ 

too true^ for one of our ships, as we learnt afterwards^ was 
forced to surrender to the enemy at St Jago. 

Hating procured refreshments at Sitota Maria, more by 
policy than: force, we departed from the road of thatlslana 
on the 27th November with our two ships, having hcfard 
nothing of the rest of our fleet We took our course dii'ect 
for Japan, and passed the line together, keeping company, 
till we came into the latitude of 28° N. in which latitude/ 
on the 22d and 23d of February, we had as heavy a storm 
of wind 1^ I ever saw, accompanied with much rain; during 
which storm we lost sight of our other and larger ship, be^ 
ing very sorry to be left alone, yet comforted ourselves witli 
the hope of meeting again at Ja^an. Continuing our course 
as we best could for wind and weather^ till we were in thelat*: 
of 30*^ N. we sought for the north cape of that island^ but 
found it not, becaiise it is falsely laid down in all charts, map% 
aiid globes^ for that cape is 35° 30' N. which is a great dif- 
ference.' At length, in 32° 30" N. we saw land on the 19th 
April, having been four months and twenty-two days be- 
tween Santa Maria and Japaiy and at this time there were 
only six men, besides myself, who could stand on their feet. 

Being now in safoty, we let go our anchor about a league 
from a place called Bungo^ Many boats came off to us» 
and we allowed the people to come on board, being quite 
unable to offer any resistance; yet, though we could only 
understand each bther very imperfectly by signs, the peo* 
pie did us no harm. After two or three days, a Jesuit came 
to us fpom a place called Nangasacke, to which place the 
Portuguese caraks from Macao are in use to come yearly* 
This man, with some Japanese chieftains, interpreted for 
us> which was bad for us, being our mortal enemies; yet 
the King of Bungo, where we had arrived, shewed us great 


' 7 The geographical notices in the text are bardiy intelligible. The 
northern cape of Japan is in 40'-' SO' N. Sunddown point, towards the 
south end of the eastern side of the great island of Niphon, is nearly in 
the latitude indicated in the text. The latitude of 32^ 30', where, accord- 
ing to Adams, they had first sight of Japan, is on the eastern side of Kiu- 
siu, the south>w€stern island of Japan, in long. 1 31° 25' £. while Sand- 
down point is in long. 14l° E. from Greenwich. — E. 

* In modern maps, Bungo is the name of the middle province on the 
eastern side of Japan, and includes the indicated latitude, the nearest 
sea-port town being named Nocea, thirty-five miles farther north. But 
as we have hardly any intercourse with Japan, our maps of that couritry 
are very imperfect. — iL 

cilAP. I9t. 6i!cT. X. to India. *ti 

firiendship, giving us a house on sliore for our sick, and 
every refresbment that was needfiil. When we came to an-' 
^iior eff Bango, we had twenty-four men livibg, sick and 
weH) of whom three died next day, and other three after 
continuing long siek, all the rest recovering. 

The Emperor of Japan hearing of us, sent presently five 
gallies, or frigates, to us at Bungo, with orders to bring me 
to the court where he resided, which was almost eighty £ng- 
fish leagues from Bungo.' When I came before him, he 
demanded to know from what country we were^ and I an-i 
swered him in all points. There was nothing almost that 
be did not enquire about, more especially concerning war 
and peaee betweeiy difi^ent countries, to all of which I an* 
swercd to the best of my knowledge, which were too long 
to write off at this time. After this conference, I was or- 
dered to prison along with one of our mariners, who had 
ad^ompaiiied me to serve me, but we were well used there«;^ 
Some two days afterwards the emperor sent for me again, 
and demanded the reason of our having come so far. I 
made answer/ that we were a people who sought peace and. 
iriendship with all nations, and to have trade with all conn- 
tries, bringing such merchandise as our country had, and 
buying 6uch others in foreign countries as were in request 
in ours, through which reciprocal traffic both countries 
were enriched. He enquired much respecting the wars be* 
tween us and the Spaniards and Portuguese, and the causes 
of the same, all the particul^s of which I explained to him^ 
widi which he seemed much pleased. After this I was again 
r^namied to prison, but in another place, where mylod^ 
gihg was bettered. '® 

' 1 continued thirty-nine days- in prison, hearing no news 
of our ship or captain, and knew not whether he were re-*> 
covered or not, neither respecting the rest of our company; 
In all that time I expected continually to be crucified, as is 
the custom of Japan, as hanging is with us ; for during my 
long imprisonment, the Portuguese and Jesuits gave many 
tgXwe accounts against us to the emperor, alledging that we 
were thieves, wno went about to rob and plunder all na« 
tions, and that if we were suffered to live it would be to the 


. 9 This was Osaca, which Is eigh^ leagues from Bungo.— Pt«r(cA(z& 
^ Osaka, in a straight line, is about ninety marine leagues, or ^76 Eng,- 
lish miles,- from the coast of Bungo — E. 
*^ The second letter, addressed to his wife, breaks off here.— E» 

74^ Early English Fcgag^s F4RT ii^book nu 

injury of the emperor and his mMJon ; for then no oaiioQi 
would ccMne there without robbings bat if ju&fjce were^dKi^ 
ecuted Upon us, it wooki terrify the redt of our nation- from 
eoming ther« any more. They tbu& persHaded the eiaperoi^ 
daily to cut us ofl^ making all the friends at court they could 
to back them. But God waft merei&l to usy and would not 
permit them to have their will against us^ At l4a;igth'the 
emperor gave them this answer : ^' That) as we had dona no 
hurt to him or any of hia subjcctd^ it was contrary to reasoQ 
and justice to put us to death ; atid if our country and tbein^ 
were at war, that was no reason why he should punish us»'* 
They were quite cast down by this answer^ seeing thein 
cruel intentions towards u» dis^pointed, for which Uod bQ 
praised for ever and ever. 

While I remained in prison, the emperor gave orders foff 
our ship brought as near to the city where he resided 
as possible, which was done accordingly. Thei^ on the one 
and fortieth day <^ my imprisonment, I was again brought 
before the emperor, who asked me many more questional 
which were too long to write* In conclusion, he asked m^ 
if I wished to go to the ship to see my countrymen, which 
I said would give me much satis&ction. So he bad me g% 
and I departed, being freed from imprisonment. I now first 
kamt that our ship and company were come to the citgf 
where the emperor resided ; whereupon, with a joyous heart# 
I took a boat and went on board, where I found cmr ^t^ 
tain and the rest recovered from their sickness. At ow 
meeting they saluted me with tears, having heard that I w«a * 
long since put to death. Thus, God be praised, all i^e that 
were left alive came again together. 

. All our things were taken out of bur ship, all my instru* 
ments and other things being taken away, so that 1 had no« 
thing left but the clothes on my back, and all the rest w^e 
in a similar predicament. This had been done unknown to 
the emperor, and, being informed of it, he gave orders to 
restore every thing to us ; but they were all so dispersed 
among many hands that this could not be done: Whet^ 
fore 50,000 ryals were ordered to be given us» which the 
emperor himself saw delivered into the hands of one of hit 
officers, who was appointed our governor, with orders to 
supply us from that fund as we had occasion, to enable us 
to purchase provisions, and all other necessary charges. At 
the end of thirty days, during which time our ship lay be- 

ixraxcT* X- -to Iniid^ 73 

ibre tt'city called Sakeofj three leagneSy or two and a hal^ 
from Osaka, where the emperor then resided, an order was 
turned llhat our ship should be carried to the eastern part of 
die land of Japan called CbutntOi whither, according to hid 
ei^anianEds, we went, the distance being about 120 feagues. 
Our passage there was long, owing to contrary winds. 
- Coming to the land of Qaanto, and near to the city of 
EddOi [ Jedo,]" where the emperor then was, we used many 
iSKippMcations to get our ship set free, and to be allowed to 
seek our best prmit at the place where the Hollanders have 
their trader '' in- the prosecution of which suit we expended 
much of the money given us by the emperor. In this time 
Aree or four of our men mutinied against the captain and 
me, and drew in the rest of our men, by Which we had moch 
trouble with them, every one endeavouring to be command* 
er^«aiid ail being desirous to share among them the money 
given us by the emperor. It would be too tedious to relate 
all the particulars of this disturbance. Suffice it to say, that 
we divided the money, giving to every one a share according 
to his place. This happened when we had been two years in 
li^an. After this, when we had received a positive denial to 
our petition- for having our ship restored, and were told 
ihat we must abide in Japan, our people, who had now their 
Aares of the money, dispersed themselves^ every one to 
where be thought best. In the end, the emperor gave to 
every one to live upon two pounds of rice daily, and so 
much yearly as was worth eleven or twelve ducats, the cap^ 
tain, mysdi^ and the mariners all equal* 

In the course of three or ibnr years the emperor called 
me before him, as he liad done several times bef<»re, and on 
this occasion he would have me to build bun a small ship. 
I answered that I was not a carpenter, and had no know* 
ledge in ship-building. << Well then," said h^ << do it as 
welt as you can, and if it be not well done, there is no mat* 
ter."- Accordingly I built a ship for him of about eighty 



" Osaka, at the bead of a bay of the same name on the south side of 
^phon, is in lat, 34^ 58' N. long. 135*^ 5' E. Sakay, or Sakai, on the 
cast side of the same bay, is about fifteen miles directly south from Osa^ 
kg. Eddo, or Jedo, at the bead of a bay of that name, likewise on the 
south side of Nfphon, is in laL 35^ s6^ long. 140° £. from Greenwlcb.-— 

'^ This is probably an anachronism, meaning the place where the Hol- 
landers hdd been allowed to trade by the time when Adams wrote in 
aaii.'— £. 

T6 Early English Voyages patit il« b0OE iif^ 

tons burthen, constructed in all proportions according Ui 
our manner. He came oh board to seie her, and was modi 
pleasiedy so that I grew into favour with him, was often ad-* 
mitted to his presence^ and received presents from himfroiii' 
time to time, and at length got an yearly revenue to live 
upon, equal to about seventy ducats, besides two pounds of 
rice daily, as before. Being in such grace and favour, ow- 
ing to my having taught him some parts of geometry aiul 
mathematics, with other things, I so pleased him, that whalH 
ever I said was not to be contradicted. My former enemies/ 
the Jesuits and Portuguese, wondered much at this, and of- 
ten elicited me to befriend them with the emperor, so that 
through my means both Spaniards and Portuguese have 
frequently received favours, and I thus recompensed theip 
evil with good. In this manner, though at first it cost me 
mtich labour and pains to pass my time and procure a 
living, God hath at length blessed my endeavours. 

At the end of five years I made supplication to the em« 
peror for leave to quit Japan, desiring to see my poor wife 
and children, according to nature and conscience ; but he 
was displeased with my request, and would not permit me 
to go away^ saying that I must continue in the country. 
Yet in process of time, being greatly in his favour, I made 
supplication again, hearing that the Hollanders were in 
Acheen and Patane, which rejoiced us much, in the bopey 
that God would enable us to return again to our country 
by some means or other. I told him, if he would permit me 
to depart, I would be the means of bringing both the Eng-* 
lish and Hollanders to trade in his country. He said that 
he was desirous of both these nations visiting his country in 
the way of trade, and desired me to write to them for that 
purpose, but would by no means consent to my going away* 
Seeing, therefore, that I could not prevail for myself I pe-> 
titioned him for leave to our captain to depart, which he 
readily granted. Having thus procured his liberty, the 
captain embarked in a Japanese junk, in which he went to 
Patane, where he waited a year for Dutch ships; but none 
arriving in that time, he went from Patane to Johor, where 
he found a fleet of nine sail, of which Matleet was general^ 
and in which fleet he was again made a master. 

This fleet sailed for Malacca, where it fought with a Portu- 
guese squadron, in which battle he was slain ; so that I think 
as yet there can be no certain news respecting me^ whether I 


eBA:Pi lac sect. x» to India. 77 

be aKveor dead; Wherefore I am very desirous that my 
.frife and two children may learn that I am alive in Japan; 
my wife being in a manner a ividow, and my. children fa^ 
therless; which alone is my greatest. grief of h^rt, and 
sorely afflicts me. I am a man not unknownJn Ratcliff and 
JUmebonse; particularly to my ffood master .Mr Nicholas 
J)iggines, Mr Thomas Best, Mr Nicholas Isaac. and Mr 
William Isaac, brothers, with many odiers,. as also to Mr 
William Jones and Mr Becket. Tiierefore, if this letter, 
or a copy of it, xiiay come into any of their hands, I am sure 
tbat'such is their goodness, that they will communicate the 
news to my &miiy and friends, that I do as yet live in this 
vbIb of sinful pilgrimage: Which thing I do again and 
again.eamestly desire may be done, for the sake of Jesus. 
* You are to understand, that the first ship I built for the 
emperor made a voyage or two, whereupon he commanded 
.me to build another, which I did of the size of 120 tons. In 
this ship I made a voyage from MeacoM [in lat S5? 12' N. 
long. .135"* S7' £•] to Jeddo, being about as far as London 
is from the Lizard or Land's^end of England. In the year 
1609, the emperor lent this ship to the governor of Manil- 
la, ta go with 80 of his men to Accapulco. In the same 
^ar 1609^ a great ship of about 1000 tons, called the San 
f randsco, was cast away an the east coast of Japan^ in. the 
latitude of SO® SO' N. Being in great distress in a storm, she 
cut. her mainmast by the board, and bore away for Japan ; 
and in the night time, before they were aware, the ship ran 
on shore, and was utterly wrecked, 136 men being drowned^ 
and 340 or 350 saved, in which ship the governor of Ma- 
nilla was going as a passenger for New Spain, . This go>- 
vernor was sent off to Accapulco, .as before said, in the 
larger ship of my building, and 1611 he sent back another 
ship jn her stead, with a great present, and an ambassador 
to the emperor, giving him great thanks for his kindness, 
and sending the value of the emperor's ship in goods find 
money : which ship of my building, the Spaniards Jiow have 
at the Philippine islands* 

At this time, for the services which I have performed to 
the emperor, and am daily performing, he hath given me a 


'^ Meaco is endreljr an inland city« thirty-five miles from Osaka, and 
on the same river, which runs into the bay of Osaka two or three miles 
Mow the latter city. It is probable, therefore, that this ship may iiave 
been built at Meaoo, and floated down the river to the bay of Osaka, — E» 

78 Early Engluh Voyages vaktiu book xm 

Kving/Iike unto a londship in Engliuid, in whick tbenr atib 
weighty or ninety husbandmen, who are as my servants and 
slaves, the like having never been done to any stranger b&* 
fcre in this country. Thus God hath amply provided fiar 
toe after my great misery : To his name be the praise fer 
«ver and ever. Jmm. But whether I shall ever get oat of 
this land or not I know not. Until this present year, 161 1, 
there has been no way or manner of accomplishing diis my 
earnest desire;, which there now is through the trc^e of die 
Hollanders. In 1609, two ships belonging to Holland oame 
to Japan, in the intention of taking the carak whidi comes 
yearly from Macao. Bein^ five or six days too late for that 
purpose^ they came notwithstanding to Firando.'^ fVom 
thence they waited on the emperor, and were received in a 
friendly manner, receiving permission to come yearly to 
Japan with one or two ships, and so departed with the en>- 
perer's pass or licence* In consequence of this permission, 
a sinall ship is arrived this vear, 1611, with cloth, lead, eio- 
phants' teeth, damask, blacK taffeties, raw silk, pepper, and 
other commodities ; and have given a sufficient ^tcose why 
they missed the former year, as had been promised* This 
ship was well received, and entertained in & friendly man- 

You must understand that the Hollanders have here d» 
Indits of money and profit ; as by ^his trade they do not 
^need to bring silver from Holland to the East Indies; for 
in Japan there is much silver and gold, to serve their turn 
in other places of the East Indies where it is needed. The 
merchandise that is most vendible here fm* ready money, is 
raw silk, damask, black tafibty, black and red cloth of the 
best kind, lead, and such like goods. Learning, by tlus 
lately-«>arrived Hollander, that a settled trade is now carried 
on by my countrymen in the East Indies, I presume tl^t 
some among them, merchants, masters, or mariners, must 
needs know me. Therefore am I emboldened to write these 
few lines, which I have made as short as I could, not to be 
too tedious to the readers. 

This country of Japan is a great island, reaching in its 
northern part to the latitude of forty-eight degrees/' and 


'^ Firando is an island about twenty miles in diameter, in the west of 
Japan, the centre of which is in lat 33^ !(/ N. and long. 128° SO* £. from 
Greenwich.— E. 

*^ The island of Japan Proper reaches only to laU 40^ 37' N. and the 

tai^* IX. SECT. X. 10 India* 79 

its most southerly part is in thirty-five degrees, both north- 
Its length from east by north to west by south, for such is 
its direc^on, is ^20 Engfish leagues. ITie br(9adth from 
3outh to north is thirteen degrees, twenty leagues to the de- 
gree, or 260 leagues, so that it is almost square. The ior 
Si^itatits of Japan are good-natured, courteous above nte^- 
ilure, and valiant in war. Justice is executed with much se» 
iverity, and is distributed impartially, without respect of 
ipiiersonsj upon all transgressors of the lawi They are go* 
vemed in great civility, and I think that Ho part of the 
world has better civil policy. The people are very super- 
stitious in their religion, and entertain various opinions or 
beliefs. There are many Jesuits and franciscan friars in the 
country, who have converted many of the natives to Chri»- 
tiaiiity, and who have many churches in the land. 

Thus shortly am I constrained to write, hoping that by 
one means or other I may hear of my wife and children in 
pk'ocess of time, and so with patience I wait the good will 
and pleasure of Almighty God ; earnestly desiring all those 
to whom this letter may come, to use means to acquaint my 
good friends before named of its contents ; that so my wife 
«nd children may hear of me, and I may have hope to hear 
of them before I die. Which may God grant, to his glory 
and my eomfort. Amen. 

Dated in Japan, the 22d of October, 161 1, by your un- 
worthy friend and servant^ to command in what I can, 

William AnAaa* 

southern coast of Tacuxima, its most southerly detached isle* is in lat. 
31° 83' N. the most southerly point of the largest island of Nipbon be« 
vag in 33° 3' N. The extreme length of Niphon, in a slight curve from 
H. £• to S. W. is about 8 1 5 English miles ; or, continuing the measure to 
the S. W. extremity of Kiusiu at Cape Nomo, about 1020 miles. The 
breadth is very irregular, but cannot Bxceed 100 miles on the average.** 

Stahf Sa^ Ta/Hf/a ?4HT n-BMim. 

q 3. Ijtttr of WiOam Adam fa Um Wife.' 

Loni^ wife, jam. A^ htxtirr nndastand bow all ibinm 
hmiK pBMd with ^ since I left yon. We sailed irom l£e 
T«aMi with. finiUpB^ntk 24th Jane, 1598, andtookour 
Ap M Utrii fr^ the raatt of Eoj^bsd die 5th July. Th« 
•ilst :&a{;iirt we came to St Jafjo, one of the Cape Verd 
fiihiidii wheivwe Rnuiaed twot^-fatir days. Id this time 
^Mn aiomr Bai U ncfc* thnny^ the ODwhoIesofneitcsg of 
lb« air, and am gcnonl aoaxtig Uie roC We abode so long 
—iMH; rhria iiilailii. Vriii nnr nfthr i iptiiim nf mir fli 1 1 
mmtit oer «n>nal befierc tfcst we sboald find plenty of re- 
fresh^M^ ihii. a& H^^t* and other things, which was nM 
tbe OBT. 1 aad al die pikta Ib the fieet were here called 
•a co^ac J ; btf ■• we all dedared ouraelves much averse to 
tW pbee* oar maiMiii ««xe so modi disliked by the cap- 
taia^ tkat ihej agneii anof^ thenMctres to call us no moie 

The 1 5th S eptea her we departed from St Ja^ and pass- 
ed the eqaaiar ; amd kt the hi. of 3° S. our giaierai died. 
IIk ■««» beiiv BBch too late^ we vere forced npon the 
coast of Gnine*, laiha; in with a headland called Cabo de 
Spihtm f>amto. The aew geonratcoBimaiKlcd us to bear up 
for Cape Lopo GoomIvc^ to seek r^eshnieats for our meo, 
.which was done accordingly. We landed all our sick at 
lliat place, where they did not find much bmefit, as we could 
(,'rt no store of prorkioos. The a9th December we resumed 
orir voyage, and on our way hU in witli an island called 
AiuAton, where we landed our sick men, takinz possessioti 
»(' I he inland by force, the town containing about eighty 
liouH.v. Having here r^reshed our men, we again set SBil* 
f)ur ^^l■nvTa\ giving out in orders, that each man was only to 
liiivu (liL> iiUowance of one pound of bread in four days, be- 
ing H tiiiurler of a pound daily, with a like reduced allovf- 
uiicL' of wine and water. This scard^ of victuals made our 
nun Ml It-vbic, lliat they feU into great weakness and sick.— 
IWM 'lor very hunger, insomuch that they eat the calf-skins 

wjili wliith our ro[>og were covered. 


' All)ioii|[Ii tlili 'higtncnt relatu to the nme circamstances tfaat ax<e 
deitillc'it in lite furnior lutier, theie are frequently giTen more at larg^ 
unit it lull liurefoca iinea reMinwI.— E. 

CHAP. IX* S£cr» X. to India. 81 

The Sd April, 1599, tre fell in with pOrt St Julias ; and 
on the 6th we entered the Straits of Magellan, which are at 
first narrow. The 8th day we passed uie second narrows 
with a f^r wind, and came to anchor at Penguin Island, 
where we landed, and loaded our boat with penguins* These 
are fowls larger than ducks, and proved a great refreshment 
to us. The 10th we weighed anchor, having much wind, 
yet fair for our passage; but our general insisted upon 
taking in wood and water for all our ships, of which there 
is great abundance in all parts of the straits, and good an- 
clxoring grounds every three or four leagues. In the mean 
time the wind changed, and became southerly; ao we sought 
for a good harbour on the north side of the straits, four 
leagues from Elizabeth Bay. April being out, we had a 
wonderfol quatUtity of snow and ice, with great winds ; for 
the winter there is in April, May, June, July^ and August, 
being in 52® 30' S. Many times during the winter we had 
the wind fair for passing through the straits, but our gene- 
ral would not ; so that we remained in the straits tia the 
24th August,* 1599, on which day we came into the South 
JSea. Six or seven days after the whole fleet was separated, 
and the storm continuing long, we were driven south, into 
lat. 54° S(y S. The weatner clearing up, with a fair wind^ 
we saw the admiral again, to our great joy. Eight or ten 
-days afterwards, having very heavy wind in the night, our 
foresail was blown away^ and we again lost sight of the 

Having a fair wind for that purpose, we directed our 
course for the coast of Chili, where we arrived on the 29th 
October, at a place appointed by the general for a rehdez- 
vous, in lat 46° S. where we waited twenty-eight days, and 
* set up a pinnace. In this place we found people, with 
whom we iiad friendly intercourse for five or six days, du- 
ring which they brought us sheep, for which we gave them 
bells and knives, with which they seemed contented* But 
shortly afterwards they all went away from the place where 
our ship lay, and we saw no more of them. The twenty- 
. eight days being expired, we set sail in the intention to go 
to Baldivia, and came to the mouth of the port; but as the 
wind was high, our captain changed his mind, and we di- 

VOL. VIII. F rected 

^ In the fonner letter this is called the S4th September, which seems 
to be the true date, from what follows*— £. 

M Early Englitk Fogages pabt ii. book hi. 


rected our coane for the islaiid of M ocha» in thirty^eight 
degrees, where we arrived the 1st November. The wind 
being still hi^, we durst not come to anchor, and directed 
our course for Cape 8t Mary, two leagues south of the 
iftland of that name. Having no knowledge of the people 
our men landed on the 2d of November, and the natives 
ibught with them, wounding eight or nine of our people ; 
but in the end the natives made a false composition of friend- 
ship with them, whidi our men believed sincere. 

Next day our captain went on shore, with twenty-thtee 
of our best men, meanii^ to get victuals in exchange for 
goods, as we %rere reduced to gre^t straits. Two or three 
of the natives eame immediately to the bo&t, bringing a kind 
of wine and some roots, and making signs for our people to 
land, where they would get sheep and oxen. The captain 
and men went according^ on shore, being very anxious to 
get provisions; but above a thousand of me natives broke 
out upon them from an ambush, and slew them all, among 
whom was my brother, Thomas Adams. After this severe 
loss we had hardly as many men remaining as could hoist 
our anchor; so on the 3d November, in great distress and 
heavineto of mind, we went to the island of Santa Maria, 
where we found out admiral ship, by which our hearts were 
flomewfaat comforted : but when we went on board, we found 
them in as great distress as ourselves, the general and twenty- 
seven of their men having been slain at the idand of Mocha, 
from whence they had departed the day before we passed 
that island. We here consulted what we should do to pro- 
cure victuals, not being in condition to go to land and take 
them by force, as most of our remaining men were sick. 

While in this sad dilemma, there came a Spaniard on 
board by composition to see our ship. -He came on board 
again the next day, and we altowed him quietly to depart* 
Tne following day two Spaniards came on board, without 

t)awR or surety, Co see if uiey could betray ns. When tkey 
lad seen our ship, they wene for going agein on knd ; bat 
we would not let them, saying, as they bad come on board 
without leave^. we diould not permit them tago away till 
we thought fit, at which they were very much offended. We 
then told tliem how much we* were jn want of victuals, and 
said if they would let us have such a number of sheep and 
«wes, that we would set them at liberty. Thus, against their 
wills, thoy entered into a composition with us, wmch^ with- 

idiKA^. ix« 8SGT. X. to India. US 

in the tittle appointed, they accomplished. Having pro«> 
cured so much refreshm^it, most of our meti recovered* 

In consequence. of the death of the general, one Hudr 
€Ope09 a young man, who knew nothing, and had served 
the fctfmer> was made general in his stead ; and the master 
of our ship, Jacob Quatemack, of Rotterdam, was made cap- 
tain of our ship, in the place of him who had been slain^ 
So the new general and vice-admiral called me and the othef 
pilots an Englishman, named Timothy Sjiotten, who had 
been with Mr Thomas Candish in his voyage round the 
world) and desired our advice how to prosecute the voyage 
for the best profits of our merchants. It was at Idst re* 
solved to go for Japan, as, by the r€)X)]t of one Dirrick 
Gerritson, who had been there with the Portuguese^ wooUeH 
clodi was in great estimation in that island ; ^nd we con- 
cluded that the Moluccas, and most other parts of the East 
Indies, being hot countries, our woollen cloth would not be 
there in much request : wherefore we all t^reed to go fot 
Japan. Leaving, therefore, the coast of ChiG, in lat. 36^ S. 
on the^7th November, 1599, we shaped our course direct 
for Japan, and passed the equinoctial line with a fair wind* 
which lasted several months. In our way we fell in with 
certain islands in lat. 16® N. of which the inhabitaQts are 
canibals.' Coming near these islands, our pinnace, with 
eight men, ran from us, and were eaten, as we supposed, by 
the savages, of whom we took one man^ 

In the latitude of 27 or 28 degrees norths we had varia- 
ble winds and stormy weather; and on the 24th Februaryi 
1600, we lost sight of our admiral^ and never saw his ship 
more ; yet we still continued our course for Japan. The 
24th March we saw an island called Una Cohna^ at which 
time many of our men were again sick^ and several deadi 
We were in the utmost misery, not above nine or ten of our 
men being able to creep about on their hands ^d knees ; 
while our captain and all the rest were expecting every hour 
to die. The 11th AjH'il, 1600, we had sight of Japan, neac 
to BungOi at which time there were not more than five of 
us abl^ to stand. The 12th we came close to Bungo^ and 
let go our anchor, many barks coming aboard of us, the 

Eople whereof we willingly allowed to come into our ship, 
vmg ind^ no power to resist them. These people did 


I These islands seem to be the lAdrones^— Pureed. 

84 Early English Foyages part ii* book hi. 

.118 no personal injury; bnt they stole ever^ thing they could 
lay their hands upon, for which some paid very dear after- 
wards. Next day the king of that land sent a party of sol- 
diers on board, to prevent the merchant goods from being 
stolen. Two or three days after, our ship was brought into 
a good harbour, there to remain till the emperor of the 
whole island was informed of our arrival, and should give 
his orders as to what was to be done with us. In thclmean- 
time we petitioned the King of Bungo for leave to l^id our 
captain and the ofh^ sick men, which was granted, having 
B house ai^KHBted for them^ in which they were all laid, and 
had all manner of refreshments given them. 

After we had been five or six days here, there came a 
Portuguese Jesuit, with other Portuguese, who falsely re- 
ported of us that "^e were pirates, and not at all in the way 
of trade; which scandalous reports caused the governors 
and people to think very ill of us, so that we even looked 
for being set upon crosses, which is the punishment iii this 
land for thievery and some other crimes. Thus daily did 
the Portuguese incense the rulers and the people against us. 
At this time two of our men became traitors, giving them- 
selves up to the service of the emperor, and becoming alt in 
all with the Portuguese, who warranted them their lives. 
One was named Gilbert de Conning, whose mother dwelt 
in Middleburg, who gave himself out as the merchant over 
all the goods in the ship; the name of the other was John 
Abelson van Oudwater. These traitors tried eveiy means to 
set the goods into, their hands ; and made known to the 

. Portuguese cveiy thing that bad happened during our 

Nine days after our arrival, the emperor, or great king of 
the land) sent for me to come to him. So, taking one nian 
with me^ I went to him, taking leave of our captain iandthe 
sick men, and commending myself into his hands who had 
hitherto preserved me from the perils of the sea. I was 
carried in one of the emperor'^ gallies to the court of Osaka, 
where the emperor then resided, being about eighty leagues 
from where our ship lay. On the 123i May, 1600, I came 
to tbc'city of Osaka, and was brought immediately kito the 
presence of the emperor, his palace being a wonderfully 
costly house^ gikled with gold in gi'eat profusion. On 
coming before him, he viewed me well, and seemed favour- 
ably dii>posed towards mi^ making many signs to me^ some 


^AP. IX* SECT. X. to India. S5 

of which I comprehended) and others not. After some time 
there came one who coiild speak Portuguese, nirho aicted ha 
interpreter. Through this person the king demanded to 
know from what country I was, and what had induced us 
to come to his land, at so great a distance from our own 
country. I then told him whence we were, that our country 
had long sought dut the East Indies, desiring to live in peace 
and friendship with all kings and potentates in the way of 
trade; having in our. country yarious conunodities which 
these lands had not, and wishing to purchase such commo* 
dities in this land as our country did net possess. He then 
asked me if our country had any wars ; to which I answer- 
ed, that we were at war wiUi the Spaniards and Portuguese^ 
but at peacewith all other nations. He farther asked me^ what 
was. my religious belief; to which I made answer, that I be^ 
lieved in God, who created the heavens and the earth. After 
many questions about religkm. and many other things, he 
asked me by what way we came to his coiUitry. Having 
with me a chart of the world, I showed him the way in which 
we had come^ through the straits of Mjagellan; at which he 
wondered, and seemed as if he did n6t believe I spoke truth. 
Askii]|^ me what merchandise we had in oUr ship^ I gave 
him an account of the whole. Thus, from o6e thing to ano- 
ther,* I remained with hiin tiH midnight. In the end) when 
he was ready to depart, I desired that we might be allowed 
the fi»me freedom of trade which the Spaniards and Portu- 

fnese enjoyed. He made me some answer, but what it was 
did not uhdersf^nd, and then commanded me to be carried 
to prison. / 

Two days afterwards he sent for me again, Q^d made 
many inquiries about the qualities and conditions of oar 
countries; about wars and peace, of beasts atld cattle of aif 
sorts, of the heavens, and many other things ;• aind be seem- 
ed well pleased with my answers.^ Yet was I again remanded 
to prison; but my lodging was bettered in another place. 

<< The rest of this letter, by the malice of the bearers, was 
suppressed, but was probably the same in substance with 
the former; yet I have added this ako, because it contains 
several things not mentioned in the other. This Williiuii 
Adams lately^ died at Firaiulp^ in Japan, as by the last ship» 


^ Thb is in reference to the year 1625, when the Pilgrims of Purchas 
was publishe(L*-£. 

M Early EngUsh Voyages mbt ii. bsok in* 

die Jamei) retoming home in the year I68I9 we kaTt r^ 
cdved inteDigeace." — Purcka$» 

SEcmoN XL 
Voyage cf Sir Edward MticheUmme to India, in 1604/ 


Hiis Toyage is giTen by Purchas under the title of *< The 
Second Voyaee ix John Davis, with Sir Edward Mich^ 
barney into &e East Indies, in the Tiger, a ship of 246 
tons,^ with a pmnace, called the Tiber's Whelp/' Purcha* 
adds, that) though later in time Sian die mt voyafle set 
forth by the English East India Company, he had chosen 
lo insert it in his work previous to their voyages, because 
not performed in their employment ; and we have here (6^ 
towed his example, because not one of the voyages equipped 
by the Company. It is called the second voyage of JbfaA 
Davis, because he had been to the East Indies before^ as 
related in the ninth section of this chapter, and went upon 
this voyage with Sir Edwaid. Michelburne. But it ought 
to have been called his thirds askd indeed it is actually sono^ 
med in the table of contents of the Pilgrims ; as, besidea 
his Jirst voyage along with the Dutch in 1594s he appears 
to have sailed in the first voyage instituted by the Company 
for India, in 1601, under Lancaster. The editor of Ast>- 
ley's Collection supposes this journal to have been wirit* 
ten by the captain or master of one of the ships, from'Some 
expressions in the narrative; at all events, it waswritteaby 
some person actually engaged in the voyage. It is very sin- 
gular that Sir Edward Michelburne^ though a member of 
the first East India Company^ and the fourtih of the list ift* 
the original patent, riiould have set forth dus voyage on pri^ 
vate account. 

We learn from ike annals of the India GHnpany, that 
the lord-treasurer of England, in 1600^ when the <romt- 
pany was first instituted, proposed that Sir Edward Mifchel- 
burne- should be appointed to coBunand the fiorst fleet <1]8»<^ 
patched to India ; out this was fivmly declined> as will. 4^ 


PuYchas his FilgnmSi h 132» Asdey, h S06, 

Wi^js»ia£CT.:» 9a Indk^ ^7 

qK)^^'< ^ Bdw«i:d sew commtndad irtnnt tnajp; 
be osJled: an interloping tra4ii% voyage toladia^ under a 
licence granted by Jame^ L in at^lute opntriftv^tion oj^ 
tiie e^Qclusive privilege grmtod Xq tbe CompAn>y4 — ]& 

The 5th of Deeember^ 1604^ we sailed froip C)owe9». ii^ 
t^e Ifile of Wight,, and arrived in the FQad of, Aratana^ v^i 
the island of 'J^eriS^ on the 2Sd of that, moath. Durii^ 
the whole nigjbf of the Hth Janiiaiyf lW5f we wacetroiir^ 
blfd with exceasiye heal} Ihundeiv lightnings wd raip» The 
6tht. we pasMd the Hne^ shaping (mc epw^ for tbe iste <^ 
Nofcmhof with the wind at &S-£^ om oouns^: being SLSf W^. 
About three degrees south of the Un^^ we met with inciieh- 
dible multitudes of fish; so dn^ with hooka and harping 
ironjB, we took somwiy dolphin% IxmitoSk and other 'fid)e«H 
ihxit our men were, quite weary with eatiug them- Ther^ 
nnere likewise many mwla, called jpfl^^Aaraioi^ and a^afmr-* 

m* We took many of the former^ aa it* delig^t^ tp ocm^ to^ 
a ship inth«^night-4ime) insomucb^ that ifj^ov hold up youn 
kand^ they will light: upon it^ The afeatfw^ U a<kmd o^ 
hawk that lives onifisb; for,, when the boaito* wd dplphj^a 
chase the flying fisbea iu: the water till they are fcM^oed- t(G^ 
take wing for s^ety, the alcatrames fly after the9^ like hawla( 
after pail^Idges. I have seen oftien so mmy of tbi^se flying«» 
fishes, at one time in the air, tfaali they appeared at a difr^ 
tance like a large flock of birdfi. They are s^maU fl^ba^ 
hardly so lai^ as a herrings 

The 32d (». Januaiy we came to anchor at tbfs island of 
Fernando Naronha, in latf 4^ S. where oar skiff was oyei>t 
aet going ashore^ by the violenAo of the surf^. and, Hiphard 
Mi^ialburnQi a kinsman at our general^, waa drowned,, all 
the rest being saved« The 26ih% our k>ng*boa^ while going 
to fill some empty casks- with water, fell in with the sam(^ 
unfortunate surl^ and was overset,, when two n¥>re of om? 
men were drowned. We were so nuich put about ip getting 
wood and water on boacd^ by ^e danger of th^ ^urf^ thai 
we had to pull our casks oa shore by mean^ of rope% and 
SQ back again when filled. Not m days before our arri-« 
valy there was a Holland ship bene, whose b< gping 
fiir water, was stove qdi tbe rocks^. and* all thi9 tnen^ da^pd 
to pieces, having their Ic^ and arms cut from their bodies* 

The 26th, the generafwent on shore to view the island, 
which was found entirely waste^ being only inhabited by six 


B^ Earhf EngliA Voyages paet ii. book iirv 

negro slaves. There were formerly in this idtoid manj^ 
goats, and some wild cattle ; but as the Portuguese caram 
sometimes water here in their way to the East Indies^ and* 
these poor slaves are left here purposely to kiU goals and 
dry their flesh for these ships, we could find very few of 
Ihem* There are, however, great quantities of turtle^ 
doves, alcatrarzes, and other fowls, of which we killed many 
with our fire-arms, and found them excellent eating. Tha:^ 
is likewise here plenty of maize or Guinea wheat, and abun-i- 
dance of cotton trees, on which grows fine bombast ; with 
great numbers of wild gourds and water mdons. Havuig^ 
completed our supply of wood and water^ we came on boar^ 
and continued o\ir voyage. 

The 12th February, yAien m lat. 7* y S. we saw al 
Bight the most extraordinary sight, in my qpifiion, that 
ever was seen. The sea seemed aU ni^t, thoii^ the mooir 
was down, aU over, as it were, burning and skining wilb 
flames of fire, so that we coukl have seen to read^any boob 
by its light. The 18th, in die morning, we descried the 
island, or rock rather, of Ascension, in lat. 8^ SC^Sk - To^ 
wards night, on the 1st April, we descried land* from the 
Maintop, bearing S.S.E. when, according to our reckon- 
ing, we were still 40 leagues off. The 2d, in the momingv 
we were dose to the land, being ten or twelve leagues norm 
of Saldanha bay. The 3d we sailed by a small isimd, whidi 
Captain John Davis took to be one that is some five or six 
leagues from Saldanha bay, called Dassen island, which our 
general was desirous to see ; wherefore he went on shore in 
uie skifl^ with only the master's mate, the purser, and my* 
seli^ with four rowers. While we were on shore, a storm 
arose, which drove the ship out of sight of the island, so 
ihat we were forced to remain on shore two days and nights. 
This island has great numbers of seals and conies, or rab« 
bits, an which account we called it Conie idand. 

The 8th, we came to anchor in the road or bay of Sal- 
danha,* and went ashore on the 9th, finding a goodly ooun<* 
try, inhabited by the most savage and beastly people that 
ever were created. In this place we had most excellent re-^ 
fireshments, the like of which is not to be found among any 
other savage people ; for we wanted neither for beef nor mut- 

* This bay was probably that now called Table bay, which all the early 
"^tivigators seem to have denominated Saldanha, or Saldania bay. — ^£. 

miAT. tXi sscT. xir to Indian S9 

ton, noFwfldHfow], allthe time we lay there. Thk country is 
rferv full of cattle and sheep, which they keep in great flocks 
and herds^ as we do in £kigland ; and it abounds likewise 
in wild beasts and birds, as wild deer, in great abundance^ 
antekqies, baboons, foxes, hares, ostriches, cranes, pelicans^ 
hercms, geese, ducks, pheasants, partridges, and various 
other exceUent kinds, of which we* killed as many as we 
pleased, ^h our fir&^anns. The country is most pleasant^/ 
ly watered with many wholesome springs and brooks, wbick 
have their origin in the tops of exceeding, high mountains, 
and which, pervading the vallies, render them very fertile* 
It has many trees growing close to the sea-shore, not much, 
unlike our bay trees, but of a much harder consistencew 
l^e natives brought us more cattle and sheep than we could 
use during all the time we remained there, so that we car<^ 
vied fre^ beef and mutton to sea with us. For a piece of 
an old iron hoop, not worth two^pence, we.could purchase a 
hirge bulloek ; and a sheep for a small piece of iron not 
worth two or three good hob-nails. These natives go quite 
naked, having only a sheep skin on their shoulders^ and a 
small flap of skin before them, which covers them just a» 
much as if it were not there. While we were there, th^ 
lived on the guts and offal of the meat which we threw 
owav, feeding in a most beasdy mamier, as they neither 
washed nor cleaned the guts, but covered them merely with 
hot ashes, and, before they were heated through, pulled. them 
out, shook them a little, and eat guts, excrements, ashes 
and all. They live on raw flesh, and a kind of root^ which 
they have in great abundance. 

- We continued here from the 9th April, till the 3d. May^ 
by which good recreation on shore and excellent, refresh- 
ment, we were all in as good health as when we first put tO 
sea. The 7th May we were off the Cape of Good Hope^ 
ten leagues south by estimation, and that night we .passed 
aver the shoals of cabo das Aguilhas* The 9th there arose 
a great storm, when we lost sight of our pinnace, being dri-< 
Ten from her by Ae violence of the gale. This storm con- 
tinued in a most tremendous manner for two days and two 
nights, with much rain, thunder, and lightning, and we ofleii 
ship{^ed a great deal of water. -By reason of the extri^me 
fury of the tempests, and the danger they find in passing 
the southern pron^ontory of Africa, the Portuguese call this 
place the Lion of the Sea* At night, during tne extremity 


90 Early EngUA Foyoger JTMtv uu boqk iii«r 

<if the stonn, there appaared a flame en oilrttqHMit head^ 
as big as a greiU; candle, which the Portugese call cerpa 
sancto, holding it as a divine token that the^ wont is past, 
when it appears; asi thanks be to Gbd, we bad better weni^ 
ther after. It appeared to. us two suocessive nigbtsy after 
which we had a fiur wind and good weather. Some think 
this to be a spirit^ while ethers say that it is an eriwlarioa 
of moist vapours. Some affirm that the diip is fertunale oa 
which it appears^ and that die shall not perish* 

The 24>tfa, the island of Diego Roiz, in laL 1 9"" W S. and 
long. 98^ W E. bore north of US| eight leagues distant, about 
five o'clock.' We bore down, intenmng to have landed there^ 
but the wind freshened so much in the niAt that we changed 
our purpose. We saw many white bir£ about this island^ 
having two long feathers in their tails. These birds, and va» 
irious other kinds^ accompanied us along with such contnaiy 
winds and gusts that we often split our sail% and being ob^ 
Bged to lie to, or tack to and again, we ratlier went to lea^ 
waid than ^lined way, bavins the wind strong at £.S.E. 

The 3d June^ while standmg for the isle de Ci$ne,^ we 
enne again in-si^ht of Diego Koi^, and boire down for it^ 
intending to vrait there fiyr a fair wind ; but finding it a 
dangerous place, we durat not come there to anchor^ foo 
ftar of the rocks and shoals that lie about it, so that we 
changed our purpose, and stood for the Eaat Indies* The 
15th of Jun% we had si§^ of the isle dm Banho$y in lait. & 
SV S. and long. 109° £.' These islands, are laid down fas 
too nmch to the west in most charts* We sent our boats, to 
try if they could here find any good anchoring ground, but 
they could find ncme either on the south or west shore* 
There are five of these idands> which abound in fowls^ fish> 
and oocoaruuts ; and our boats ^oing on shores brought us 
off a great store of all these, which proved a great refresh* 
ment to us. Seeing we could find no gpod anchorage, as 


s The latitude and the name agree with Di^ Rodrigues; but th^ 
longitude is inexplicable, as Die^ Rodriguez is m long. 63° lO' £. from 
Greenwich, or 80^ 56' from Ferro ; making an error of excess. in the text 
at the least of 17° 81'.— E. 

« By some thought to be Diego Rodriguez, by others the Mauritiua, or 
Ub of Franoe.'F-ABd. 1. 807. & 

^ A group of islands, one of which is called Peroi Banhot^ is found 
about the indicated latitude, and between the longitude of 70° and 74° E. 
having a simOar excess with what was mentioned before in regard- ta 
Siego Roiz or Rodriguez^^fi* 

«naL«. «« «cic xt. to India. 91 

in some phices dose to the sbote we ooidd' flni no bottom, 
while in other places the ground was fUl of shoals .and shatp 
90^8^ we stood our course as near as we could for Indi% 
the winds being bad and contrary. 

The 19th of June» we fell in with the island of Diego 
Gmsiom^ in lat. 7"* SC & and in long. 110'' iiOf S. by our 
VBckoninff.* This seemed a pleasant iriand, uid a good place 
tot refineshment) if any proper place could be found for an« 
dioring. We sought but httle for anchoring there, as the 
wind was bad, and the tide set towards the shore, so that 
we durst not slay to search any farther. The island seem* 
ed to be 0ome ten- or twelve leagues long^ abounding in fish 
ahd birds, and appeared an entire forest of cocoa-trees« 
What else it yielded we knew noU The 1 1th July, we again 

Eassed the equator, where we were beoahned^ with excessive 
eat, and much thunder and lightning. The 19th we de^ 
aeeied land> which seemed* many islands, locked as it were 
jjBlk> one, m latr ^ N. under the high coast of the great 
island' of SumatMu' We here sent off our boat to get some 
ftesh water *^ buttbeisea went: with so Tiolent a breach [surf ^ 
upon the shore, that the people durst not land. The nalvres 
of the island,, or islands^, made gneat &res along ibe shore, as 
i£ia«iting iM to^kuid. 

TheS8th)we anehored near aemall idand, where we sent 
mr boat aphorefor fresh water ; but finding none^ die peo*- 
pie bnonght off some cocoa^uts^ saying that the island was 
quite full of cocoa palms, which had very few nuts upon 
toem. We saw three or four persons on this island, but they 
vent away and would not come near us : It waa supposed 
IJiese people were left here to gather cocoa-not^ to have 
them ready wh^i others should ccnne to carry them away. 
Tie 26th of the same month, July 1605, we came to andhoc^ 
within a league of a lai^ island called Baia^ in lat, 20' 8. 
We here set up a sbaUop or bark, and named her the BaU 


^ Die|;o Garcia, in the indicated latitude nearly, and in long. 79P £. from 
Greenwich. — ^E. 

7 There is no such cluster of islands in the indicated latitude and si- 
tnation ; but off the S.W. coast of Sumatra, between the line and lat. S° N. 
ate several islands of some size, considerably distant from each other and 
'from Sumatra.'— £• 

' Pulo Botoa is abont as much north of the line as Baia is said in the 
text to be south. But the island at which they stopt may have been Fuh 
Jjftfff ffoa, about 40 mmutes in length from S. to N« and the north end of 
which reaches to the equator.— £. 

Early English Voyages P4RT lU bqok iV^ 

Xbifl island has no inhabitants, but abounds in woods and 
streams of water, as also with fish, monkies, and a kind of 
bird, said to be the bat of the country, of which I killed one 
as large as a hare. In shape it resembled a squirrel.; only 
that from its sides there hung down crcat flap» oCskin; 
which, when he leapt from tree to tree, ne could spread out 
like a pair of wings, as though to Ay with them.' They are 
vei:y nimble, and leap from hough to bough, often holding 
only by, their tails. As our shallop was built in the kingdom 
of these beastSf we called her therefore the Bat. 
. While walking along the shore on the 29th, I. noticed « 
ToadeTy or small vessel, ridine at anchor under a small island 
about foi^r leases off, whicb made me veir glad, hoping it 
might be our pinnace which we lost sight of in a great storm 
near the Cape of Good Hope, and made haste on board 
with the. news to our general, who sent me with Captain 
John Davis next.mormng to endeavour to find her. On 
ecHning to the place, we found three barks riding under, the 
fmall isle, the people of which made signs for us to come to 
th^n, informing us they had hens for sale. Some of theqi 
.understood Portuguese, so we told them we would go back 
jto our ship tor ipon.ey».not being then provided ; but in 
reality we durst not go on board them^ not being stroj:^ 
enough in case of tr^a^hery* We went back next morning 
Jbetter furnished, thinking to have made some purchases; 
,but tbey had weighed, anchor and gone away, seeming to 
have been afraid of us. 

The 4th August we weighed anchor and stood for Pria- 
man, and on tne 9th the general manned the shallop, and 
sent us along the coast to see if we could find any readers^ 
Xcoasters.] Spying a sail we gave chase, and finding they 
could not get away, the people came to anchor and forsook 
their i3ark, going all ashore to an island in a small boa^ 
where we could not follow them. Going on board the bark, 
jn which not a man remained, we found it loaided with cocoa- 

^ There are a considerable number of animals of this description, known 
to naturalists by the general name of flying squirrels, sciuri volantes,. or 
Petauri. The species mentioned in the. text may have been the sciurus 
petaurista of Linnaeus, the taguan, flying-cat, flying-hare, or Indian flying- 
squirrel of various authors. It is much larger than any others ot this 
genus, being eighteen inches long from nose to rump. Two varieties are 
mentioned, in 9utfayprs; one of 9 bright cbesnut colour; and the other 
black on the upper parts of the body, and hoary underneath.— £. 

CMAT* IX. SECT. XX. to India* 9S 

nats, cocoa-oil) and fine mats. Seeing it was such iriean stiifl^ 
and knowing oiir general would not have liked us to take 
her, we came away, not taking any thing worth speaking of. 
The 10th and 1 1th we stood close along the shore of Suma* 
tra, wJbere we espied eight praams riding at anchor over 
against a place called Jicoo. Being in great hope of finding 
our pinnace^ the Tiger's Whelp, among them, we stood on ; 
and although she was not there> they put liis in good hope, 
by telling us there was an English ship . at Priaman, not 
aoove six leagues from this town of Ticoo. Then standing 
out to sea to rejoin our admiral, we got soon on board, and 
told'the news to our general. We had riot sailed a league 
fiurther, when our ship grounded on a rock of white coral : 
But, God be praised, having a strong breesse, we got her 
soon ofi* again without any hurt. On approaching the road 
of Priaman, we had the great satisfaction to 8ee.our pinniace 
there, which we had lost sight of so long before in the storm 
at the Cape of Good Hope. The captain arid master of the 
pinnace came to meet us in their ski£^ half a league from 
the road, and onicomingaboard, our general welcomed them 
with a peal of cannon. After many discourses, recounting 
what had happened to each during our separation, we came 
to anchor in the road of Priaman in good ground and five 
&thoms water. . 

• The I4thr August, the. general sent me on shore with a 
present to the governor and others, to enquire. the price of 
pejqiier, to buy fresh provisions, and to know if our people 
might land in safety. But on coming on shores the gover- 
nor durst not speak with us in private, on account ot wars 
then subsisting among them, owing to which thqr were jea- 
lous of each other. 1 he cause of these wars was this : The 
eld King of Acheen had two sons, the elder of whom he 
kept wiui himself intending him as his successor, and made 
the vounger King of Pedier ; upon which the elder made 
his tether a prisoner, pretending that he was too old to go- 
vern any longer, and afterwards made war on his youngs 
brother.' Seeing that little good could be done here, and 
having refreshed with fresh provisions, we weighed anchor 
on the 21st, and stood for ifcmlam. That same day we took 
two praws^ in which there was nothing but a little rice. In 
one of these praws two of our men were sore wounded. 
Thinking that all the people had leapt overboard, th^ 
boarded the praw ; but two of the natives bad bidden them- 

M Early Engliih FoyAges part ii. book irti 

selves behind the sail, and as soon as the two foremost of 
oar men had entered, they came suddenly from their con-^ 
cealment, wounded our men very severely, and then leapt 
into the water, where thev swam like water spanids. Taking 
such things as we liked n*om the praws, we left them with-' 
out any farther barm. 

We took a fishing boat on the 23d, and let her go again^ 
as she had nothing of value ; only that one of her men was 
shot through the thigh, as they resisted us at the first. The 
25th we descried a sail, and sent our shaHop, long-boat, and 
skiff to see what she was, as neither our ship nor pinnace 
was able to fetch her^ being becalmed- On coming up with 
her we desired her to strike^ but she would not, so we foiight 
with her from three in the afternoon till ten at night, ijif 
which time our pinnace came up, when she strud: her saib 
and yielded. We made her fast to our pinnace, and towed 
her with us all night. In the morning our general sent for 
them to know what they were, and sent three of us on board 
to see what she was loaden with. They told our general they 
were of Bantam ; for which reason, as not knowing what 
injury he might do to the English merchants who had a 
factory at Bmtam, and learning from us that their loading 
was salt, rice, &a/d china dishes, he sent them again on board 
their bark, not suffering the value of a penny to be taken 
from them. They stood on for Priaman, and we for Ban- 
tam. This bark was of the burden of about forty tons. 

We met a small ship of Guzerat or Cambaya, on the 2d 
September, of about eighty tons, which we todc and carried 
into the road of SiUibar, in lat. 4>® S. into which road many 
praws continually come for refreshments, as they may here 
have wood, water, rice, buifiiloes, goats, hens, plantains, and 
fresh fish^ but di very dear. Having diq>atched our bud- 
ness, we weighed anchor on the 28th Septanber, and stood 
for Bantam. The 23d October, we came to anchor in thq 
road of Marrah in the strait of Sunda, where we took in 
fresh water. In this place there is great plenty of buffiiloes, 
goats, hens, ducks, and many other good things for refresh^ 
mcnt ; and the people do not esteem money so much in pay* 
ment, as white and painted calicoes, and such like stu£^ If 
well used, these people will use you well ; but they must be 
sharply looked after for stealing, as they think all well got 
that is stolen from a stranger. 

We weighed andbor on the 28tb of October from before 


eliAp. Ill 9t(ft. xu to India, M 

Man*ah« and stood for Bantam; whieh is in lat. 6^ 40' SL 
We came this day within thi^ leagues of Bantam, and an- 
dbored for the night. Here we expected to have met the 
English fleet, but it had sailed for England three weeks he* 
ibre our arrival. Yet those who had been left as factors oF 
our nation came on board us, being glad to see any of their 
eountrymen in so distant a foreign land. They told our 
general, that the Hollanders belonging to the ships in ih^ 
road, had made yeiy slanderous reports of ub to the King of 
Bantam, to the followii^ purport : << That we were all thieves 
and llkwless persons, who came there only to deceive and 
cheat them, or to use violence, as time and oiqx>rtunity 
might serve ; adding, that we durst not come into the road 
among them, but kept two or three lea^^es from thence for 
fear of them." When our general heard this import, he was 
so much moved to anger, that he immediately weighed a]»- 
chor, sending word to the Hollanders that he was comii^ 
to ride close by them, and bade the proudest of them afi 
that durst be so bold as to put out a piece of ordnance against 
him : Adding^ if they dai4d either to brave or disgrace him 
or his countiymen, he would either «ink them or sink by 
their sides. Inere were five ships of thiese Hollanders, one 
bf which was seven or eight hundred tons, but all the rest 
much smaller. We went and anchored dose beside them, 
but no notice was taken of our generates message ; and though 
the Hollanders were wont to swagger and make a great stir 
on shore, they were so quiet all me time we lay ther^ that 
we hardly ever saw one odbem on land^ 

We took leave of jour- countrymen, find departed from 
Bantam on the £d of November, shaping our oeurse fer 
Patane. While on our way between the Cbersonesos of 
Malacca and Piedra branca, we met with three prawsy 
which being afiraid of us, anch(M*ed so close to the shore that 
we could not come near them^ either in our ship or pin- 
nace. Our general therefore manned the shallop with 
e^hteen of us, and sent us to request that he might have a 
p3ot for money, to carry his ship to Polo Timaon, whidi 
is about five days sail from where we met them. But, as 
ihey saw that our ship and pinnace were at aadior a mile 
firom them, and could not come near, they told us flatly that 
none of them would go with us, and immediately weighed 
andior to go away. We therefore b^an to fi^t them ail 
threcy and todk one <tf them in less thaii half an hour, idl 


96 Earlj/ Engl^h Voyages part ii. book hi. 

her men, to the number of seventh-three^ getting, ashore. 
•Another fought with us all night, but yielded about break 
of day next morning, our general having joined us in his. 
duff a little while before she yielded* They were laden with 
benzdin, storax, pepper, china dishes, and pitch. The third 
praw got away while we were Qghting the other Our ge- 
neral would not allow any thing to be taken out of them, 
because they belonged to Java, except two of their men to 
pilot us to Pulo Timaon* The people of Java are very re- 
solute in a desperate case. Their principal weapons are 
javelins, darts, daggers, and a kind of poisoned arrows 
which they blow from trunks or tubes. They have likewise 
some arquebusses, but are by no means expert in using 
these; they use also targets, and most of them are Mahome- 
tans. They had been at Palimbangarij and were on their 
way back to Gnsz, a port town on the north-east coast of 
Java, to which place they belonged. 

. The 12th November we dismissed them, pursuing our 
course for Patane. The 26th we saw certain islands to the 
N. W. of us, which neither we nor our pilots knew; but, 
having a contrary wind for Patane, we thought it necessary 
to search these islands for wood and water, hoping to have 
a better wind by the time we had watered. The 27th we 
came to anchor within a mile of the shore, in sixteen fathoms, 
on good ground, on the south side of these islands. Send- 
ing our boat on shore, we found some of them sunken is- 
lands, having nothing above water but the trees or their 
roots. All tliese islands were a mere wilderness of woodsy 
but in one of them we found a tolerably good watering place ; 
'Otherwise it was a very uncomfortable place, having neither 
fruits, fowls, or any other refreshment for our men. We 
took these islands to be some of the broken lands which are 
laid down to the south-east of the island of Bantam. Having 
taken in wood and water, we weighed anchor and stood for 
Patane, as well as a bad wind would permit ; for we found 
the winds in these months vexr contrary, keeping always at 
N. or N. W. or N. E. 

While near Pulo Laor, on the 12th December, we descri- 
ed three sail, and sent our pinnace and shallop after one of 
them which was nearest, while W£ staid with the ship, think- 
ing to intercept the other two ; but they stood another course 
in the night, so that we saw them no more. In the morn- 
ing we descried our pinnace and shallop aboi^t four leagues 


CHAP. ix. SECT. XI. to India. 97 

to leeward^ with the other ship which they had taken ; and 
us l>oth wind and current were against them, they were un- 
able to come up to us, so that we had to go down to them. 
On aiming up with them, we found the prize was a junk of 
Pa«-j£fawge,'® of about 100 tons, laden with rice, pepper^ and 
tin, going for Efantam in Jaya. Not caring for such mean 
luggage, our general took as much rice as was necessary for 
provisioning our ship, and two small brass guns, paying 
them liberally for all ; and took nothing else, except one 
man, to pilot us to Patanc, whp came willingly along with 
us, when he saw our general used them well. I'he other two 
pilots, we had taken before from the three praws, were very 
unskilful^ wherefore our general rewarded them tor the time 
they had been with us, and sent them back to their own 
country in this junk. 

We parted from her on the IStli, steering for Pulo Ti- 
maon, adjoining to the country of the King of Pan-Hange, 
[Pahan,] and were much vexed with contrary winds and ad- 
verse currents: For, from the beginning of November to 
the beginning of April, the sea runs always to the south- 
wards, and from April to November back again towards the 
north. The wind also in these first five months is most 
commonly northerly, and in the other seven months southerly. 
'AH the ships, therefore, of China, Patane, Johor, Pahan^ 
and other places, going to the northward, come to Bantam, 
or Palimbangan, when the northern monsoon is set in, and 
return back again when the southern monsoon begins, as b^ 
fore stated, by observing which rule they have the wind 
and current along with them; but by following the opposite 
course, we found such violent contrary winds and currents, 
that in three weeks we did not get one league forwards* 
The country of Pahan is very plentiful, being full of gentry 
according to the fashion of that country, having great store 
of victuals, which are very cheap, and many ships. It lies be- 
tween Johor and Patane, stretching along tlie eastern coast 
of Malacca, and reaches to Cape TingeroUf which is a very 
high cape, apd, tbie first land made by the caraks of Macao, 
junks of China,^or praws of Cambodia, on coming from 
China for Malacca, Java, Jumbe, Johor Palimbangan, Grisi^ 
or any other parts to the southwards. 

vox., viii. G Here 


Hiis should rather be, pffthapB, Fau^han^f betog the samephoe adl- 
ed by other writers Pahaung, Pahaog, or Pabao, often called Pam in tbc 
Portugese accoontSy aod pconomioed by them P«ng. — ^AsU. I. sio. c. 

9< Early Englhh Vfygagez parit h. boo^ «&. 

Here, as I stood for Patane, about the STth December, 1 
met with a Japanese junk, which bad 'been pirating along 
the coasts of China and Cambodia. Their pilot dying, i^at 
with ignorance and foul weather, they had lost their t>wn 
ship on certain shoals of the great island of Borneo ; and 
not daring to ImmI there, as the Japanese are not allowed 
to come a-shore in any part of India with then* weapons^ 
being a desperate people, and so daring that they are feared 
In all places ; wherefore, by means of their boats, they had 
entered this junk, which belonged to Patane, and slew aH 
the people except one old pilot. This junk was laden widi 
rice-; and having furnished her with such weapons and otheir 
things as fhejr had saved from their sunken ship, they sha« 
}K*d their course for Japan ; but owing to the badness of theii^ 
junk, contrary winds, and the unseasonable time of the year, 
they were forced to leeward, whidh was the cause of my un- 
fortunately meeting them. 

Hffving haled them and made them come to leeward^ and 
sending my boat on board, I found their men and equipment 
very disproportionate for so small a junk, being only abotit 
seventy tons, ^^et they were ninety men, most ot them in too 
gallant habits for sailors, and had so much equality of be- 
haviour among them tibat they seemed all comrades. One 
among them indeed was caUed captain, but he seemed to 
be h^ in very little respect I made them come to anchor, 
and on examining their lading, found nothing but riee^ aiid 
that mostly spoilt ^vith wet, for th^r vessel was leaky both 
in her bottom and upper works. Questioning them, 1 un- 
derstood they were pirates, who had been making pillage on 
die coast of China and Cambodia, and had lost their own 
ship on the shoals of Borneo, as already related. We rode 
by them at anchor under a small island near the isle of Bin- 
tang for two days, giving them good usage, and not takic^ 
any thing out of them, thinking to have gathered from them 
the place and passage of certain ships frbm the coast of China^ 
so as to have made something of our voyage : But these ro- 
gues, being desperate in minds and fortunes, and hopeless 
of ever being fible to return to their own country in thait 
paltry junk, had resolved among themselves either to gain 
my ship or lose their own lives. 

Durinir mutual courtesy and feastings, sometimes five or 
six and tW of Wndpal penSamong them came 
aboard iny ship, of whom 1 would never allow more than 


aiA9. iXi 9SGT« XI* to Inikki. 99 

pix to have weapons ; but tWe oever was se many of piir 
)nen on boorii their junk at one time. I wished Captain 
John Davis^ in the jnorning^topossesshim^elf of their wear* 
pons, puitinff tbe.compaQy before th^ n^astt. and to leave $ 
guard pyer their weapons, while they strobed among ^o 
jriee ; doubtii>g,tbat by searching, and perhaps finding sbipe- 
ihing that might displease them, they might 3uddenlY set 
Upgn my men and put them tp the sword, as actually nap« 
pqn^d in the sequel. But» beguiled by their pretended hu- 
HiiUty, .Captain Davis would upt take possession of their 
firea|)ons, tJiougb 1 sent two messages to him from my ship^ 
jpa^o&sJy to dc^re him. During the whole day mv men were 
searching among the rice^ imd the Japanese looking o|v 
After a long search, nothing was found except a little storax 
flfui beq^in* At suurset^* seeking opportunity, and talking 
to thieir comrades who were ii^ my ship, which was very near, 
they agreed to set upon us in both ships at once^ on a con- 
i;;ert€d signal* , This being given, they suddenly killed and 
di:ove ovxarboard .all of my m^i that were in their ship. At 
the sao^e timei. those who were on board my ship sallied out 
qS my ciabin, with such weapons as they could find, meeting 
with som/s targets there, wd other things which they used 
|l^ H^ipons» Ueing then aloft on th^ decki and seeing what 
Wi|s likely tp follow, I leapt into the waste, where, with thp 
boatswains, cairpenter, and some few more, we kept them un- 
der the half-deck. At first coming from the cabin, they met 
/Captain Davis coming out of the gun-ropm, whom thef 
pi|iled into the cabin^ 4nd ^ving him six or seven mortai 
vpuiuis, they pushed him betore uiem out of the cabin. He 
^f^& so sore wounded, that he died immediately pn getting to 
jUie w^ste. 

They ik>w pressed so fiercely upon us, while we recelve4 
ik^fa <in our levelled pikes, that they atteippted to gather 
iJ^efti .with one hand that they might reach us with their 
swords, so that it was near half an hour before we could 
§fkY^ them back into the cabin, after hitving killed three or 
^lur pf iJl^r iapaderst . When we had driven them into the 
jpabiPf they continued to fight us for at least four hours, be- 
£^6 we could fip^y suppress them, in which time they se- 
¥#r»i tioies set lh|e,c;abin on fire, and burnt the bedding and 
4}lber t|u*nituro; aod if we h^d not beaten down the bulk- 
}mhh1 wd poep, by means of two demi-culverines from under 
IliQ h#lf-deckj we bad fiiever horn ^ble to pr^v^nt tbein from 


loo Early English Voyages part ii. book nil 

burnitig the ship. Having loaded these pieces of ordnaiH*e 
with bar-shot, case-shot, and musket-bullets, and discharged 
them close to the bulk-head, they were so annoyed and torn 
with shot and splinters, that at last only one was left out of 
two and twenty. Their legs, arms, and bodies were so lace- 
rated as was quite wonderful to behold. Such was the des^ 
perate valour of these Japanese, that they never once asked 
quarter during the whole of this sanguinary contest, though 
quite hopeless of escape. One only leapt overboard, who 
afterwards swam back to our ship and asked for quarter. 
On coming on board, we asked him what was their purpose? 
To which he answered^ that they meant to take our ship 
iand put us all to death. He would say no more^ and de- 
sired to be cut in pieces. ' . 

Next day, being the 28th December, we went to a smaU 
island to leeward ; and when about five miles from the land, 
the general ordered the Japanese who had swum back to 
our ship to be hanged ; but the rope broke, and befell into 
the «ea, but whether he perished or swam to the island I 
know not. Continuing our course to that island^ we came 
to anchor there on the 30th December, and remained three 
days to repair our boat and to take in wood and water. At 
this island we found a ship belonging to Patane, out of which 
we took the captain^ whom we asked whether the China 
ships were yet come to Patane ? He said they were not 
yet come, but were expected in two or three days. As be 
knew well the course of the China ships, we detained him 
to pilot us, as we determined to wait for them.* The 12th 
January, 1606, one of our mates from the top of the' mast 
descried two ships coming towards us^but which, on account 
of the wind, fell to leeward of the island. As soon as we 
had sight of them, we weighed anchor and made sail towards 
them, and came up with the larger that night. After a short 
engagement, we boarded and took her, and brought her to 

Next morning we unladed some of her cargo, being raw 
si^ and silk goods. They had fifty tons of their country 
silver, but we took little or none of it, being in good hope 
of meeting with the other China ships. So we alk>wed thetn 
to depart on the 15th January, and gave them to the value 
of twice as much as we had taken from them. Leaving thit 
ship, we endeavoured to go back to China Bata,. but could 
not fetch it on account of contrary wind, so that we had to 


4mA3P^ IX. SECT. XI. to hidia, 101 

ffo to leeward to two small islands, called Pulo Sumatra by 
me people of Java, where we anchored on the 22d January. 
On the 24th there arose a heavy storm^ during which we 
parted our cable, so that we were under the necessity of ta- 
king shelter in the nearest creek. 

The 5th February, five homeward->bound ships belonging 
to Holland put into the same road where we lay. Captain 
Warwick, who was general of these ships, invited our gene- 
ral to dine with him, which he accepted. He told us, that 
our English merchants at Bantam were in great peril, and 
looked for nothing else but that the King of Java would as- 
sault them, because we had taken the China ship, by which 
he was deprived of his customs. For which reason Captain 
Warwick requested our general to desist from his courses^ 
and to go home along with him. But our general answered^ 
that he had not yet made out his voyage, and would not re- 
turn till it should please God to send him somewhat to msjce 
up his charges. Seeing that he could not persuade our ge- 
neral to give up his purpose. Captain Warwick and the Hol- 
landers departed from us on the 3d February. 

Our general now considered, if he were to continue his 
voyage, that it might bring the English merchants who were 
resident in those parts into danger ; and besides, as he had 
only two anchors and two cables remaining, he thought it 
best to repair his ships and return home with the poor 
voyage he had made. Our ships being ready, and having 
taken in a supply of wood and water, we set sail on the 5th 
February, on our return to England. The 7th April, after 
encountering a violent storm, we had sight of the Cape of 
Good Hope. The 17th of the same month we came to the 
island of St Helena, where we watered and found refresh- 
ments, as swine and goats, which we ourselves killed, as there 
are many of these animals wild in that island. There are 
also abundance of partridges, turkies, and guinea fowls, 
though the island is not inhabited. Leaving St Helena on 
the 3d May, we crossed the line on the 14 th of that month, 
and came to Milford Haven in Wales on the 27th June, 
The 9th of July, 1606, we came to anchor in the roads of 
Portsmouth, where ail our company was dismissed, ^and 
here ended our voyage, having occupied us for full nineteen 


ioi Early Voj/aga (fl%t PAWt If* M6t Ittt. 


£ASLV VOVA0£6 0^ THE EKGLlSIl Td 1Kl5lA, AtV^U tlil^ 


WiE have how to record the early voyages, fitted out 
from England, for trading to the East Indies, by 
The Governor AMD Company of Merchants of London. 
fTRADiNG INTO THE East li^DiES.* By which Stile, Or legal 
denomination, George Earl of Cumberland, Sir John Hart^ 
iSir JQhn Speticer, and Sir Edward Mitchelburne, knights, 
with 212 others, whose names are all inserted in the patent, 
irere erected into a bodv corporate and politic, for trading 
to and from all parts of tlie East Indies, with all Asia, Africa, 
knd America) and all the islands, ports, havens, cities, creoksj 
towns, and places of the same, or any of them, be) ond the 
Cape of Good Hope to the Straits of Magellan, for fifteen 
years, ftotn and after Christmas 1600 ; prohibiting all other 
subjects of England, not free of this company, from trading 
to these parts without licence from the company, under for- 
feiture of their goods and ships, half to the crown and half 
to the company, together with imprisonment during the 
toyal pleasure, and until they respectively grant bond in tlie 
Hum of <£1000 at the least, not agai^ to sail or trafSc into 
any part of the said East Indies^ &c. during the continuance 
of this grant. With this proviso^ " That, if the exclusive pri* 
Vilege thus granted be found unprofitable for the realm, it 
Inay be voided on two years notice : But, if found beneficial) 
the privilege was then to be renewed, with such alterations 
laid tiiodin^ations as might be found expedient '^ This exr 
tlusive grant, in the nature of a patent, was dated at West- 
ininster on the 31st December, 1600, being the 4Sd year of 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, signed by herself, and sealed 
inth her privy seal. 


' So denominated in the eopy of the charter in the Pilgrims of Purchas, 
voL L p. 139— 147, which we have not deemed it necessary to insert. — £. 

f HAP. X. EjfigUsh Jlosf Iptdia Compfngf. 103 

It is by no mepiM intended to attempt giving in this pktca 
any history of our East India Company, Uie early Annals o[ 
which) from its establishment in 1600, to the union of the 
London. and English Companies in 1708^ have been lately 
l^eo to thepubliC) in three quarto volumes, by John Bruce, 
Ssq. M. P. and F.R.S. Historiographer to the Honourable 
I^ast India Company, &c. &c. &c. to which we must refer 
9uch of our readers as are desirous of investigating that vast 
portion c^ the history of our commerce. All that we propose 
on the present occasion^ is to give a short introduction to 
the series of voyages contained in this chapter, all of which 
have been preserved by Samuel Purckas^ in his curious worl^, 
which he quaintly denominated PURCHJS HIS PILn 
GRIMSj published in five volumes folio at London in 

In the fi^t extension of ^ngliah commerce, in the six* 
teenth century, consequent upon the discoveries of Western 
Africa, America, and the maritime route to India, it seems 
U} have been conceived that exclusive chartered companies 
lyere best fitted for its efiectual prosecution. ^^ The spirit of 
enterprize in distant trade, which had for a century brought 
large resources to Spain and Portugal, began to diffuse it* 
sel^ as a new principle, in the rising commerce of England, 
during the long and able administration of Queen Elizabeth. 
Hence associations were beginning to be formed^ the joint 
credit of which was to support experiments for extending 
the trade of the realm"* 

In the reign of Edward VI. a company was projected 
with this view; which obtained ft charter in 1555^ from 
Philip and Mary^ under the name of Men^hfl^t Adveniurer$ 
for the Discovery of Landsj Countries^ Isles, Sfc. not before 
I^noxm to the English. This company, of which Sebastian 
Cabot was governor, in the last year of Queen Mary, had 
extended its trade through Russia into Persia, to obtain raw 
silks, &;c. In the course of their proceedings, the agents of 
this company met with merchants from &dia and China^ 
from whom they acquired a knowledge of the productions 
of these countries, and of the profits which might be derive4 
&om extending the trade of England to these distant re- 
gions.^ In 1581^ Queen Elizabeth gave an exclusive charter 
to the Levant or Turkey Company, for trading to the do- 

* Ann. ofthe Honb. East India Co. L 20^ 
' Aaii* of tl^ fi. £. I. Co. L lOX. 

104 Early Voyages of the yart ii. book in. 

minions of the Grand Signior or Emperor of Turk^. In 
the prosecution of this trade, of which some account has 
been given in our preceding chapter, the &ctors, or travel- 
ling merchants, having penetrated from Aleppo to Bagdat 
and Basora, attempted to open an overland trade to the 
East Indies, and even penetrated to Agra, Lahore, Bengal^ 
Malacca, and other parts of the East, whence they brought 
/information to England of the riches that might be acquired 
by a direct trade by sea to the East Indies.^ The circum- 
navigations of Sir Francis Drake in 1577-1580, and of -Mr 
Thomas Cavendish, or Candish, in 1586, of which voyages 
accounts will be found in a future division of this work^ who 
brought back great wealth to England, obtained by making 
prizes of the Spanish vessels, contributed to spread the idea 
among the merchants of Kngland, that great profits and n&« 
tional advantages might be derived from a direct trade to 
India by sea.' 

In consequence of these views, a memorial was presented 
to the lords of council in 1589, requesting a royal licence 
for three ships and three pinnaces to proceed for India, 
whidii grave rise to the expedition of Captain Raymond^ in 
1591, already related. In 1599, an association of London 
Adventurers entered into a contract for embarking, what 
was then considered as a large joint stock, for the equipment 
of a voyage to the East Indies. The fund subscribed amount- 
ed to <£S0yl3S : 6: 8, divided into 101 shares or adventures, 
the subscriptions of individuals varyingfroniof lOOtOofSOOO.* 
This project, however, seems to have merged into the East 
India Company, at the close of the next year 1600, as al- 
ready mentioned. 

On the 30th September, 1600, a draft of the patent, al- 
ready said to have been subsequently sealed on the last day 
of that year, was read before the seventeen committees^ such 
being then the denomination of what are now called directors ; 
and being approved of, was ordered to be submitted to the 
consideration of the Queen and Privy Council. " In this 
early stage of the business, the lord-treasurer applied to the 
Court of Committees or Directors, recommending Sir Ed- 
ward Mitchelburne to be employed in the voyage; and thus, 
before the Society of Adventurers bad been constituted an 


♦ Ann. of the Hon. E. India Co. I. 108. « Id. ib. 

6 Id. III. — From tlie peculiar amount of this4»pital sum, the subscrip- 
tions were most probably in marks, of 1 ^«. 4</. each. — ^E, 

eHAP. X. lEngUsh East India Company. 205 

East India Company, that influ^ice bad its commencement^ 
which will be found, in the sequel, to have been equally ad-^ 
verse to the prosperity of their trade and to the probity of 
the directors."' -Yet, uiough still petitioners f6r their char- 
ter, the directors had the firmness to resist this influence, 
and resolved Not to employ any gentleman in any place of 
charge^ requesting to be permitted to sort their business with 
men of their men ifuality^ lest the suspicion of employing 
gentlemen might drive a great number of the adventurers 
to withdraw tneir contributions.* 

In the commencement of its operations, the East Indiii 
Company proceeded upon rather an anomalous plan for a 
great commercial company. Instead of an extensive joint 
stock for a consecutive series of operations^ a new voluntary 
subscription was entered into among its members for eacn 
successive adventure. That of the first voyage was about 
4£70,000. The second voyage was fitted out by a new sub- 
scription of c£60,450. The third was £5S,500. The fourth 
j£3S,0(K). The jifth was a branch or extension of the third, 
by the same subscribers, on an additional call or subscription 
of j^l 3,700. The subscription for the sixM was o£'82,00(>. The 
seventh £7 1, 581. The«gA^Ac£76,375. The«2wfAonlyc£7,200. 

In 1612, the trade began to be carried on upon a broader 
basis by a joint stock, when <£429,000 was subscribed, which 
was apportioned to the tenth, eleventh^ twelfth^ and thirteenth 
voyages. In 1618, a new jotitt sfocA was formed by subscrip- 
tion, amounting to c£lj600,000.' 

In the year 1617, King. James I. of England and VI. of 
Scotland, granted letters patent under the great seal of Scot- 
land, dated at Kinnard, 24th May, 1617, to Sir James Cun- 
ningham of Glengarnock, appointing him, bis heirs and as- 
signs, to be governors, rulers, and directors of a Scottish 
East India Company , and authorizing him <' to trade to and 
from the East Indies, and the countries or parts of Asia, 
A&ica, and America, beyond the Cape of Bona SperantiOf 
to the straits of Magellan, and to the Levant Sea and terri- 
tories under the government of the Great Turk, and to and 
from the countries of Greenland, and all other countries and 
islands in the north, north-west, and north-east seas, and 
other parts of America and Muscovy." Which patent and 


^ Ann. of the H. E. I. Co. 1. 188. « Id. ib. 

» Ann. of the H. £. I. Co. Vol. I. passiiii. 

169 Earfy Vo^agti of the part ii. ^ook ixh 

all the rights and privileges annexed to it, was subsequently^ 
for a valuable ccmsidcration, assigned by Sir James Cun- 
ningham to the London East India Company.'^ 

K is quite unnecessary to extend this introductory view 
of the rise of the India Company any farther, as our liuiitit 
could not possibly admit any satisfactory deduction of it9 
history, any farther than is contained in the following series 
of the Early Voyages^ for which we are almost entirely mdebt- 
ed to the Collection of Purchas. By tbis^rt^ English East 
India Company, with a capitalor joint stock of about 70,000/, 
at least for the J^n^ voyi^, w^re laid the stable foundations 
of that immense superstructure of trade and dominion now 
held by the presmt ootsxpsmj. Their first joint stock did 
not exceed tlie average of 3§5/, or S30/. for each individual 
of 216 members^ whose ikames are recorded in the f^om q( 
the diarter in Purchas hi$ Pilgrm$9 already refeired to* Yet 
one of these was disfranchised on the 6th July, 166 1, not six 
months after the establishment of the company^ probaUy for 
pot paying up his subsoription, as the charter ffra^ts power 
to disfranchise any one wno does not brit^ in his promised 

The East India Compaiqr of Holland, the elder sister of 
that of Knglttidy now a nonentity, though once the most ex^ 
tensive and most flonrishtng commercial establishment that 
ever existed^ long ago published, or permitted to be publish^ 
ed, a very extensive series of voya^s of commerce and dis* 
covery, called Voyages which contnbuted to establi^ the Eas$ 
India Conqpamfofthe United Netherlands, It were, perhaps, 
worthy of the Koyal Merchants who constitute the Emiish 
Eaxt India Company, now the unrivalled possessors of the 
entire trade and soverei^ty of all India and its innumerable 
islands, to puUish or patronize a similar monument of its 
early exertions^ difficulties, and ultimate success.<^-£. 


»«> Ann. &c. I. 19$.— ^b*c» 

^AJ^ X. Beci^ i. Bnjj^K £itir Inim C^any. lOT 


tim f^fffog^ of thi Et^gHdi East India Comjmntfy m 1601^ 
itmkr the Comnmui vf Captain James Lancaster^ 


thrcfin the hktoriographeir of the company^ we learn, that 
die period of this voyage being estimated for twenty months^ 
the charges of provisions were calculated at £6,600 4:10: 
and the investment, exdusive of bullion, at <£4<,545 ; consist-* 
itig of iron and tin, wrought and unwrougkt, bad, 80 pieces 
dnnroad cloth of all clours, 80 pieces iS Devonshire ker- 
nes, and 100 pieces of Norwich stuifi, with ismaller articles, 
intended as presents for the officers at the ports where it was 
meant to open their trade* Captain John Davis, who ap« 

E^ars to have gone as chief pilot, was to have ^100 as wages 
r the voyage, with JBMO on credit for an adventure; aad^ 
as an incitement to activity and zeal, if the profit of the 
toyage yielded -^iroybr one^ he was to receive a gratuity of 
^500; i£ three f&r one, £\OQQ ; ii four for one, £l500; and 
if Jhe for one, <£200a^ Thirty-six &ctors or supercargoes 
were directed to be employed for the voyage : Three of the 
^ret class, who seem to have been denominated cape mer* 
chants, were to have each i^lOO for equipment, and ^200 for 
an adventure ;yoi«r factors of the second class at £50 each for 
equipment, and j€100 for an adventure ; four of the third 
dass, with £W each for equipment, and jB50 for adventure; 
and four of the fourth class, with x^O each for equipment^ 
and .£4?0 for adventure.^ They were to give security for 
their fidelity, and to abstain from private trade; theJirU 
dass under penalties of j£500 the second of 500 marks, the 
third of j^OO and the fourth of <£100 each.' Hiese only 
exhaust fifteen of the thirty-six, and we are unable to ac* 
count for the remaining twenty-one ordered to be nomi* 

In the Annals of the Company,* we are told that tlie funds 
provided for this^^rsT voyage amounted to «t'68,2^7S, of which 


■ Pdrcfa. Pilgr. L 147. Ast]. 1. 06t. 

» Ann. of the H. £. I. Ca I. ISS. ' Id. 1. 130* 

^ Ann. of the H. E.l.Co.Ll9L > Id L 198. « Id. L 140. 

108 Early Voyages of ike part ii. book in. 

«£39,77l were expended in the purchase and equipment of 
the ships, .£28,742 being embarked in bullion, and ^6,860 
in goods* But the aggregate of these sums amounts to 
^77,373 ; so that the historiographer appears to have fallen 
into some error, either in the particulars or the sum total. 
We are not informed of the particular success of this first 
voyage; only that the conjunct profits of it and of the se- 
cond amounted to £95 per cent, upon the capitals employed 
in both, clear of all charges.^ 

We may state here from the Annals of the Company, that 
the profits of the third and Jifih voyage combined amounted 
to ^34? per cent. Of the fourth voyage to a total loss, 
as one of the vessels was wrecked in India on the outward- 
bound voyage, and the other on the coast of France in her 
return. Tne profits of the sixth voyage were «£121 13:4: 
percent. Of the seventh £^21S per cenU Otthe eighth £211 
per cent. Of the ninth £160 per cent The average profits 
of the tenth, eleventhf twelfth^ and thirteenth voyages were re- 
duced to 0^875 per cent. 

Captain James Lancaster, afterwards Sir James, who .was 
general in this voyage, was a member of the company ; and 
is the same person who went to India in 1591, along with 
Captain Raymond. Captain John Davis, who had been in 
India with the Dutch, was pilot-major and second in com-* 
mand of the Dragon, or admiral ship. It does not appear 
who was the author of the following narrative ; but, irom 
several passages, he seems to have sailed in the Dragon.* 
— E. 

§ 1. Preparation for the Voyage, and its Incidents till the De- 
parture of the Fleet from Saldanha Bay. 

Having collected a joint stock of seventy thousand poundsy 
,to be employed in ships and merchandize in the prosecutitA 
of their privileged traide to the East Indies, by means of 
which they were to bring spices and other commodities in- 
to this realm, the company bought and fitted out four large 
ships for their first adventure. These were the Dragon' of 
600 tons, and 202 men, admiral^ in which Mr James Lan- 

^ Ann. of the H. £. I. Co 1. 1 53. ' Astl. I. S62., a and b. 
' This ship, originally called the Malice Scourge, was purchased from 
the Earl of Cumberland for 3.700/.^ADn. of the U. £• I. Co. I. 128. 

f . * • • 

CHAP. X. SECT. I. English East India Company. 109 

caster was' placed as general;* the Hector of 300 tons, and 
108 men, commanded by Mr John Middlcton, vice-admi- 
ral ; the Ascension of 260 tons, and 82 men. Captain Wil- 
liam Brand;' and the Susan, ^ commanded by Mr John 
Hayward, with 84 men:' Besides these commanders, each 
ship carried three merchants or factors, to succeed each 
other in rotation in case of any of them d}dng. These ships 
were furnished with victuals and stores for twenty months, 
and were provided with merchandize and Spanish money to 
the value of twenij/seven thousand pounds ; all the rest of the 
stock being expended in the purchase of the ships, with their 
necessary stores and equipment^ and in money advanced to 
the mariners* and sailors who went upon the voyage. To 
these was added, as a victualler, the Guest of 1 30 tons.^ 

On application to the queen, her majesty furnished the 
merchants with friendly letters of recommendation to seve- 
ral of the sovereigns in India, offering to enter into treaties 
of peace and amity with them, which shall be noticed in 
their proper places. And, as no great enterprize can be 
well conducted and accomplished without an absolute autho- 
rity for dispensing justice, the queen granted a commission 
of martial law to Captain Lancaster, the general of the fleets 
for the better security of his command. 

Every thing being in readiness, the fleet departed from 
Woolwich, in the river Thames, on the 13th of February, 
1600, after the English mode of reckoning,* or more pro- 
perly 1601. They were so long delayed in the Thames and 
the X)owns, for want of wind, that it was Easter before they 


* In these early voyfiges the chief commander is usually styled genera/, 
and the ship in which he sailed the admiraL — £. 

^ This person is called by Purchas chief governor. Perhaps the con* 
duct of commercial afiaira was confided to his care. — 'E. 

^ The burden of this ship was 340 tons. — ^Ann. 1. 12». 

^ Besides there was a pinnace of 100 tons and 40 men. — Ann. L 129. 

^ In many of the old voyages, this distinction is made between roari* 
ners and sailors : Unless a mere pleonasm, it may indicate able and or- 
dinary seamen ; or the former may designate the officers of all kinds, and 
the latter the common men. — £. 

7 Perhaps the pinnace dready mentioned.^-£. 

' At this time, and for long after, there was a strangely confuted way 
of dating the years, which were consiclered as beginning at Lady-day, the 
25th of March. Hence, what we would now reckon the year 1601, from 
the 1st January to the 24th March inclusive, retained the former date olt 
1600. The voyage actually commenced on the 13th February, 1601, ac- 
curding to our present mode of reckoning. — E. 

1 10 Early FQyages qf the " part lu book m* 

arrived at Dartmouth, where tbey «pcBt five or six dqrsi 
taking in bread and other provisions, appointed to be pro- 
curecf there. Departing thence on the I Sth of April, thej 
came to anchor in Torbay, at which pjace the general sen^ 
on board all the ships instractions for their better keeping 
company when at sea, and directions as to what places they 
were to repair to for nieetiiig again, in case of being sepa* 
rated by storms or other casualties. These were the calm^ 
of Canary ; Saldanha bay,' in case they could not double 
the Cape of Good Hope ; Cape St Roman, in Modagasr 
car; the island of Cisne, Ceme, or Diego Rodrlffuez ; and 
finally, Sumatra, their first intended place of trade. 

The wind came fiur on the 22d of Aprils when we weigbf 
td and stood out of Torbay, directing our course for the 
Canaries. As the wind continued fair, we had sight of Jlcr 
granzOi or Crreat Island, the northermost of the Canarie^ 
on the 5tfa of May, and we directed pur course to. pass be- 
tween Fuertaventura and Gran Canada.; and coming to the 
south of Gran Canaria, thinking to have watered there, we 
fell into the calms, wfaidh are occasioned by the high lands 
l)eing so near the sea. About three in the aflernoon of the 
7th of May, having the wind at N.E. we departed from Graa 
Can aria, shaping bur course S. W. by S. and S, S. W. till 
we came into the lat. of SI"" SO' N. From the 1 1th to the 
20th, our course was mostly S till we came to lat S"* M. 
the wind being always northerly and N.E. In this latitude 
we fomid calms and contrary winds, which, at this seasoa 
of the year, prevail much off this part of the coast of Gui- 
nea, alternating with many sudden gusts of wind, storms, and 
thunder and lightning very fearful to behold^ and very.dan- 

Serous to the ships, unless the utmost care be taken sud*- 
eniy to strike all the sails, on perceiving the wind to change 
even never so little. Yet such was the suddenness many 
times, although the masters of the ships were very careful 
and diligent, that it could hardly be done in time* 

From the 20th of May till the 2 1st of June, we lay mostly 
becalmed, or with contrary winds at south \ and, standing 
to and again to bear up against this contrary wind, we ^t 
with much ado to 2^ N. where we espied a ship, to which 


' It will appear distinctly in the sequel of these voyages, that the place 
then named Sahianlia, or Saldania bay, was what is now termed Table 
bay at the Cape of Good Hopew«-£. 

isMAP. ^« sEttr. I. ' English EaU India Company. Ill 

Hxe g^etal gave diace, commanding all the ships to (cSkm. 
him. By two in the afternoon we got up with and took 
her. She was of Viaha, in Portugal^ and came from Lis~ 
bon, in company of two caraks and three galleons, bonnd 
for the East Indies, but had parted from them at sea. The 
three galleons were ships of war^ intended to keep the coast 
of India from being traded with by other nations. From 
this ship \Ve took 146 butts of wine, 176 jars and IS casks 
of oil, and 55 hogsheads and vats of meal,*** which were of 
great service to us afterwards during our voyage. The ge- 
neral divided these victuals imparti^ly among all the ships, 
giving a due proportion to each. 

The 31st June about midnight we crossed the line, ha- 
ving the wind at S.E. and lost sight of the north star; and 
continuing our course S.S. W. we passed Cape St Augus- 
tine about 26 leagues to the eastward. The 20th July, we 
reached the latitude of 19® 40' S. the wind getting daily 
more and more towards the east. We here unloaded the 
Guest^ which went along with us to carry such provisions as 
We could not stow in the other four ships ; after which we 
took out her masts, sails, yards,' and all other tackle, broke 
up her upper works for fire-wood, and left her hull floating 
in the sea, following our own course southwards. We pass- 
ed the tropic of Capricorn on the 24th July, the wind N.E. 
by N. our course E.S.E. On account of our having been 
so long near the line, by reason of leaving England too late 
in the season by six or seven weeks, many of our men fell 
sick ; for which reason the general sent written orders to 
the captain of each ship, dther to make Saldanha bay or St 
Helena for refreshment. 

The 1st August we were in 30** S. at which time we got 
the wind at S.W. to our great comfort, for by this time 
many of our men were sick of the scurvy ; insomuch,, that 
in all our ships, except the admiral, they were hardly able 
to manage the sails. This wind held fair till we were with- 
in 250 leagues of the Cape of Good Hope, and then came 
clean contrary at E. continuing so for fifteen or sixteen 
days, to the great discomfort of our men ; for now the few 
that had continued sound began also to fall sick, so that in 
some of the ships the merchants had to take their turn at 
die helm, and to go into the tops to hand the top-sails along 


'^ Piobably wheaten meal or flour.— £. 

112 Early Voyages of the part ii. book ui« 

with the common mariners. But God, shewing us mercy 
in our distTess, sent us again a fair wind, so that we got to 
Saldanha bay on the 9th September, when the general, be- 
fore the other ships bore in and came to anchor, sent his 
boats to help the other ships. The state of the other three 
ships was such that they were hardly able to let go their an- 
chors. The general went on board them all with a number 
of men, and hoisted out their boats for them, which they 
were not able to do of themselves. 

The reason of the men in the admiral being in such bet- 
ter health than in the other three ships was this : He 
brought with him to sea several bottles of lemon juice, of 
which he gave to each man, as long as it would last, three 
spoonfuls every morning fasting, not suffering them to eat 
any thing afterwards till noon. This juice worketh much 
the better if the person keeps a spare diet, wholly refrain- 
ing from salt meat; which salt meat, and being long at sea, 
are the only causes of breeding this disease. By this means 
the general cured many of his men and preserved- the rest ; 
so that, though his ship had double the number of men of 
any of the rest, he had not so many sick^ nor did he lose so 
many men, as any of the rest. 

After getting all the ships to anchor, and hoisting out 
their boats, the general went immediately aland, to seek re? 
freshments for our sick and weak men. He presently ^et 
with some of the natives, to whom he gave various trifles, as 
knives, pieces of old iron, and the like ; making signs for 
them to bring him down sheep and oxen. For He spoke to 
them in the cattle's language, which was not changed at the' 
confusion of Babel ; using moath for oxen, and baa for sheep, 
imitating their cries ; which language the people understood 
very well without any interpreter. Having sent the natives 
away, well contented with the kind usage and presents he 
had given them, orders were given for so many men from 
every ship to bring sails ashore, to make tents for the sick; 
and also to throw up fortifications for defence, lest by any 
chance the natives might take offence and offer violence. He 
at the same time prescribed regulations for buying and sell^ 
ing with the natives; directing, when they should come 
down with cattle, that only five or six men selected for the 
purpose should go to deal with them, and that the rest, which 
should never be under thirty muskets and pikes, should keep 
at the distance of at least eight or ten score yards, always 


^6fRAF. % sfeCT. t. ' English Ea^ India Campany. 1 IS 

drawn iip in order and readiness, with their muskets in ihib 
rests, whatever might befal. This order was so strictly en- 
forced, man was permitted to go forward to speak 
with the natives, except with special leave. I attribute bur 
continuing in such amity and friendship with the natives to 
these precautions, for the Hollanders had lately five or six 
of their men slain by the treachery of these natives. 

The third day ailer our arrival in Saldanha bay, the na- 
tives brought down beeves and sheep, which we bought fo^ 
pieces of md iron hoops ; as two pieces of eight inches each 
for an ox, and one piece for a sheep^ with which the natives 
seemed perfectly satisfied. In ten or twelve days, we bought 
iOOO sheep and 42 oxen, and might have had more if we 
would. After this they discontinued bringing any more 
cattle^ but the people oilen came down to us afterwards ; and 
vrhen we made signs for more she^, they would jpoint to 
those we had already^ which the general kept grazing on 
the hills hear our tents ; whidb, as we judged, was the rea^ 
son why they did not bring us more, as mey thought w6 
meant to inhabit there. But, God be thanked, we were 
now weD provided, and could very well pass without farthei^ 
purchases. The oxen were as large as ours in £ng}and^ 
and very fat ; and the sheep were many of them bigger than 
ours, of excellent flesh, sweet and fat, and to our liking 
much better than our English mutton, but having coarse 
haiiy wool. 

TTie people of this place are all of a tawny colour, of rea- 
sonable stature^ swift of foot, and much given to pick and 
Steal. .Their language is entirely uttered through their 
throats, and they cluck with their tongues in so strange a 
manner, that, in seven weeks which we remained here, the 
sharpest wit among us could not learn one word of their 
language, y^t the natives soon understood every sign we 
made them. While we staid at this bay, we had such royal 
refreshing that all our men recovered their health and 
strength, except"&nr or five. Including these, and before 
we came in, we lost out of all our ships 105 men; yet, on 
leaving this bay,** we reckoned ourselves stronger manned 

VOL, VIII, H than 

" In a marginal note, Purchas gives the lat. of Saldanha bay as S4® 
S. The place then called Saldanha bay was certainly Table bay, the 
entrance to which is in 33° 30' S. So that Purcli^s is here sufficiently 
accurate. — £• 

114* Early Voyages of the partii* book iis» 

than when we left England, oiir men were now so well 
inured to the southeiii dim^tes and to th^ sea. 

^ 2. Continuation of the Voy^e^from Saidanha Bay to the 

Nicohar and Sombrero Islands. 

The general ordered all pur tents to I^e taken dowii on 
the 24fih of October, and all our men to repair on board 
•their respective ships having laid in an ample 9upp)y <^ 
wood and waten We put to sea the 29th of that month, 
passing a small island in the mouth of the bay, which is so 
full of seals and penguins, that if no better refreshment 
could have been procured, we might very well have refresh*- 
ed here. Over the bay of Saidanha there stands a very 
high and flat hill, called the Table ; no other harbour oi^ 
a11 this coast having so plain a mark to find it by, as it can 
be easily seen seventeen or eighteen leagues out at sea. In 
the morning of Sunday the 1st November, we doubled the 
Cape of Good Hope in a heavy gale at W.N. W. 

Qn the 26th November we fell in with the head-land of 
the island of St Lawrence or Madagascar, somewhat to the 
eastward of cape St Sebastian, and at five miles from the 
shore we had 20 &thoms ; the variation of the compass 
being 16°, a little more or less. In an east and west course^ 
the variation of the compass serves materially, and especial- 
ly in this voyage.* From the 26th November till the 15th 
iUecember we plied to the eastwards, as nearly as we could, 
always striving to get to the island of Cisne, called Diego 
Rodriguez in some charts; but ever from our leaving Ma- 
dagascar, we found the wind at £. or E.S.E. or E.N.E, 
so that we could not accomplish it, and we could not con- 
tinue to strive long in hopes of the wind changing, as our 
men began again to fall sick of the scurvy. jThe captain 
of our vice-admiral, John Middleton of the Hector, now 
proposed to our general to bear away for the bay of Anton^ 
gil, on the east coast of Madagascar, where we might re-. 
Iresh our men with oranges and lempns, so as to get rid 
again of tliis cruel disease ; which counsel was approved by 
jiim and the whole company. 

We had sight of the southernmost part of the island of 

• . . . . . g^ 

' At this period, and for long afterwards, mariners estimated thdr 
longitudes "by dead reckonings, or by the observed variations of the com- 
pass ; both very uncertain guides.— OS. 

1 2 

-CHAF. X. S2CT. f. En^h East India Company. 115 

St Mary fin lat 16* 48' S. long. 50* IT E.]. and anchored 
next day between that island and the main of Madagascar. 
We immediately sent our boats to St Mary, where we pro-i 
cared some stote of lemons and oranges, being very pre- 
cious for our sick men to purge them of the scurvy. While 
rkiing here^ a great storm arose^ which drove three of our 
ships from their anchors; but within sixteoi hours the 
storm ceased, and our ships returned and recovered their 
anchors* The general thought it improper to remain here 
any longer^ on account of the uncertainty of the weather, 
the danger of riding here, and because we were able to 
procure so little refreshment at this island; having got, 
besides a few lemons and oranges^ a very little goats milk, 
and a small quantity of rice : But as our men were sick, and 
the easterly winds still prevailed, he gave orders to sail for 

■ The isle of St Mary is high land and iiill of wood. The 
natives are tall handsome men, of black colour and frizzled 
hair, which they stroke up at ibeir foreheads as our womea 
do in England, so that it stands three inches upright. 
Hiey go entirely naked, except covering their parts.; and 
are very tractable and of familiar manners, yet seemed va- 
liant. Most of their food is ric^ with some fish ; yet while 
we were there we could get very little rice to purchase, as 
their store was far spent, and their harvest near at hand. 
There are two or three watering places on the north part 
of this island, none of them very commodious, yet there is 
water enough to be had with some trouble. 

Departing from this island of St Mary on the 23d De- 
cember, we came into the bay of Antongil on Christmas*- 
day» and anchored in eight fothoms water, at the bottom 
of the bay, between a smaU island and the main. * The best 
riding is nearest under the lee of that small island, which 
serves as a defence from the wind blowing into the bay: 
for while we ware there it blew a very heavy storm, and 
those ships which were nearest the island &red best. Two 
of our ships drove with three anchors a^head, the ground 
being oosy and not firm. Going arland on the small island, 
we perceived by a writing on the rocks, that five Holland 
ships had been there^ and had departed about two months 


* This island of Maroite is in lat. 15^ 10' S. and almost in the same 
•ngttiide with the isle of ^ Mary, being 62 English miles from its north* 
era extremity.— £. 

116 Early f^qyagef^f'the T^^'^n*Bg»%%iu 

befor^ our arrital, having had 'sicknesii among tbepi ; for« 
as we could perceive^ they had lost between 150 '^d 200 
men at this place. 

The day after we anchored, we landed on the mainy 
where the people presently came to us, makiDg signs that 
five Dutch ships had been there, and had bought most of 
their provisions. Yet they entered into trade with us for 
rice, hens, oranges, lemons, and another kind of &uit call- 
ed plantains; but held every thing very high, and brought 
only small quantities. Our market was beside a consider* 
able river, into which we went in our boats, such of our 
men as were appointed to make the purchases going ashore $ 
the rest always remaining in the boats with their arms in 
readiness, and the boats about twenty or thirty yards froEi 
the land, where the natives could not wade to them, and 
were ready at all times, if needful, to take our marketers 
from the land. In this manner we trifled off some days be* 
fore we could get the natives to commence a real trade $ 
for all these people of the south and east parts of the world 
are subtle and crafty in bartering, buying, and selling, so 
that, without sticl^ing close to them, it is difficult to bring 
them to trade in any reasonable sort, as they will shift c<m-^ 
tiniiaily to get a little more, and then no one will sell below 
that price. Upoi^ this, the general ordered measures to ber 
niade of about a quart, and appointed how many glass 
beads were to be given for its fill of rice, and how many 
oranges, lemons, and plantains were to be given for every^ 
bead, with positive orders not to deal at all with any who 
would not submit to that rule. After a little holding o^ the 
natives consented to this rule, and our dealing became frank 
and brisk ^ so that during our stay we purchased 15| tons> 
of rice, 40 or 50 bushels of their peas and beans, great 
store of oranges, lemons, and plantains, eight beeves^ and 
great numbers of hens. 

While at anchor in this bay, we set up a pinnace which 
we had brought in pieces from England ; and cutting down: 
trees, which were large and in plenty^ we sawed .them into 
boards, with which we sheathed her. This pin^nace wa» 
about 18 tons burden, and was very fit and necessary fop 
going before our ships at our getting to India. While we 
re;mained here, there died out of the Admiral, the master's 
mate, chaplain, and surgeon, with about ten pf the cpiP'- 
mon hien ; and out of the Vice- Admiral, the master and 
^ some 

t^HAP. X. SECT. T. Ef^sh Eost InMa Cofhpamf. 317 

dome t^o more. By very great mischance, the captain aiid 
boatswain's mate of the Ascension were slain : For, when 
the master's mate of the Admiral was to be buried, the 
captain of the Ascensibn took his boat to go on shore to 
his fmieral ; and as it* is the rule of the sea to fire certain 

Jiieces of ordnance at tUe bnrial of an officer, the gunner 
red three pieces that happened to be shotted, when the 
ball of one of them struck the Ascension's boat, and slew 
the captain and boatswain's mate st^k dead ; so that, on 
going ashore to witness the funeral of another, they wer^ 
both buried themselves. Those who died here were mostly 
carried off by the flulx, owing, as I think, to the water whicn 
we drank ; for it was notv in the season of winter, wheir it 
rained very much, causing great floods all over the coun- 
try^ s6 that the waters were unwholesome. Us they mostly 
are in these hot countries in the rainy season. The flux is 
likewise often caught by going open, and catching cold at 
the stomach, which our men were very a^ to do mieh hot. 
. We sailed from this bay on the 6th March, i602, steer*^ 
ing our course for India, and on the l6th fell m with an 
island called Roque PizCy [in lat* 10** 30' S. and long. 64* 
2(y E.] The general sent his boat to i^ee if there were any 
safe anchorage, but the water was found almost every wher6 
too deep. As wc sailed along, it seemed every where plea* 
sant, and full of cocoa-nut trees and fowls, and there came 
from the land a most delightful smell, as if it had been a 
vast flower garden. Had there been any good anchorage, 
it must surely have been an excellent place of refreshment ; 
for, as our boats went near the land, they saw vast quanti- 
tiies of fish, and the fowls came wondering about them in 
such flocks, that the men killed many of them with their 
oars, which were the best and &ttest we had tasted in all 
the voyage. These fowls were in such vast multitudes, 
that many more ships than we had might have been amply 

The 30th March, 1602, being in lat. 6® S.' we happened 
upon a ledge of rocks, and looking overboard, saw them 
under the ship about five fathoms below the surface of the 
water, which amazed us exceedingly by their sudden and 
unexpected appearance. On casting the ship about, we had 


^ The Speaker bank, in long. 73^ £. is nearly in the indicated latU 
tude.— B. 

118 Earhf Voyages of the part ir. book nti 

eight fathoms, and so held on our course to the east. Not 
long after, one of our men in the top saw an island S.E. of 
us, some five or six leagues ofiP, being low land, which we 
judged to be the island of Canduy^ though our course by 
computation did not reach so far east. Continuing our 
course some thirteen or fourteen leagues, we fell upon an* 
other fiat of sunken rocks, when we cast about southwards^ 
and in sailing about twelve leagues more found other rocks^ 
and in trying different ways we found rocks all round aboul^ 
having twenty, thirty, forty, and even fifty fathoms among 
the fiats. We were here two days and a half in exceeding 
great danger, and could find no way to get out. At last 
we determined to try to the northward, and in 6* 40' S* 
thank God, we found six fathoms water. The pinnace 
went always before, contumally sounding, with orders to 
indicate by signals what depth she had, that we might 
know how to follow. 

Being delivered out of this pounds we followed our course 
till the 9th May about four in the afternoon, when we got 
sight of the islands of Nicobar, on which we bore in and 
anchored on the north side of the channeL But as the 
wind changed to S. W. we had to weigh again, and go over 
to the south side of the channel, where we came to an an- 
chor under a small island on that shore. We here got 
fresh water and cocoarnuts, but very little other refresh- 
ments ; yet the natives came off to us in lonnr canoes that 
could have carried twenty men in each. They brought 
gums to sell instead of amber, with which they deceived 
several of our men; for these eastern people are wholly 
eiven to deceit. They brought also hens and cocoa-nuts 
for sale ; but held them at so dear a rate that we bought 
very few. We staid here ten days, putting our ordnance 
in order and trimming our ships, that we might be in rea- 
diness at our first port, which we were not now far from. 

In the morning of the 20th April, we set sail for Suma- 
tra» but the wind blew hard at S. S. W. and the current set 
against us, so that we could not proceed. While beating 
up and down, two of our ships sprung leaks, on which wc 


^ There are two islands called Candu, very small, and direct N. and 
S. of each other, in lat. 50"^ 4(f S. long. 78° £. and less than half a de- 
,gree N.N.E. is a small group called the Adu islands, surrounded by « 
reef.— E. 

fStA^. iL SECT. 1. £«gSA £af J«f& Conyoi^. Il9 

were feroed to gpio the idand of Sombrero,^ ten or tweire 
leagues north <h Nioobar. Here we in the Admiral lost an 
mchor, fiir tlie ground is fenl, and ffrown full of fiike eoral 
aodd some rodcs, wfaich cut oor caUe asnnder, so that we 
could not recover our anchor. Tlie people of these islands 
go entirety naked, eKoept that their parts are bound up in 
a piece of ckld^ whidi goes round tiie waist like a girdle^ 
and thence between their l^s. They are all of a tawny 
hue, and paint their &oes of divers colours. Tliey are 
fitout and weU-made, but very fearfiil, so that ncme of them 
would come on board our ships, or even enter our boats. 
The general reported that he had seen some of their priests 
all over doathed, but quite dose to their bodies, as if sewed 
on ; having their &oes painted grecai, biack, and yeDow, 
and hams on their heads turned backwards, painted of the 
flame oGJonrs, tc^ether with It tail hanging down behind 
from their buttocks, altogether as we see the devil some- 
times paintH in Europe. Dananding why they went in 
that strange attire, he was told that the devU sometimes 
appeared to them in such form in their sacrifioeSy and there- 
fore his servants the priests were so doalhed. Tha« grew 
many trees in this island, sufficiently tall, thick, and straight 
to make mam-masts for the largest ship in all our fleet, and 
^Ihs island k full erf* such. 

Upon the sands of this idand of Sombrero we found a 
amaii twig growing wp like a young tree, and <hi offering to 
pluck k iqi, it shnnks down to the ground, and sinks, un- 
less held very hard. On being plucked up, a great worm 
is found to be its root^ and as the tree groweth in great- 
ness, so dutfa the woim diminish ; and as soon as the worm 
is entirely turned into tree, it rooteth in the earth, and so 
becomes great. This transformation is one of the strangest 
wonders that I saw in aJl my travels : For, if this tree is 
Jacked up while youngs and the leaves and bark stripped 
cS, it becomes a hard sUme when dry, much hke white 
coral : Thus is this worm twice transftmned into difierent 
^atttrt^ Of these we gathered and brought home many. 

The editor of Astl^'s Collection supposes this a mere 
fif7t'0"j or that it might take its rise firum coral growing ac- 

' So called, becaiae op die ooitli end of the lar^gest island of the clirsi* 
ter there is a hiil resembling the tqp of an umbrella,— A stl. I. 267. i^ 

}8Q Eai'h/ Fojfages of the pakt ii. book iiii 

ddentally on shell fish. The first perl (^ the story probi^ 
bly arose from some of the animftls called animal Jhrnersf, 
the body of which» buried in the saikU and resembling a 
worin, extends some member having the itppearance of a 
young tree) which retracts wh^i touched nideiy^ The j^ 
Qond part may have been some corralipe or madrepore 
growing in shallow water, the coriaceous pari <^ whjdb^ 
and the apimals residing in the eells» may haire resembled 
the bark and leaves of a plant. Considering bc^th of these 
erroneously as the same plant m different states, might 
easily give occasion to the wonders, in the i&Uy without the 
smallest intention of fiction^ — E» 

§ 3* Their Rec^tion and Trade ai Ackeem* . 

We set sail from the island of Sombrero on the 29th 
May, and got sight of Sumatra on the 2d June, jsoming to 
anchor in the road of Acheen on the 5th, about two miles 
from the city. We here found sixteen or eighteea sail of 
different countries, Guzerat, Bengal, Calicut, Malabar,. Pe** 
gu^ and Patane, which had come for trade. There came 
on board two Dutch merchants or &ctor8, who had been 
left behind by their ships, to learn the language and the cuch 
toms of the country ; who told us we should be made wel-^ 
come by the kin|^ who was desirous to entertain strangers; 
and that the Queen of England was already famous in those 
parts, on account of the wars and great victories she had 
gained over the King of Spain. That same day, the gene- 
ral sent Captain John Middleton, with four or five gentle- 
men in his train, to wait upon the king, and to inform him^ 
that the general of our ships had a message and letter from 
the most famous Queen of England to the most worthy 
King of Acheen and Sumatra, to request the king would 
vouchsafe to give audience^ to the said ambassador, to deli- 
ver his message and letter, giving sufficient warranty for the 
3afety of him and his people, according to the law pf na^ 
tipns. Captain Middleton was very kindly entertained by 
the king^ who, on hearing, the message, readily granted the 
request, and communed with him on many topics; after 
which a royal banquet was served up to him ; and, ,at his 
departure, he was presented with a robe, and a tuke or tur- 
ban of calico wrought with gold, as is the manner of the 
kings of this place to those whom they are pleased to fa- 

«HAP. X. SECT. X* EngUdi lEoit InXa Campany. ii^l 

tour* The king dent hia commendations to the general^ de«* 
siring him to remain yet another day on board, to rest from 
the iaSagOKA of his voyage, and to come the day following on 
^OTQ when lie might be sure of a kind reception and free 
aixffience^ in as much safety as if in the dominions of the 
queoi his mistress ; but^ if he doubted the royal word, such 
hcMiovrable {dedges should be sent for his farther aadorance 
as might give him entire satisfoction; 

The general went ashore on .the third day after oui: arri- 
val,.with thirty attendants or more* He was met on land- 
ing by the Holland merchants, winy conducted him to their 
house, as had been apppinted ; as the general did not think 
fit to have a house of his own till he had been introduced to 
the king. He remained at the Hdland factory, where a 
nobleman from the king came and saluted him kindly, say^ 
in^that he came from tne king, whose person he represent^ 
ecv and demanded the queen's letter* The general answer^ 
ed, that he must himself deliver the letter to the king, sttch 
brii^ the custom of ambassadors in Europe. The noble- 
tanxx then asked to see the superscription of the letter, which 
was shewn him. He read the same^ looked very earnestly 
at the seal, took a note of the superscription and of the 
queen's name, and then courteously took his leave, return- 
ing to teU the king what had passed. Soon afterwards sik 
great elephants were sent, with many drums, trumpets, and 
streamers, and much people, to accompany the general to 
court. The largest elephant was about thirteen or fourteen 
feet hi^, having a small castle like a coach on his back, co- 
vered with crimson velvet. In the middle of the castle ,wa8 
a large basin of gold, with an e^tceedingly rich wrought co- 
ver of silk, under which the queen's letter was deposited. 
.The general was mounted upon another of the elephants, 
some of his attendants riding, while others went a-foot. On 
arriving at the gate of the palace, the procession was stop^ 
ped by a nobleman, till he went in to learn the king^s far- 
ther pleasure ; but he presently returned, and requested the 
general to come in. 

On coming into the presence of the king, the general made 
his obeisance according to the manner of the country, say- 
ing, that he was sent by the most mighty Queen of England, 
to compUment his majesty, and to treat with him concemr* 
ing peace and amity w^ith the queen his mistress, if it pleas- 
ed mm to do so. He then b^an to enter upon ferther dis- 

122 Earfy Voyages of tke . PiBT u. book thi 

course ; but the kin^ stopt him short, by desiring him to sit 
down dxkd refresh hmisel^ saying, T^at he was most wek 
come, and that he would readily listen to any reasonable 
conditions, for the queen's sake, who was worthy of all kind- 
ness and frank conditions, being a princess of great noble« 
ness, of whom fame reported much, llie general now deli- 
vered the queen's letter, which the king graciously recei- 
ved, delivering it to a nobleman who waited on him* The 
general then delivered his present, consisting of a basin of 
silver, having a fountain in the middle of it, weighing 205 
ounces; a large standing cup of silver; a rich mirror; a 
head-piece witfi a plume of feathers; a case of' very fair ob^- 

fes; ' a richly embroidered sword-belt; and a fan made o£ 
gathers* All these were received in the king's presence by 
a nobleman of the court, the king only taking into his own 
hand the fan of feathers, with which he made one of his wo-^ 
men fan him, as if this had pleased him ihore than all the 

The general was then commanded to sit down in the pre- 
sence, on the ground, after the manner of the country, and 
a great banquet was served, all the dishes being either g£ 
pure gold, or of tomback^ a metal between gold and brass, 
which is held in much estimation. During this banquet^ 
the king, who sat aloft in a gallery about six feet from the 
ground, drank often to the general in the wine of the coun- 
try, called arrack, which is made from rice, and is as strong 
as our brandy, a little of it being sufficient to set one to 
sleep. After the first draught of this liquor, the general ei^ 
ther drank it mixed with water, or pure water, craving the 
king's pardon, as not able to take such strong drink ; and 
the king gave him leave. 

After the feast was done^ the king caused his damsek to 
come forth and dance^ and his women played to them on 
several instruments of music. These women were ridily 
attired, and adorned with bracelets and jewels; and this 
was accounted a great favour, as the women are not usually 
seen of any but such as the king will greatly honour. The 
king gave also to the general a fine robe of white calico^ 
richly wrought with gold : a very fine girdle of Turkey 
work; and two crisses, which are a kind of daggers^ all of 
which were put on him by a nobleman in the ling's pre- 


Jl A case of handsomely mounted pistols.y-E. 

CSAF* X. sxcT* X. En^iA JEW In^ Coihpam/. 129 

sence. He was then courteously dismissed, and a perso4 
was sent along with him, to make choice of a house in the 
city> wherever the general might think most .suitable. But 
at that time he refused the proiSered kindness, chusing ra^ 
iher to go oh board the ships, till the king had consic&red 
thequeen's letter. 

The letter from the queen was superscribed, To the great 
and miffhty King of Achem^ &c. in the island of Sumatra, 
our lovmg brother, greeting.* After a long complimentaiy 
preamble, and couiphining against the Portuguese and Spa- 
niards for pretending to be absolute lords of the East In* 
dies, and endeavouring to exclude all other nations from 
trading thither, it recommended the English to his royal 
favour and protection, that they might be allowed to trans* 
act their business freely then and afterwards in his domini- 
ons, and to permit their factors to remain with a factoiy- 
house in his capital, to learn the language. and customs of 
the country, till the arrival of another fleet. It likewise 
proposed that reasonable capitulations, or terms of commer- 
cial intercourse^ should be entered into by the king with the 
bearer of the letter, who was authorised to conclude the same 
in her name ; and requested an answer accepting the proffeiw 
ed league of amity. F S F 

At nis next audience, the general had a long conference 
with the king respecting the queen's letter, with wliich he 
seemed well satisfied; saying, if the contents came from the 
heart he had reason to think of it highly, and was well 
pleased to conclude the proposed treaty of amity and com- 
merce. As for the particular demands made in the queen'a 
name by the general, respecting trade, the king referred him 
to two noblemen, who were authorised to confer with him, 
promising that all which was requested by the queen should 
be granted. With this satisfactory answer, and after ano* 
ther banquet, the general departed. He sent next day to 
the two noblemen appointed to treat with him, to know 
when they proposed to meet and confer with him. One of 
these was ditef bishop or high-priest of the realm,' a per^ 
son in high estunatton with the king and people^ as he well 


■ In tbe Pilgrims this letter is givea at full length ; but, beiiig vaerdf 
oompiimentary, is here only abridged. — ^£. 

' As tbe grand Turk has his Mufti, so other Mahomedan princes bate 
their chief priests in all countries of that profession.^ PurcA«. 

124 Barfy F(^a^e8 tf the part n, book ni^ 

deserved) being a veiy wise and pmdent fiierson. The.other 
was one of the ancient nobility of the country, a man of mndi 
gravity, but not so fit for conferring on the business in hand 
as the former. 

. After a lohff conference, ^ the general demanded that pro^ 
clamation mignt be instantly made, that none of the natives 
should abuse the English, but that they might be permitted 
to follow their business in pe&ce and quietness. This was 
so well performed, that though there was a strict order for 
none of their people to walk oy night, yet ours were allow- 
ed to go about by day or night without molestation ; onhr, 
when any of our people were found abroad at unlawud 
hours, the justice brought them home to the generars hottse^ 
and delivered them therie. 

At the close of the conference, the chief-priest required 
firom the geheral notes of his demands of privileges for the 
merchants in writing, with the reasons of the same, that 
they might be laid before the king; promising that he 
should have answers within a few days. With these confe- 
rences, and much courtesy, and after some conversation oh 
the affairs of Christendom, they broke up for that time. The 
general was not negligent in sending his demands in writing 
to the noblemen, as tney were mostly drawn up before co-» 
ming ashore, being not unready for such a busmess. 
• On his next going to court, and sitting before the king^' 
beholding a cock-fight, which is one of the sports in which 
the king takes great delight, the general sent nis interpreter 
with his obeisance to the king, requesting him to be mind- 
ful of the business on which ne had conferred widi the two 
noblemen. The king then made him draw near, telling 
him he was careful of his dispatch, and would willingly en- 
ter into a league of peace and amity with the Queen of 
England, which he would truly perform : and that the de- 
mands and articles he had set down in writing should all be 
extended in proper form by one of his secretaries, which he 
should then authorise and confirm. Within five or six days 
Aese were delivered to the general, from the king's own 
hands, with many gracious words. It were too long to m- 
9ert the entire articles of this treaty ; but the whole demands 
of the English were granted. Firsts Free trade and entry. 


^ A long train of formal particulars are here omitted, as tedious and 
uninteresting, — E. 

aEtA^t %• iSECT. I. EngUsh East India Compant/. itS 

Secoudj Freedom from customs on import and export* 
'third, Assislance of their vessels to. save our goods and 
men: from vrreck, and other dangers. Fourth^ Liberty of 
testament^ to bequeath their goods to whom they .pleased. 
Fifths Stability of bargains and payments by the subjects of 
Acheen, &c. Sixth,' Authority to execute justice on their 
owB people offending. Seventh, Justice against injuries from 
the natives. Eighth, Not to arrest or stay our goods, or to 
'fix prices upon them. Lastly, Freedom of consdoice. 

This important treaty being settled, the merchants were 
Vicessantly occupied in providing pepper for loading the 
ships; but it came in slowly and in small quantities, as the 
last year had been very sterile. Hearing of a port called 
Priajsnan, about 150 leagues from Acheen, in the south part 
of Sumatra^ where one of the smaller ships might he loadn 
ed, the g^ieral prepared to send the Susan thither, placing 
in her Mr Henry Middleton as captain and chief merchant. 
The general was not a little grieved, that Mr John Davi% 
his cmef pilot, had told the merchants before leaving Lon<« 
don, that pepper was to be had at Acheen for four S^a^ish; 
lyals of eight the himdred, whereas it cost us almost twen-i 
ty. Owing to this, the general became very thoughtful^ 
Goosidering how to load his sfaipsj and save his credit in the. 
estimiUlon of his employers ; as it would be a disgrace to all 
cioncemed,, in the eyes of all the neighbouring nations of 
Eurppe^ seeing there were merchandise epough to be bought 
in the East Indies^ while his ships were likely to . return 

$ 4. Portugu/e$e Wiies discovered, and a Prize taken near 


A Portuguese amh^assador was at this time in Acheen^ 
who looked with an evil eye on every step we took, but wa& 
by no. means in favour with the king : for, on the last day 
dT his being at courts on demanding leave to settle a factory 
in the copntry, and to build a fort at the entrance of the 
harbour, for the protection of the merchants ^€>ods, because, 
the. city was suibgeot to fire» the king, perceiving what he 
meant, gave hxm this sharp answer : <^ Has your master a. 
daughter to give my son, that he is so careful for the secu- 
rity of my country? He shall not need to be at the charge 
of buiidiDg a fort ; for I have a fit house about two leagues 


136 f^rly Voyages of the PAftT ir. book itu 

iiiland from the city, which I can give him for a ftu^toiy^ 
where you need neither fear enemies nor fire, for I will pro* 
tect you." The king was much displeased with this insolent 
demand, and the ambassador left the court much discon- 

Shortly after this, an Indian, who belonged to a Portu« 
lese captain, who came to the port with a uiip-load of rice 
Bengal, came to our house to sell hens. The Portu* 
guese captain lodged at tlie ambassador's house^ and our 
general suspected he came only as a spy to see what we were 
about ; yet he gave them orders to treat the Indian well» 
and always to give him a reasonable price for his hens. At 
last he took occasibn to commune with this Indian, asking 
whence he came and what he was, saying to him pleasant- 
ly, that a young man of his appearance deserved a better 
employment than bu3rinff and selling hens. To this he an** 
swered, ^* 1 serve this Irartugaese captain, yet am neither 
bound nor bee ; for, though free-bom, I have been with 
him so long that he considers me as his property, and he is 
so great a man that I cannot strive with him." Then, said 
tiie general, ** If thy liberty be precious to thee, thy person 
seems to merit it ; but what wouldst thou do for him who 
should give thee thy liberty, without pleading to thy master 
for it ?" ^' Sir," said the Indian, << freedom is as precious as 
life, and I would venture my life for him that would procure 
it for me : Try me, therefore, in any service that I can per- 
form for you^ aud my willingness shall make good my words." 
** Then," said the general, " thou desirest me to try thee? 
What says the ambassador of me and my shipping, and 
what are his purposes ?" The Indian told him, that the Por- 
tuguese had a spy employed over his ships, being a Chinese 
who was intimate with the men, so that he has procured 
drawings of the ships, and of every piece of ordnance in 
them, and how they are placed, with a list of all the men in 
each : That he thought the ships strong and well equipped, 
but being weak in men, believed they might easily be token, 
if any force could be had to attack them suddenly ; and in- 
tended in a few days to send his draughts to Malacca, to in- 
duce the Portuguese to send a force Irom thence to attack 
them as they lay at anchor. The general laughed heartily 
at this account, but- said the ambassador was not so idle as 
the Indian thought, for he well knew the Enfflish ships were 
too strong for all the forces in those parts. He then desired 


CHAP. X. S£CT« I. English East India CotSipam^ 12T 

the Indian to go his way, and return in a day or two to in« 
form him if the ambassador continued bis project^, and when 
he was to send his messenger to Malacca. Saying, that at 
though it would serve him little to know these tbinfls, yet he 
:would give the Indian his liberty for the good- will he shew- 
ed to serve him. 

. The Indian went away well pleased, as might easily ba 
seen by his countenance and the lightness of bis steps. 
When he was gone, the general said to me^ that we had 
pow met with a fit person to betray his master, if we could 
derive any benefit from his treachery ; and in this he was 
]tiot deceived, for by his means, whatever was done or said 
by the ambassador during the day, was regularly reported 
to our general that night or next morning ; yet did this fel- 
low conduct himself so prudently, that neither was he sus- 
pected by any one in the Portuguese ambassador's houses 
por was it ki^own to any one in ours, what business he waa 
engaged in. He had the right character for a spy, .being 
crafty, careful, and subtly never trusting any one to hear 
his conversation with pur general, but always spoke to him 
when alone, and that in a careless manner, as if he had. an- 
swered idly ; for he was in fear that our people should dis- 
cover that the selling of hens was a mere pretence for ok 
ming continually to our house. 

The general was sent for to court next day, when the 
king had a conference with him about au embassy from the 
King of Siam respecting the conquest of Malacca, having 
sent to know what force he would employ for that service 
by sea, if the King of Siam undertook to l^esi^e it by land* 
This King of Acheen is able to send a great force of gallies 
to sea, if he may have four or five months warning to make 
them ready. The general endeavoured to further this pro- 
posal with many reasons ; and took occasion to talk about 
the Portuguese ambassador, who conducted himself with 
much proud insolence, and who, he said, had come to 
Acheen for no other reason but to spy out the strength of 
his kingdon^. ^^ 1 know it well," said the king, *< for they 
are my epemies, as I have been to them ; but what makes 
you see this ?" The general ttien said, that he could take 
nothing in hand but Sbat they employed spies tp mark his 
conduct, and that the ambassador intended to send draw- 
ings of all his ships to Malacca,, to procure a force from 
thence to fall upon him suddenly. The king smiled at this. 

IffS $!iir!y Voytiges of the ipabt n« book in, 

saying that h& lieed fear no strength that could come from 
Malacca, as all the force they had there was quite msuffici- 
^[it'to do the English any harm. Then said the g^neral^ 
that 1|Q did not fear their strength or what they could do 
against him | but as they would know when he was to go 
to sea, the ambassador would send them notice, to k^ep 
in port, so that he would be unable to do them harm ; 
wherefore he entreiated the king to arrest two 'of the am^a^ 
sadbr's servants that were to go for Malacca in a few days, 
not meaning to sail from Acheen, but to go thence to ano- 
ther port of the king% and there to hire a bark for Malac- 
ca. ** Well,'* said the king, " let me know when they de- 
part from hence, and thou shalt see what I will do for thee.'* 
The general now took leave of the king, well pleased with 
his friendly intentions, and continued his daily conferences 
with his hen-merchant, so that he became privy to every 
thing that was either done or said in the ambassador's 

When the time was come, the ambassador's servants went 
away to a port about twenty-five leagues from Acheen ; up- 
on which the general went immediately to inform the king, 
who had already given proper orders ; so that, on iheir ar- 
rival at the port, when they had hired a vessel in which 
they embarked with their letters, and were even going over 
the bar a mile from the town, a galley went after them, and 
caused the bark to strike sail, that the justice might see 
what was their lading. On the justice coming onl)oard, 
and seeing the two Portuguese, he asked whence they came 
and whither they were going ? They answered, that they, 
came from Acheen, being in the service of the Portuguese 
ambassador. <* Nay," said the justice, ** but you have rob- 
bed your master and run away with his goods ; wherefore I 
shall return you again to him, that you may answer for your 
conduct." In this confusion they lost their plots and let- 
ters, their trunks having been broke open ; and th^ were 
sent back to Acheen to the king, to be delivered to the am- 
bassador, if they belonged to him. The general was im- 
mediately sent for to court, and asked by the king if he were 
satisfied ; on which he gave the king humble and hearty, 
thanks for his friendship in the business. The merdiant of 
bens continued to come daily to our house with his goods } 
and the general suspected, not without his master's know- 

€HA^. Xi SECT* I. EngUsh East India Company. 129 

ledge, t» indeed he afterwards confessed, to carry news 
from us as well as bringing us intelligence. 

It was now September, and summer being past, and the 
general intending to go to sea to seek for means to supplj 
his necessities, was like to have been crossed worse than 
ever. The Portuguese ambassador had got his dispatched 
of leave from the king, and wa^ about to go from Acheen; 
whidh coming to the Knowledge of our general, he went im* 
•mediatelv to court, where the king sat looking at certain 
sports which were made for his amusement. Tlie general 
sent his interpreter to request permission to speak with the 
king, who immediately called him, desiring to know what 
he wished. , *< It has pleased your majesty,'' said the gene- 
ral, '< to shew me many courtesies, by which I am embold- 
ened to entreat one more favour." ^^ What is that ?'' said 
the king, smiling : *^ Are there any more Portuguese going 
to Malacca to hmder your proceeaings ?" *^ The ambassa^ 
dor himself," said the general, <^ as I am given to under- 
stand, has received your majesty's dispatches, with licence 
to go when he pleases, and is determined to go in five days.'' 
Tlien, said the king, <^ What would you have me do ?' To 
this the general replied, << Only stay him for ten days af* 
ter I have sailed." *^ Wdl," said the king, laughing, <^you 
must bring me a fair Portuguese maiden at your return." 

With this answer the general todc his leave, and made 
all the haste he could to be gone, having recommended the 
factors during his absence to the protection and favour of 
the king, and to purchase pepper, to help out the loading 
of the Ascension, which was now more than three parts la- 
den ; yet he did not chuse to leave her behind, as the road 
was open. When all the three ships were nearly ready, the 
captain of a Holland ship, called the Sheilberge, then in 
the roads, requested permission of the general to join com- 

Eany with him, and take part in the adventure upon which 
e was going. This ship was above 200 tons burden; but 
her captain was as short of money in proportion as we were^ 
and was therefore desirous of a chance of making some ad- 
dition to his stock ; and as our general was content to have 
his aid, he agreed to let him have an eighth part of what 
might be taken. The general then went to take leave of 
the king, to whom he presented two of the chief merchantsi 
Messrs Starkie and Styles, whom the king graciously took 
finder his protection, as they and some others were to re- 
VOL. via. X main 

«lu^^ •»<» to pwvide pepper ag«inrt the ,^^ ^ j^. 

day the ambassador uroMX^^t-^ ? ' departure. Erery 
part; but stiU,^*^„'^^^P'^^^ f^^ to S 

ed his voyaee • fill ^ j^V^ ^ another, the luaa del«ir 

be gonei eonsidSw tlSt SFnilT*^^ u''* y^"*" haste to 

with hi. swp^ ^r7£ZXf;t^s^i'''^''' ^-''^ 

or^nokace." « I care h°defc?hfm » 1 ^^^ **«»« w«>nif 

and If I were only her length froTSp^^- T^ "'^ """J 
easily escape aU 4 force^-^fjhflSf A*^ '*'"*°' ^ «"^d 
dispatch, and allowed him to denmf TM ^? ^^ ^^ 
well for us, for had he got away hSe i^b^^^ ''^^ 

tiiat aU ships would have had wamin^L wj ^^ •/^JSa'a, 

detaming the ambassador, weTaTSin 2 J?'** "" = ^' ^Y 
W, and were never des^ri^^ ^^ ^^^^^ <»f Miil 

her hkewise. Bei^t^aTds'ilSf « *^ "^ ^ *^' ^^ 
to spread out in a Bne, a mUe fnd Vt^^"*' ^^^ "« 
that she might not pass'us Xrnllt ^T ""*? °*''«'"' 
Je strange sail fell in with the Stor mV^^'''*^^' 
her. The captain immediately hS L / ^ ^"* «»P'ed 
Xing two or three shots to brS hS so Sf 1^^^^"' «' 
our ships were apprized of whereX w« ^* ,^® '*«» ^^ 
about her, firing lA her with iJ,^r . ^ ""1?" gathered 
turned. On thf comSg'Sp o^Se 3SS *S ^^ '«" 
SIX pieces at once out of h^ nrow thi^ ^^'^ ^°t »* 
chase fell down, so that she'^oEot^clT-y^f ^S** 
«»! now ordered all our ships to ^Si^f^ • ^?^ '"^"»- 
unfoxtunate shot might strL b^w^ S'i?;5j,':^| 

sailing vessel of small size and C« .1^]?^!!* ***? »PP'««J to « swift! 
or even unarmed barks or grabs s^imJi t'i'""><^b applied to annrf 
Portuguese for trade and ZTe ^^^^ ''«'«^ «»ployed J^ 

ci^p. a& 8ECT. i»r JEiig/»i JEW India Crngfany, ISl 

fiiilk ^iif efKpedtpd prise ; so lire lay by her tiO morning with* 
out any more fighting; At break of day^ the captain of the 
chaser and soitlie of his meni went into his boat; on which 
the Hector^ bein^ nearest, cajled to them to come to hii 
diip. Mr John Middkton, the captain t)i the Hector, he* 
ing vice-admiral, brought the boat and captain immediately 

""^TJiS^ ^^* *** "'*" ^^ surrendered their ship 

Tne general gave immediate orders to remove aQ the 
principS mteoF the prize on board our ships, and only 
placed four of our men in the prizes for fear of rifling and 
pillaging the valuable commodities she contained, and gave 
these men strict warning, if any thing were amissing, that 
they should answer for the value out of their wages and 
shares, ordering therfi on no account to allow any one to 
come on board the prize, unless with his permission. When 
the prize was unloaded, her own boatswain and mariners 
did the whole work, none of our men being allowed to go 
on boBid even to assist. They only received the goods in- 
to our boats, carrying them to such ships as they were di- 
rected by the general; by which orderly proce^ing there 
was neither rifling, pillaging, nor spoil, which could hardly 
have been otherwise avoided in such a business. Within 
five or six days we had unladen her of 950 packs of calicoes 
and i^ntados, or chintzes, besides many packages of other 
m^chandise: She had likewise much rice and other goods^ 
of whioh we made small account : And as a storm now be- 

San to blow, all their men were put on board, and we left 
er riding at anchor* She came from San Thome, [or 
Mi^apour near Madras,^ in the bay of Bengal, and was 
going to Malacca, bdng of the burden of about 900 tons. 
When we intercepted her, there were on board 600 per- 
sons, including men, women, and children. 

The general would never go on board to see her, that 
there might be no suspicion, either among our mu'iners, or 
the merchants in London, of any dishonest dealing on his 
part, by helfAig himself to any part of her goods. He was 
exceeding glad and thankfiil to God for this good fortune^ 
which bad eased him of a heavy care, as it not only suppli- 
ed his necessities, to enable him to load his ships, but gave 
him sufficient fiinds for loading as many more ; so that now 
his care was jipt about money, but how he shouM leave these 


13S Early Toyoges qftke pabt n. BdoK iiu 

goods, having so much more than enough^ till die arrival of 
other ships from England. 

The 21 St October, we began our voyage from the straits 
of Malacca to return to Acheen ; and by the way there 
came a great spout of water, pouring from theheavensi and 
fell not far from our ship, to our extreme terror. These 
q)outs come pouring down like a river of water ; so that, if 
they were to fell upon a ship, she would be in imminent dan- 
ger of sinking downright; as the water falls all at once like 
one vast drop, or as a prodigious stream poured from a ves* 
sel, and with extreme violence, sometimes enduring for an 
hour together, so that the sea boils and foams to a great 

§ 5. Presents to and from the Kit^ of Acheen^ and his Let" 
iers to Queen Elizabeth. Their Departure to Priaman 
and Bantam, and Settlement of Trade at these Places. 

We again cast anchor in the road of Acheen, on the 24th 
of October, when the general went immediately on shore, 
and found all our merchants well and in safety, giving great 
commendations of the kind entertainment they had from the 
king in the absence of the general. On this account, the 
general, willing to gratify the king with some of the most 
valuable articles taken in the prize, selected a present of 
such things as he thought might be most to his liking, and 
presented them to him on his first ^ing to <x)urt. The 
king received the present very graciously, and welcomed 
the general on his return, seeming to be much pleased with 
his Siccess against the Portugese ; but jestingly added, that 
the general had forgotten his most important commission^ 
whiSi was to bring back with him a fair Portuguese maid. 
To this the general replied, that there were none worthy of 
being offered. The king smiled, and said, if there were 
any thing in his dominions that could gratify the general, 
he should be most welcome to have it. .... , 

The merchants were now directed to ship m the Ascen- 
sion dl the pq)per, cinnamon, and cloves they had bought 
in the absence of the ships, which was scarcely enough to 
complete her loading ; but there was no more to be had at 
the time, nor could any more be expected that year. Ihe 
general; Aerefwre, ordered every thing to be convey^ oa 

tHAP. X. 8E0T. I. EngUA East India Company, I3S 

board the ships^ as he was resolved to depart from Acheen^ 
and to sail for Bantam in Java Major, where he understood 
good sale miight be procured for his commodities, and a 
great rieturn of pepper at a much more reasonable price 
than at Acheen. Upon this order being promulgated, every 
person made haste to get their things embarked. 

The general went to court, and communicated to the 
Idng his intentions of departing, and had along conference 
with his majesty, who delivered to him a complimentary 
letter for the Queen of England/ A present was likewise 
delivered to bim for the queen, consisting of three fine vest- 
ments, richly woven and embroidered with gold of exquisite 
workmanship, and a fine ruby set in a gold ring, the whole 
endosed in a. red box of Tzin* He likewise presented the 
general with another ruby set in a ring, and when about to 
take leave, he asked the general if we had the Psalms of Da- 
vid extant among us. On being told that we had, and sang 
them dailvj he said, that he and his nobles would sing a 
psalm to God for our prosperous voyage, which they did 
very reverently* He then desired that we might sing an- 
other psalm in our own language; and being about twelve 
of us present, we sang a'psalm. That being ended, the ge« 
neral took leave of the king, who shewed him much kind- 
ness at his departure^ desinng God to bless us during our 
voyage, and to guide us safely to our country ; adding, that 
if any of our ships should come hereafter to his ports, the^ 
might depend on receiving as kind treatment as we had 

. All our goods and men being shipped, we departed from 
Acheen on the 9th November, 1602, with three ships, the 
Dragon, Hector, and Ascension, the Susan having been 
long before sent to Priaman. We kept company for two 
days, in which time the general prepared his letters for 
England, sending them away in the Ascension, which now 
directed her course by the Cape of Good Hope for Eng- 
land ; while we steered along the south-western coast of Su- 
matra, in our way to Bantam, meaning to look for the Su^ 
san, which had been sent formerly to endeavour to procure a 


' Purcbas gives a copy of tiiis letter, as tnatdaUd fiwn the Ankic 
by WilUam &dwelL It ia loqg, tedious, and merely compowfi o£ Lj^ 
perbolkal compliment; and therefore onutted«-*E« 

''This was probably a casket of ltd Cbiocie lacker or wakk, usually 
denominated Japanned.— >£• 

IS4 ^ Earfy Voyages of the vkkt n. B6b£ m. 

loading on that coast While in this course we suddenly 
fell in among a number of islands in the night, and when 
the morning dawned were astonished how we had got in 
among them, without seeing or running upon any ofthem. 
They were all low land, environed wiui rocks and shoak^ 
so that we were in great danger; but thanks be to God» 
who had delivered us from many dangers, and enabled us 
to extricate ourselves from the present difficulty. Con6nu- 
ing our course, we passed the equinoctial line fer the third 
time, and coming to Priaman, the 26th November, we re- 
joined the Susan, which the general had sent there from 
Acheen to load with pepper. 

The pec^le of the Susan were rejoiced at our arrival, ha- 
ving already provided 600 bahars of pepper, and sixty-six 
babars of cloves. Pepper was cheaper here than at Achcfen^ 
though none grows in the neighbourhood of this port, be- 
ing all brought from a place called Manangcaboj eight or 
ten leagues within the country ; which place has no other 
merchandise, except a considerable store of gold in dust 
and small grains, which is washed out of the sands of ri- 
vers after the great floods of the rainy season, by which 
k is brought down from the mountains. Priaman is a good 
place of refreshment, and is very pleasant and fa^thy^ 
though it lies within 15' of the line* Having refreshed bur- 
selves here with ^ood air, fresh victuals^ and water, the ge- 
neral lefl orders for the Susan to complete her loading in all 
dpeed, which wanted only a few hundred bahars of pepper, 
and then to proceed direct for England. 
. Leaving the Susan at Priaman, we left that place with the 
Dragon and Hector on the 4th December, directing our 
course for Bantam in Java. Entering the straits of Sunda, 
the 15th December, we came to anchor under an island 
three leagues from Bantam, caUed Puh Pansa. Next 
morning we got into the road of Bantam, and fired a great 
peal of ordnance from our two ships, the like of which had 
never been heard in that place before. Next morning, the 
general sent Captain John Middleton on shore with a mes- 
sage finr the king, to say that he, the general, was sent by 
the Queen of England with a letter and message for his ma- 
jesty, and required his majesty's licence and safe conduct to 
come on shore to deliver them. The king sent back word 
that he was glad of his arrival, sending a nobleman slong^ 
>Yith Captain Middleton to ^^velcome the general, and ac-^ 


eHAP» X. fiEcr* I. Ef^tish East India Company. l%& 

tompany him on shote. Taking about sixteen attendants^ 
the general went on shore with uiis nobleman to the courty 
where he found the king, being a boy of ten or eleven yeatil 
of a;ge^ sitting in around house, surrounded in some deeerit 
state by sixteen or eighteen of his nobles. The getleral 
made his obeisance after the custom of the country, add wad 
welcomed very kindly by the young king. After sotUe con- 
ference about his message, he delivered the queen's letter 
into the king's hands, and made him a present of plate And 
some other things, which the king received with a smiling 
countenance, and referred the general fot farther confer- 
ence to one of his nobles, who was protector Or regent of 
the kingdom in his minority. 

After a conference of an hour and a halij the regent iti 
the king^s name received the general and all his comptLti^ 
under the king's protection, with perfect freedom to come' 
on land, to buy and sell without molestation, assuring him 
of as great security as in his own country, to all which ih^ 
other nobles gave their consent and assurance. There 
passed many discourses upon other topics at this confer* 
ence, which I omit troubhng the reader with for the sake 
of brevity j- my purpose being to shew the efiect of this first 
settlement of trade in the East Indies, rather than to be te-^ 
diously particular. After this kind welcome and satisfac- 
tory conference^ the general took his leave of the king and* 
nobles, and immediately gave orders for providing houses, 
df which he had the king's authority to niake chedce to bis 
liking. Within two days, the merchants brought their 
goods ashore, and began to make sales ; but one of the no- 
bles eame to the general, saying, that it was the custom of 
the place, for the king to buy and provide himself before 
the subjects could purchase any thing. The general readily 
consented to this arrangement, being informed thatt the king 
would give a reasonable price and make punctual pay- 

When the king was served, ttic merchants went on with 
their sales, and in a few weeks sold more goods than would 
have sufficed to purchase loading for both ships, yet we 
only brought away from thence 276 bags of pepper, each 
containing sixty-two pounds. Each bag cost at first ra(e 
5| ryals of eight, of 45. 6d. being if 1 : 4 : 9 per bag, or some- 
thing less than 5d. a pound. This was, however, besides 
duty of anchorage and custom to the king* 'By agreement 


196 Earfy Voyages of the fart ii. 3B00k 2if# 

^th the Sabander or governor of the city,' the general paid 
98 anchorage duty for the two ships^ 1500 ryius of eiffht; 
and one ryal of eight as custom for each bag of pepper. W'e 
traded here very peaceably, though the Javans are reckon- 
ed the greatest thieves in the wond : But, after havine re- 
ceived one or two abuses, the general had authority from 
the king to put to death whoever was found about his house 
in the night, and after four or five were thus slain, we lived 
in reasonable peace and quiet, yet had continually to keep 
strict watch aU ni^ht. 

We went on with our trade^ so that by the IQth Febru- 
ary^ 1603, our ships were fuUy laden and ready to depart. 
In the mean time, Mr Jphn Middleton, captain of the Hec- 
tor, &Q sick on board his ship in the road. For, from the 
very first of our voyage, the general made it an invariable 
rule^ if he were ashore, that the vice-admiral must be on 
board, and vice versa^ that both might not be at one time 
from their charge. Hearing of his sickness, the general 
went aboard to visit him, and found him much weaker than 
he himself felt or suspected, which experience in these hot 
climates had taught our general to know; for, although 
Captain Middleton was then walking about the deck, he 
died about two o'clock next morning. 

The general now proceeded to put every thing in order 
for our q>eedy departure, and appointed a pinnace of about 
40 tons, which we had, to be laden with commodities, put- 
t^g into her twelve mariners with certain merchants^ whom 
he sent to the Moluccas, to trade there and settle a factory^ 
against the arrival of the next ships from E^Iand. He 
likewise left eight men and three &ctors in &ntam, Mr 
William Starkie being head &ctor; whom he appointed to 
sell such commodities ,as were left, and to provide loading 
for the next ships. Eveiy thing being arranged, the gene- 
ral went to court to take his leave of the king, from whom 
he received a letter for Queen fUizabeth, wiu a present of 
some fine bezoar stones. To the general he gave a hand- 
some Java dagger, which is much esteemed there, a good 
bezoar stone^ and some other things. After this the gene* 
ral took leave of the king, with many courteous expressions 
on both sides. 


3 This officer, as his title implies, which ought to be written Shah4Nm- 
der, is lord of the port or harbour.— -£. 

{HAP. X. SECT. r. . EngUA East India Company • ISY 

§ 6. Departure for England, and Occurrences in the 


We all embarked on the 20th February, 1603, shot off 
our ordnance, and set sail for England, giving thanks to 
God with joyful hearts for his merciful protection. We 
were in the straits of Sunda on the 22d and 2Sd of that 
month, and on the 26th we got clear of all the islands in 
these straits and of the land, shaping our course S.W* so 
that on the 28th we were in lat %"" W S. On Sundar the 
ISth March, we were past the tropic of Capricorn, holding 
our course mostly S. W. with a stiff gale at S.E. The 14ta 
April we were in lat 34^ S. judging me great island of Ma* 
dagascar to be north of us. We had a great and furious storm 
on the 28th, which forced us to take in all our sails. This 
storm continued a day and night, during which the sea so 
raged that none of us expected our ships to live ; but God, 
in nis infinite mercy, calmed the violence of the storm, and 
gave us opportunity to repair the losses and injuries we had 
received; but our ships were so shaken by the violence of 
the wind and waves, that they continued leaky all the rest 
of the voyage. 

We had another great storm on the 3d May, which oon-^ 
tinned all night, and did so beat on the quarter of our ship 
that it shook all the iron work of our rudder, which broke 
dean off next morning from our stem, and instantlv sunk. 
This misfortune filled all our hearts with fear, so that the 
best and most experienced among us knew not what to do, 
especially seeing ourselves in so tempestuous a sea, and a 
so stormy place, so that I think there be few worse in the 
world. Our ship now drove about at the mercy of the 
winds and waves like a wreck, so that we were sometimes 
within a few leagues of the Cape of Good Hope, when a 
contrary wind came and drove us almost into 40^ S. among 
hail, snow, and sleety cold weather. This was a great mi« 
sery to us, and pinched us sore with cold, having been long 
used to hot weather. All this while the Hector carefully 
kept by us, which was some comfort, and many times the 
master of the Hector came aboard our ship to consult upon 
what could be done. At length it was concluded to put our 
mizen-mast out at a stern port, to endeavour to steer our 
ship into some place where we might make and hang a new 


ISS Early Voyages of the VK^is ii. BdoX ni« 

rudder to carry us home. This device was however to fit- 
tie purpose ; for, when we had fitted it and pat it out into 
the sea, it did so h'ft up with the strength of the waves, and 
8o shook the stem of our ship, as to put us in great danger, 
so that we were glad to use all convenient haste to get the 
mast again into the ship. 

We were now apparently without hope or remedy, un- 
less we made a new rudder, and could contrive to hang it 
at sea> which may easily be judged was no easy matter, in 
so dangerous a sea, and our ship being of seven or eight 
hundr^ tons.' But necessity compelled us to try aO pod« 
Bible means. The general ordered our carpenters to make 
a new rudder of the mizen-mast; but there was this great 
obstacle, that we had lost all our rudder-irons along with 
the old rudder : Yet we proceeded with all expedition. One 
of our men dived, to search what might remain of our rud- 
der-irons on the stem port, who found but two^ and another 
that was broken. Yet, with God's help, finding a fair day, 
we made last our new rudder, and were able to make sail 
homewards. Within three or four hours, the sea took it 
off again, and we had great difficulty to save it, losing an- 
other of our irons, so that only two now remained to hang 
it by, and our men b^ran to propose quitting the ship and 
going on board the Hector to save themselves. '* Nay," 
said Uie general, << we will abide God's leisure, and see what 
mercy he will shew us ; for I do not yet despair to save 
ourselves, the ship, and the goods, by some means which 
God will appoint." With that, he went into his cabin, and 
wrote a letter for England, proposing to send it by the Hec- 
tor, commanding her to continue her voyage and leave us ; 
but not one of our ship's company knew of this command. 
The tenor of the letter was as follows, little more or less, 
addressed to the Governor and Company : 


What hath passed in this toyage, and what 
trades I have settled for the company , and what other events 
have befallen us, you shall understand by the bearers hereof, to 
whom {as occasion has fallen) I must refer you. I shall strive 
mth all diligence to save my ship and her goods^ as you may 


' At the commencement of this article, the burden of the Dragoa is 
•nly stated at 600 tons.— £. 

^AP. X. 8EdT. I. ^glish East India Company* ^39 

perceive by the count I take in venturing my own l^i, and 
those that are with me. I cannot tell where you should look 
for mCf if you send arly pinnace to seek me ; becatue I live at 
the devotion of the winds and seas. And thus, fare you welip 
praying God to send us a merry meeting in this world, if it be 
hisffood will and pleasure. 

The passage to the Eadt India lieth in 62 J degrees, by the 
north-west on the America side.* 

Your very loving fiiend^ 


' When this letter was delivered to the Hector, together 
with his orders for her departure, the general expected she 
would have gone ofFfrom us in the night, according to in* 
Structions; but when he espied her in the morning,!]^ said 
to me that they regarded no orders. But the Hector kqst 
some two or three leagues from us, not coming any nearer; 
jR>r the master was an nonest and good man, who loved our 
general, and was loth to leave him in such great distress. 
It was now incumbent upon us to try every means to save 
ourselves and the ship. Our carpenter mended oxnr new 
' rudder, and in a few days the weather became somewhat 
fair and the sea smooth. So we made a signal for the Heo- 
tbr to come near, out of which came the master, Mr San- 
der Cole^ bringing the best swimmers and divers belonging 
to his ship, who helped us materially in our work. By the 
blessing of God, we hung our rudder again on the two re- 
maining hooks, and then had some hope of being able to 
fetch some port for our relief. 

We were sore beaten to and fro in these raging sead, and 
had many more storms than are here expressed, sometimes 
for a whole month together, so that our men b^an to fidl 
sick, and the wind was so scant that we could fetch no port 
on the coast of Africa, which was the nearest land. Com- 
mitting ourselves therefore into the hands of God, we made 
toil for the island bf St Helena, knowing that we were to 
the westwards erf* the Cape of Good Hope, especially by the 
height we were now in to the northward. While in this 
course our main-yard fell down^ and drove one of our men 


* This latter paragraph obrioiisly refers to the ignis fa tuw of a nortb- 
west passage by sea to India, to be noticed in an i^ter part of this work. 


140 Early Voyages of the vast ll. book itfJi 

into the sea^ where he was drowned ; this being the last of 
our misfortunes. The 5th June, we passed the tropic of 
Capricorn, and in the rooming of the 16th we got s^ht of 
St Helena to our great joy. We bore close along shore^ 
to get to the best part of the road, where we came to anchor 
in twelve fathoms water, right over a^nst a chapel which 
the Portuguese had built there long since. 

When we went ashore, we found by many writings, that 
the Portuguese caraks had departed from thence onT^ eight 
days before our arrivaL In this island there are excellent 
ren*eshments to be had, especially water and i^ild goats; 
but the latter are hard to be got at, unless good means are 
followed. For this purpose me general selected four stout 
active men, the best marksmen among our people, who were 
directed to go into the middle of the island, each of these 
having four men to attend him, and to carry the goats he 
killed to an appointed place, whence every day twenty men 
went to bring them to the ships. By this plan there was 
no hooting or hallooing about the island to scare the goats, 
and the snips were plentifully supplied to the satisfaction of 
all. While we remained here, we refitted our ships as well 
as we could, and overhauled our temporary rudder, secu- 
ring it so effectually that we had good hope it might last u& 
home. All our sick men recovered their health, through 
the abundance of goats and hogs we procured for their re-, 
freshment. IndeS all of us stood in great need of fresh 
provisions, having seen no land in three months, but being 
c<Hitinually beaten about at sea. 

We departed from St Helena on the 5th July, steering 
K;W. and passed tlie island of Ascension, in lat. 8^.S. on 
the 13th. No ships touch at this island, for it is altogether 
barren and without water ; only that it abounds with fish 
all around in deep water, where there is ill riding for ships* 
Holding our course still N.W. with the wind at £. and 
S.£« tillthe 19th of that month, we then passed the equa- 
tor, and on the 24th were in lat. 6^ N. at which time we 
judged ourselves to be 150 leagues from the coast of Gui- 
nea* We then steered N. by W. and N. till the 29ti, 
when we got sight of the island of Fuego, one of the Cape^ 
Verds, where we were becalmed five days, striving to pass 
to the eastwards of this island but could not, for the .wind 
changed to the N.E. so that we had to steer .W.N. W» 

. We 

CHAP. X. SECT* ix# Engiish East Indiu Campam/. 141 

- We were in kt. 16^ N. on the 7th August, And on the 
>12th we passed the tropic of Cancer, in lat 2S^ SC/ N. 
iioldin^ our course to the north. The 23d the wind came 
wester^ ; and on the 29th we passed St Manr> the south* 
eastermost of the Azores, with a fair wind. We had sound- 
ings on the 7th September, 1603, the coast of England be* 
ing then 40 leagues from us by our reckoning ; and we arri- 
TM in the Downs on the 1 1th of that month, where we came 
safe to anchor : For which we thanked the Almighty Oodf 
who hath delivered us from infinite perils and dangers, in 
^is long and tedious navigation ; having been, from the 2d 
-April, 1601, when we safled from Torbay, two years five 
months and nine days absent from England. 

Section II. 

Account of Java, and of the first Factory of the Eng&sh at 
Batitam ; with Occurrences there from the 1 \th February, 
1603^ to the 6th October, 1605/ 


The entire title of this article, in the Pilgrims of Purchas, 
is, ^< A Discourse of Java, and of the first English Factory 
there, with divers Indian, English, and Dutch Occurrences ;. 
written by Mr Edmund Scot, containing a History of Things 
done from the 1 1th February, 1602, till the 6th October, 
1605, abbreviated." 

It is to be observed, that February, 1602, according to 
the old way of reckoning time in England, was of the year 
1603 as we now reckon, for which reason we have changed 
the date so far in the title of the section. Mr Edmund 
Scot, the author of this account of Java, was one of the 
factors left there by Sir James Lancaster. He became lat- 
terly head factor at that place, and returned from thence to 
England with Captain Henry Middleton, leaving Mr Ga* 
briel Towerson to take charge of the trade in his room ; 
doubtless the same unhappy person who fell a sacrifice, se- 
venteen years afterwards, to the avarice, cruelty, and injus* 
tice of the Dutch* This article may be considered as a sup- 

; Porch. FUgr. {. 164. AstL I« 884. 

14*^ Eiirfy VoyxgH rf the ?abt ii* b<k>& iii. 

riefoent to llie voyage of Shr James Lancaster, and is dilef- 
1^ ^opted as giving an acoount of the fir6t iactory estaWsb- 
td by the English m the East Indies, Being in some part> 
father tediously minute upon matters of trifling interest^ 
lome freedom has been used in abbreviating its redundan- 
cies. The following character is given of it by the editor 
4if Astley's collection. — E. 

*' The whole narrative is very instnictive and entertain* 
SQg, except some instances of barbarity, and affords more 
li^t into the affairs of the English and Dutch, as itell as 
respecting the manners and customs of the Javanese and 
tQtber. inhabitants of Bantam, than if the author had dress- 
ed up a more formal relation, in the usual way of travel^ 
lers : From the minute particulars respecting the Javanese 
and Chinese, contained in the last sections, the reader will 
be able to collect a far better notion of the genius of these 
people, than from the description of the country inserted 
in the first ; and in these will be found the bickerings be- 
tweenk the Dutch and English, which laid the foundations of 
these quarrels and animosities which were afterwards carri- 
ed to such extreme length, and which gave a fatal blow to 
the English trade in the East Indies." — AstU 

§ 1. Desertion of Java, with the Manners and Cusioms of 
its Inhabitants, both Javanese and C/unese. 

Java Major h an island in the East Indies, the middle of 
which is in long. 104?** E. and in lat. 9** S. * It is 145 
leagues long from east to west, and about 90 leagues broad 
from south to north.^ The middle of the island is for the 
most part mountainous, yet no where so steep as to prevent 
the people from triayelling to their tops either a-foot or on 
horseback* Some inhabitants dwell on the hills nearest the 


' The longitade of the middle of Java may be assumed at 1 10^ £. from 
Greenwich, and its central latitude 7° 15' S. The western extremity u 
in long, 105° 20' and the eastern in 114^48' both E. The extreme 
north-west point is in lat. 6°, the most south-eastern in 8^ 45^, both S« 
It is bard to guess what Mr Scot chose as his first meridian, giving an ei^ 
ror of excess or difference of 30^ from the true position f as the meridian 
pf Ferro would only add about 18 degrees. — E. 

^ The- difference of longitude in the preceding note gives 189 leagues, 
being 43 more than in the text, whereas its greatest br^th does not ex- 
ceed 28 leagues^ not a third part of what is assigned in the texu— £• 

f»AP« X* 8^CT. lit: EngUihEast In4id Om^nyl 14S 

sea; but in tlie middle of tbe land* so &r a^ I could learo^ 
thare were po uihabitaDts ; but wild beasts of several sorts, 
some of which con^ to the valleys near the sea, and devour 
many people* Towards the sea the land for the most part 
is low and marshy, whereon stand their towns of principal 
trade, being mostly on the north and north-east sides of 
the island, as Chiringin, Bantam, Jackatra, and Jortan o^ 
Gieesqr- These low lands are very unwholesome^ and 
breed many diseases, especially among the strangers who 
xescNTt thither, and yield no merchandise worth speaking oJ^ 
ezcqpt pepper, which has been long brought from all parts 
crf'the island to Bantam, as the chief mart or trading town 
of the country. F^per used formerly to be brought here 
from several oth^r countries for sal^ which is not the case 
now, as the Dutch trade to every place where it can be 
procured, and buy it up. 

The town of mntam is about three English miles lon^ 
and veiy populous* It has three mari^ets held every day, 
one in die for^ioon and two in the afternoon. That espe* 
cially which isheldin the morning abounds as much in peo# 
|dc^ and is equally cfowded with many of our £urs in Eng- 
Iflod; yet I never saw any cattle there for sale, as very tew 
are bred or kept in the country. The food of the people is 
abnost entirdy confined to rice^ with some hens and fish, 
but not in great abundance. All the houses are built of 
gieat canes, with a few small timbers, being very sligfal; 
structures; yet in many houses of the principalpeople there 
is modli good workmanship, with fine carvings and other 
embenifihments. Some of the chie&st have a square cham- 
ber buik of brick, in a quite rude manner, no better than a 
hricUdJn ; the coly use of which is to secure their houses 
hold ttoS in doe of fires, for they seldom or nevor lodge or 
cat in ihesB. 

Many small rivers pervade the town, which also has an 
CTjyflent road for shaping; so that if the people were of 
any reasooable cspadty, it coold easily be made a goodi^ 
city. It is entirely somiunded by a bridL-wall, bam, in n, 
very waiiaGe mannrar^ with flankers and towos, soooringin 
all direcdoQs; and I have been told by some that it was 
first bnik fay the Qiinese. In many places this wall has 
&Sen to ruin. At one end <if the dty is the Clunese town^ 
being divided fixxn that of the Javanese faj a n an tmr ri v e i^ 
whidb, afi)er crossing the end dl the Qiniese Ii0w% runs 

144 Earfy Voyage ofth fahy n. Boost in; 

past the king^s palaoe, and then through the middle of 
the great town, where the tide ebbs and flows, so that at 
high water galleys and junks of heavy burden can go into 
the middle of the city. The Chinese town is mostfy built 
of brick, every house beii^ square and flat-roofed, formed 
of small timbers, split canes, and boards, on which are laid 
bridss and sand to defend them from fire. Over these brick 
warehouses a shed is placed, constructed of large canes, and 
thatched ; some being of small timber, but mostly of canes* 
Of late years, since we came here, many wealthy persons 
have built their houses fire-proof all the way to the top : 
but, on our first coming, there were none other in that man- 
ner except the house of the Sabander, and those of the rich 
Chinese merchants : yet even these^ by means of their win- 
dows, and the sheds around them, have been consumed by 
fire. In this town stand the houses of the English and 
Dutch, built in the same manner with the others ; but of 
late the Dutch have built one of their houses to the top of 
brick, but with much trouble and expence, in hopes ot se- 
curing themselves from fire. 

The King of Bantam is an absolute sovereign, and since 
the deposition and death of the late Emperor of Damacke 
he is omsidered as the principal king of the whole island. 
He uses martial law on any ofiender he is disposed to pu- 
nish. If the wife or wives of any private Individual are 
euilty of adultery, upon good proo^ both the woman and 
her paramour are put to death. They may put their slaves 
to death for any small fault. For every wife that a free Jar 
van marries he must keep ten female slaves, though some 
keep forty such for each wife^ and may have as many more 
as uiey please^ but can only have three wives ; yet may use 
all their female slaves as concubinqs. The Javanese are ex- 
ceedingly proud, yet very poor, as hardly one among them 
of a hundred will work. The gehtiy among them are re« 
duoed to poverty by the number of their slaves, who eat 
faster than their pepper and rice grow. The Chinese 

Slant, dress, and gauier all the pepper, and sow the rice, 
ving as slaves under the Javanese proprietors ; yet they 
absorb all the wealth of the land by their industry, from the 
indolent and idle Javanese. All the Javanese are so proud 
that they will not endure an equal to sit an inch higher than 
themselves. They are a most blood-thirsty race, yet seldom 
fight face to face, either among themselves or with other 


MtioBfl) alwBJjps 86«iEifig iheif i^^nge after a com&tify nan^ 
Aer, altiloiigb stout men of good stature. The punishment 
for murder among them is to pay a fine to the king : but 
evermore the relations of the murdered person seek fer re^ 
venge upon the murderer or his kindred ; so that the more 
they kill one another the more 'fines oome to the king. The 
ordinary we^nm, whidi Aej all wear, is a dagger, called a 
trisSf abont two feet Iong> with a waved bladi^ crooked to and 
&b indenture ways, li»e what is cdled a flaming sword, and 
exceedingly sharp, most of them being poisoned, so that not 
one among five hundred wounded in the body escapes with 
iife: The handles of these weapons are of horn or woody 
torionsly carved in the likeness of a devil, which many (^ 
these people worship. In their wars they use pikes, dartSy 
and targets; and of late some of them have learnt to use 
fire-arms, but Very awkwardly. 

The better sort wear a tuke or torban on their heads, and 
^ fine piece of painted calico round their loins, idl the rest 
of their bodies being naked. They sometimes wear a dose 
<;oat like a mandiiion^^ made of cu>lii, camblet, velvet, or 
some other silk ; but this is seldom, and ooiy on extraordi* 
nary occasions. The common people have a fla;t cap of vel* 
vet^ taflfeta, or calico, on their heads^ cut out in many pieces, 
and neatly sewed together, so as to fit close. AbMt their 
loins they wrap a piece (^calico made at Cb/fi^ put on likre 
a girdle, but at least a yard broad, being mostly of two co- 
lours. There ccHue also from the sam^',piate many sorts oi 
white cloth, which thqr dye, paint, and gi^dj acoohling to 
their own fkshions. They can also weave a kind c^ striped 
stufi^, either of cotton or the rinds of trees ; but, owingto 
their indolence^ very little of that is made or worn. The 
n^n for the most part wear their hair, which is very thick 
and curly, and in which they take great pride, and often 

eo bare-headed to show their hair. The women go all 
are-headed, many of them having their hair tucked up 
like a cart-horse, but the better sort tuck it up like our 
riding geldings. About their loins they wear the same 
linfis like the men ; and always have a piece of fine paint- 
ed calico, of thdr country fashion, thrown over their shout 
ders, with the ends hanging down loose bdiind* 
VOL. VIII, K • The 

^ The editor of Astle/s Collection substitutes the word eaUOck at this 

1 46 Earfy Voyages of the pa^t ii. book xij;^ 

The principal people are yery religious, yet go seldom to 
church. They acknowledge Jesus to have been a great pro* 
phet, calling him Nabi/ Isa, or the prophet Jesus, and some 
of them entertain Mahometan priests in their houses : but 
the common people have very little knowledge of any reli- 
.gion, only saying that there is a God who made heaven 
and earth ana alt things. They say that God is good^ and 
will not hurt them, but that the devil is bad, and will do 
them harm ; wherefore many of them are so ignorant as to 
pray to him, for fear he should harm them. Assuredly, if 
there were here men of learning, and having a suiGcient 
knowledge of their language to instruct them, many of these 
ignorant people might be drawn over to the true Christian 
faith, aud civilized ; for many with whom I have conversed 
upon Christian laws have liked all very well, except the pro- 
hibition of a plurality of wives^ as they are all very lasci vin- 
ous, both men and women* 

The better sort of the Javanese, who are in authority, are 
great takers of bribes ; and all of them are bad payers when 
trui>tc(i, although their laws for debt are so strict, that the 
creditor may take his debtor, wives, children, slaves, and 
all that he hath^ and sell them in satisfaction of the debt* 
They are all much given to stealing, from the highest to 
the lowest ; and surely they were, in times past, canibals or 
man-eaters, before they had trade with the Chinese^ which 
some say is not above a hundred years ago. They delight 
much in indolent ease and in music, and for the most part 
spend the day sitting qross-Iegged like tailors, cutting a 
piece of stick, by which many of them become good car- 
vers, and carve their criss handles very neatly ^ which is ail 
the work that most of them perform. They are great eat- 
ers; but the gentry allow nothing to their slaves except 
rice sodden in water, with some roots and he^bs. They 
have also an herb called bistel, which they carry with them 
wherever they go, in boxes, or wrapped up in a cloth like a 
sugar-loaf; and also a nut called pinang^^ which are both 
very hot-tasted, and which they chew continually to warm 
them within, and to keep away the flux. They also use 
much tobacco, and take opium. The Javanese are a viery 
dull and blockish people, very unfit for m^Jiaging the af- 

fi Probably that called areka on the contioent of India; thearekaaad 
betel being chewed together^ along with powdered cbunam, or shell-iime* 

mj^. X. ster. n. En^M Ea^ India Compam,, 147 

&ir8 of a commonwealth, so that all strangers who come to 
thieir land get beyond them ; and many who come here to 
dwell ftom the country of Clyih grow very rich, and rise to 
high offices, as the sabander^ laytamongon^ and others. The 
Chinese especially, who live crouching under them like Jews^ 
rob them of their wealth, and send it to China. 

The Chinese are very crafty in trade^ using every con- 
ceivable art to cheat and deceive. They have no pride in 
them, neither will they refuse any labour, except they turn 
Javans, when they have committed murder or some other 
villainy, when they become every whit as proud and lazy 
as a Javan.* They follow several diflerent sects of religion, 
but are mostly atheists ; many of them believing, that if 
they lead good lives, they will be born again to great riches, 
and be made governors ; whereas those who lead bad lives 
will be changed to some vile animal, as a frog or toad. 
They burn sacrifices every new moon, mumbling over cer- 
tain prayers in a kind of chanting voice, tingling a small 
bell, which they ring aloud at tlie close of each prayer. 
When any of them of good account lies sick and like to 
die^ they sacrifice in this manner : Their altars are fur- 
nished with goats, hens, ducks, and various kinds of fruiti 
some dressed fit for eating, and others raw, which are all 
dressed and eaten ; after which they burn a great man^ 
pieces of paper, painted and cut out into various devices. 
I have often asked them, to whom they bum their sacrifi- 
ces? when they always said, it was to God; but the Turks 
and Guzerates who were there, alleged it was to the devil : 
If so, they are ashamed to confess. 

Many of them are well skilled in astronomy, keeping an. 
exact account of the months and years. They observe no 
Sabbaths, neither keep they any day holier than another; 
except that, on laying the foundation of a house, or begins 
ning any great work, they note down the day, and keep it 
ever after as a festival. When any of them that are weal- 
thy die at Bantam, dieir bodies are burnt to ashes, which 
are collected into close jars, and carried to their friends in 
Chiijta. I have seen when some of them lay dying, that 
t^ere were set up seven burning perfumeS| four oi them 



^ Though notobvioudv expressed, it would appear, that for murder, 
and some other crimes, the Chinese had to become Mahometans, yo bp 
entitled to redeem their lives by a fine*— £• 

148 Eaff^ Fcjfog^ of tik vjuit u* book «t# 

^i^adbeCs, ffiiK feet &obx the gFauoilt ^usd three small .dim 
\ight» on tbe grouEd durectlv under the othena. Oo aikiiig 
frequqotly ithe iQe^uung pf tiU9 eeremooy^ I oould sierer gist 
any other jtAswer tbao that it was the custom of Chiiuu 
They do m.a&jr other such foolish things not knowing 
vherefbra, but only tbait it has bees «o done by their an- 

They de%ht much in tbe exhibition of pkys, and in 
gingiiigf but ^^rtainly have the worst Toices in the. worlds 
Tt^se play« and interlndes are ei&hibited in honour, of their 
go^9 after burning stfucrifii^ at the begLoning, tbe priests 
niany tiroeB Jcoeeling down, and kiasing the grocnd three 
tim^ in qiiick successiicai. These playa are made most 
coo^only wheu they think their junks are setting out from 
China, and like^vise when diey arriire at Bantam, and when 
they go away back to China. These plays sometimes begin 
at noon, and continue till neU morning, being mosdy ex.^ 
hibil^ in the open streets, on sta^s erected on purpose. 
They jh^ve Ukewise am^Hig them some soothsayers, who 
soiQetimes run raging up and down the streets^ having 
drawn swords in their hands, teaaring their hair like so 
many niadnwn, and throwing themsdves on the ground* 
Whf^ in this frantic state, they themselves affirm, and it is 
believed by the Chinese, ^at they can foretdi what is to 
happen- Whether they be possessed of die devil, who r&K 
veals things to tbem^ I know not ; but many of the Chinese 
uSfB these conjurers when they s^id away a junk on any 
voyage, to learn if the voyage shall succeed or not ; an4 
diey aiWe tbal^ it hath haiqpened accoidiug aa the sooth- 
sayer toM theiff. 

Tbe Chinese are appanelled in long gowns, wearing kir^r 
il^ or shorty garments, under these ; and are assupsedly 
|fae OM>a|t f^eminate »ud cowardly naticm in the world. On 
thei^ heads th^ w^ar a caul or dose bonnet, some of sill$ 
and fome of haiir, having the hair of their heads very lofi^, 
and bonnd up in a knot oo their crown& Their nobles and 
governors wear hoods of sundry fashions, somei)eing one 
half like a hat and the other half like a Frendihood, (^he|r$ 
of net-work with a high crown and no brims. They are 
tall and strong built, having all very small black eyes, and 
very few of them have any beards* They will at(^ and 


CHAT, x;^ s0cr. m En^^ Em India C&mpof^. l49 

(tmmat d mmiwt of TtBahijr to pi^ocnre wtuSl^* At Be^i* 
isoi thejr pntdbtM femnle slaves, as tliejr datmot htSa^ioy 
wmaHBk out 0t CMmu By these sbv'e^ th^ haVe ^ffaiiy db^L 
di^ii ^ and iirhett they go bade to China, wfthoat hiten^^ 
io tetam to Bmkttm, they tArty all their diiidreki aldng 
vnih them, bol sell their we«nen. They seiid always sottt^ 
of their goods to China by eVer^ fleet of jimks ; fbr if they 
die at Bantam^ all the goods they hate there &S io the 
king. If th^ cut their hair, they must nether retani to 
China ; bat their chiMren may, protiding tbeAr ^dir hui 
nerer been cttf^ 

J 2» A bfkf IXseourse of mamf Dangers by Fire, and oihep 

Tfeacherits cfthe Javanese* 

' After oar two ships, the Dragoi^ and Heetm*^ were kden, 
and ail thin^ set in order, oiicr general, Sir Jactxes Latiicas^ 
ter, d^arted from Bantan> oft the 21st February, i6Qfi, 
leaving nine persons resident in that city, over whom ho 
i^)poitted Mr Witliam Starkie to be chicdT commandet • 
He likewise left thirteen others, who were" appoonted to g^ 
in oar pinnace for Banda, over whom ThofDfas Tndd, mer« 
tham, was eonsiitiited chief comtnander, a»d Tkoittas Keith 
inasier of the pinnace. At his departure^ the genera) left 
Of ders that the pmnace shoold be sent away with aU speed i 
wherefore^ having taken on board fifty-six chests a^d bdes 
of goods, she set sail at night oA the dCb March ^ boft 
tneetin^ with contrary winds, was forced to retavn to BdiN 
tarn, after having been two months at sea^ beating ap to «o 
MBTpose. Also^ at our general's departure he %ft u9 tfi^ 
Iroases fuU of goodsy besMles some being at the D^^^Mban^s 
home ; but we were too few in tmne^t to have kept oitt 
hoase weU, bad not God of his great nterey preserv^ tM. 

Bdbi-e the departare g( our sliipd, a qf^arrei hdd tak^a 
l^bee between our people and the Javanese^ who sboglM by 
alltttener of waiys to be revenged; so that presently aftetf 
the departure of our pinnace, they began to attempt seitilig 
fire to onr prindpi^ lM>ase^ by meaiis dTfiro-arrowB and fire- 
darls in the ni^t ; and whe» we bvoaght out any quantity 
of our goods^ to air, they were sure to set some part of tho 
town on fire to windward not fer from- as. If these fire* 
arrows had not, by God's good providenee, been seen by 
ikme of our pec^^ that bouse and all its goods had surely 


150 Early Voyagei of the . fart il« book mi 

been consumed, as plainly appeared when we came' after- 
wards tx> repair the roof. But, as the malice of the rascal 
sort began now plainly to appear, and continued for two 
years against us, so did the merciful protection of God be- 
gin to shew itseif, and continued to the last day, as will 
manifestly be seen in the sequel of this discourse : For 
nrhich blessed be his holy name. 

Immediately after dispatching the pinnace, we began to 
]Q,y the foundation of our new house, which was seventy-two 
feet long, and thirty-six broad. And as at this time a new 
protector of the kingdom was chosen, we wqre put to some 
trouble and cost before we could get permission to go 
through with it. In airing our prize goods, Mr Starkie 
unadvisedly caused the leather covers to be stripped off 
from most of the bales, by which we found afterwards that 
they did not keep their colour near so well as the others. 
On the 21st of March, in consequence of a cannon being 
fired off by a Chinese captain, the town was set on fire, 
and many houses full of goods were consumed. Among 
the rest the Dutch house was burnt down, in which we haa[ 
aixty-five packs of goods, besides some pepper. We had 
also a considerable quantity of pepper in the house of a 
Chinese which was burnt down, in which we lost 190 sacka 
entirely, besides damage received by the rest. Our losa bjr.. 
this fire, was great, yet we were thankful to God it was no 
worse, considering how near the fire came to our two 
bouses, which were at that time very unfit for such dan- 
ger, especially one to which the fire came within three 
yards, so that the jambs of the windows were so hot one 
could hardly lay their hand upon them, yet did not its old- 
dry thatch take fire, to the great admiration of all who 
were there of many nations. All the villains of the {rilace 
g^ther^ round our house^ so that we durst take no rest« 
lest they should set it on fire. Some of them even were so 
impudent in the evening as to ask how many of us lay in 
that house, as if meaning to set upon us in the night and 
cut all our throats. They were even so bold as to come ia 
the day time before our very faces, to observe how our door» 
were fastened in the inside ; and we were often warned by^ 
pur well-wishers to keep good watch, as there were a knot 
of thieves who intended to rob and murder us. There were 
only four of us in this house, who, with over-watching, and 
by. the disease of the country, which is a dysentery, were, 
qpit^ spent with weakness, and two of us never recovered. 


^iBfAP. X. sfiCT. IX. ErIgUsk East India Compamf. 151 

" Nine sail of Hollanders came into the road on the 19th 
t)f April, 1603, of which fleet Wyorne van Warwicke was 
^general ; who shortly after sent two ships to China, two to 
the Molaccas, and one to Jortan, two remaining at Ban- 
tam. We were much beholden to this general tor breads 
wine, and many other necessaries, and for much kindness. 
He used often to say that Sir Richard Lewson had relieved 
bimself^ when like to perish at sea, for which he held him- 
self bound to be kind to the English wherever he met 
tiiem ; and he shewed much reverence for our queen on all 

Thomas Morgan, our second factor, died on the 25th of 
April, after having been long sick ; and Mr Starkie began 
to grow very weak. The l8th, our pinnace which had 
gone to Banda can\e back to Bantam, having lost William 
Oiace, one of her factors, and all the others in her were 
weak and sickly. The new protector now forbade us from 
proceeding with our house ; but by the favour of the Sa- 
bander, and Cay Tomogone Goboy the admiral, we were 
with much ado flowed to finish it. Mr Starkie, our prin-^ 
cipal factor, died on the 30th June, whose burial General 
Warwicke caused to be honoured by the attendance of a 
company of shot and pikes^ with the colours trailed, as at 
the ftmieral of a soldier. 

The great market-place on the east side of the river was 
set fire to on the 4*th July, in which fire several Chinese 
who were indebted to us lost their all, so that we sustained 
some ioss. Thomas Dobson, one of the factors appointed 
for Banda, died on the 17th July. The town was fired 
again on the east side of the river on the 27th. The 5th, 
several Dutch captains came to our house, saying that the 
regent had asked if they would take our parts in case he 
did us any violence; when they told him we were their 
neighbours^ and they would not see us wronged. I went 
immediately to the regent, to whom I gave a small present, 
and thanked him for the men he had lent us to help our 
building ; but I could see by his countenance that he was 
angry. The same day the admiral of Bantam sent his sou 
to the regent to enquire why he used threats against us, 
which he denied ; and, sending for me next morning, he 
asked me who had said he meant to harm us. Saying it 
was the Dutch captains, he answered if any Javan or Chi- 
nesehad said so, he would have sent for them and cut their 


ISt l^fy Vwfggti ijf ih€ MAY fil* 9<KK Jil. 

tkroato befcie ray ejes. He Ihtii bkmcd rae finr imH co- 
ming to him vih&Bk we h^ any Buits^ «id going aliirfty» to 
the sabander and admi/al ; upon which I said Siat he was 
only newly appointed, and we w»» not yet acquainted with 
him^ but should apply to him in fotvure* 

About this time aa afiiray brdie out between the Hol^ 
landers and the Chineae^ in which some on both sides w^re 
aiain and wounded^ owing io the disorderly and drunken 
behaviour of the lower Dutchmen when on shore. They 

S»t the worst on this occasion, not indeed from the Chinese 
emselves, but from some Javan slaves of turn-coat Chi"- 
nese, who would steal unawares on the HoUanderaof an 
evening, and stab them in a cowardly manner. One day, 
when ue Hollanders were very importunate about one of 
their xaen who bad been assassinated^ the rc^g^t aakedy 
whether they brought a law abng with them into a fereiffn 
country, or whether they weve governed by the laws of the 
country in which they resided r They aaewered, thatthej 
were governed by their own laws when on ship board, aiMi 
by those of the country when on shore. Then said the re* 
^nt, << I will tell you what are the laws of this country in 
regard to murder. If one kill a slave^ he must pay 20 ryals 
of eight, if a freeman 50, and if a gentleman 100/' This 
was all the redress they had for the slaughter of their maau 
About the 5th September there came a junk fuU of men 
from the island of Lampon in the straits of Sunda» who are 
great enemies to the Javans, and yet so very like them aa 
not to be distinguishable. These men, having their juidc 
in a creek near Bantam, and being in all points like the 
Javans, used to come boldly into the town and into the 
houses, even at noonday, and cut off the peof^'s heada^ so 
that for near a month we had little rest for the grie^oua la* 
mentations of the townjs people. After a time^ many of 
them becoming known, were taken and put to death. They 
were men of comely stature^ and the reason of their strange 
procedure was, that their king rewarded them with a ten 
male slave for every head they brought him, so that they 
would often d^ up newly-buried persons at Bantam and 
cut <^ their heads, to impose upon their savage king. 

AboH^i thifi time^ we got notice firom the admiral aad 
other friends to be much on our guard, aa some of the prift* 
cipal natives in respect to births tboUg^ not ia wedth or 
office, had con^pked to murder uaifor the sake Q£QurgDod% 


«BAjr* x^ ncT* tl« Et^HA Eeai India Campamf. 15$ 

and then to give out that it had been done by the Lamponu 
llieae dertk came several times in the intention to execute 
their horrid purpose, but seeing always lights about our 
houses which we had set up that we might see them, and 
h ea riB g our drum at the end of every watch, their hearts 
fiiiled ukem for fear of our small arms, both which and our 
mu tf d eren [Uunderbusses] we had always ready for their 
feoeptioB. At length thq^ fell out amoi^ themselves and 

. By oiur continual alarms, and the grievous outcries of 
aie% womeB^ and children, who were n^btly murdered 
anwuid us, our men were so wrou^t upon, that even in 
thdff deep they would dream of pursuii^ the Javans, and 
would suddenly start out of bed, catch at their weapons^ 
and even wound eadi otlter before those who had the 
watch oould part them ; but yet we durst not ronove dbeif 
weapcNQs^ lest they should be instantly wanted, of which we 
were m constant dread. Being but few of us, I had to take 
my regular turn of watch with the rest, and have ofteu 
been more in fear of our own men than of the Javans, so 
that I had often to snatch up a target when I heard them 
mdunff any noise in their steep, lest they might treat me as 
they did each other. So terrified were we on aooount of 
fire^ that though, when we went to sleep after our watches 
were expired, our men often sounded their drum at. our 
eaxB without awakening us, if the word fire had been spokeUf 
however softly, we would all instantly run from oar chiucn* 
bers ; so that I was forced to warn tnem not to talk of fire 
in the n%^t without urgent occasion. I do not mention 
these things to discourage others &om going hereafter to 
Bantam r for we were tl^ strangers^ bat have now many 
friends there^ and the country is under much better regu* 
lation, and will more and more improve in government at 
,the yoiing kii^ grows older. In three months time, the 
town on 1^ east side of the river was five times burnt 
^iawB ; hut^ QoA be praised, the wind always favoured us 4 
and dithov^ the Javans often set it on fire near o^ it pleiH 
sed God stul to preserve us, as there was Uttle wind, and 
the fict was put out Wqk^ it got our length* 

1 54 £arfy Voyages of the vjlmxu BOox^ttti 

§ 3. Differences between the HoUanders, styling themselves Eng^ 
lish, and the Javans, and of other memorable TAiiigs* 

About this time there was again a great outcast between 
the Hollanders and the natives, owing to the rude beha- 
viour of the former, and many of them were stabbed in the 
evenings. The common people did not then distinguish 
between us and the Hollanders, calling both of us English, 
because the Hollanders had usurped our name on first co« 
ming here for trade, in which they did us much wrong, a» 
we used often to hear the people in the streets raiting 
against the English, when they actually meant the HoK 
landers ; so that, fearing some of our men might be stabbed 
instead of them, we endeavoured to fall upon some plan t6 
make ourselves be distinguished from them. And as the 
17th of November drew nigh, which we still held as the co- 
ronation-day of queen Elizabeth, knowing no better, we 
dressed ourselves in new silk garments, and made us scarfs 
and hat-bands of red and white taffeta, the colours of our 
country, and a banner of St George, being white with a red 
cross in the middle. We, the factors, distinguished our- 
selves from our men, by edging our scarfs with a deep gold 

When the day arrived, we set up our banner on the top 
of our house, and, with our drum and fire-arms, marched 
up and down the yard of our house ; being but fourteen in 
pumbcr, we could only cast ourselves in rings and esses in 
single file, and so plied our shot. Hearing our firing, the 
S£|bandcr, and some others of the chief people of the land^ 
came to see us, and enquired the cause of our rgoicing ; 
when wc told them that our queen was crowned on that day 
forty-seven years ago, for which reason all Englishmen, in 
whatever country they might then happen to be, were in 
use to. shew their joy on that day. The sabander com-' 
mended us mightily, tor shewing our reverence to our sovc-' 
reign at so great a distance from our country. Some of the 
others asked, how it happened that the Englishmen at the 
other house or factory did not do so likewise ; on which we 
told them that they were not English but Hollanders, ha- 
ving no king, and their land being ruled only by governors^ 
being of a country near England, but speaking quite a dif- 
ferent language. 


CBAF. X. SECT. if» English Eost India Company. !5j 

' The multitude greatly admired to see so few of us dis« 
charge so many shots, for the Javans and Chinese are very 
inexpert in the use of fire-arms. In the afternoon, I made 
our people walk out into the town and market-place, that 
tibe people might see their scarfs and hat^bands, making a 
shew that the like had never been seen there before, and 
that the natives might for the future know them from the 
Hollanders ; and many times the children ran after us in 
the streets, crying out, Orang Engrees bayk, Orang HollandA 
jahad : The Englishmen are go^, the Hollanders are bad. 
' The 6th December twa Dutch ships came in, that had 
taken a ridi Portuguese carak near Macao, by which they 
got great plunder, and were enabled so to bribe the regent, 
that he begsm to listen to their desire of being permitted to 
build a handsome house. About this time the regent sent 
for me to lend him 2000 pieces of eighty or at least 1000 ; 
but I put him off with excuses, saying we had been left 
there with goods, not money, that the natives owed us 
much which we could not get in, and that we were under 
thenecessity of purchasing pepper to load our ships, which 
*we were expecting to arrive daily. 

' The 6th February, 1604, Robert Wallis, one of our com- 
pany, died, and several others of our men were very weak 
4and lame, owing to the heat of the pepper, in dressing, 
screening, and turning it ; so that we were in future obliged 
to hire Chinese to do tliat work, our own men only super- 
intending them. The 16th of that month there came in a 
great ship of Zealand from Patane, which made us believe 
that General Warwicke was coming to load all his ships 
here; for which reason we immediately bought up all the 

food and merchantable pepper we could get. This ship 
ad made some valuable prizes^ but they had sworn all the 
English* mariners on board to tell us nothing, on pain of 
losing their wages, which we took as very unkind. There 
was at this time in Bantam three houses of the Hollanders, 
all upon separate accounts, which all bought up as much 
pepper as they could get. 

- The 5th March, the regent sent again to borrow 1000 
pieces of eight in the name of the king ; and I was forced 
to lend him 500, lest he might have quarrelled with me, 
which would have given much pleasure to the Hollanders. 
In this country, when a Javan of any note is to be put to 
death, although there is a public executioner, yet the near- 
:• / est 

1 SC Earfy VayugH of fjie mh? iir book. %vL 

est of kin to die criminal i» gefierdfy ftDow^ fo* execnfe the 
office, which is considered as a great finvcMir. The 14i& 
March, Thomas Tudd^ who had wen left here as chief fiM»- 
tor for Banda, depairted this life, haringbeeB \otig ak^; ao 
that of seven factors left here for Bantam and Band% tw» 
only were in life^ besides several others c^ our men hsTiiig 
died ; we being now cmly ten men living and ooe boy. 

A great junk from China came in ob ((he 22cl of Api^ 
whidi was Uiongbt to have been cast away, being so late, lit 
they usually come in during February and March* In conses* 
quence of her very late comings coMhes kept aU this yeat at a 
very cheap rate, whidi was a great hindnui^e to- our trad^ 
9» -vfhexk cashes are cheap, and pieces of eight consequeitdj 
dear, we could not seU any of our prize goods at half the 
value we did at oar fii'st arrivdL Besides this, the Chinest 
sent all the ryals they could get this year to- Chma ; ton 
^hddi reason we were obliged to give them credit, or nmt 
have lost the principal time of the year fer making aaicsi 
The Hollanders had purchased ail the peppier, exeept what 
was in our hands^ and what belonged to the sabander,. w1k> 
would not sell at any reasonaide price* Our goods now \»^ 
gan to be old, and many of their colours to fade ; for the 
wardbouses are so hot and moist, that they wil spoil any 
kind of cloth that is long in them, thongli we take nev«s 
•o much pains in airing and turning tkemu 

. § 4. Treaeherom Undermninga, and dher OccmrretHces* 

A Chinaiman turned Javan was our next neighfaoiiii^ wko 
kept a victqalling-liouse or tavern, and brewed arack, a hot 
drink used in these parts instead of wine He had twoout* 
houses, in erne of which his guests were in use to sit,, and 
the other was his brewhouse, which joined the pales on die 
south side of our house. He now commenced a new trade^ 
find became an engineer, having leagued with eight otfaor 
villains to set. our house on fire and plunder our gBod9m 
These nine ruffians dug a well in the brewhous^ firom the 
bottom of which they wrought a mine quite under thefixm- 
dation ^ oar house, and then upwards to our waf ebouse ; 
but cm coming to the planked floor of the wareliouse^ th^ 
were at a stand how to get through, beinff aftaad to cut 
them, as they always heard some of us wafldng over them 
night and day. They had gone wrong to .woirk $ jGbr if 


iHAs. X. 8sor. tx. : ^ngSA East India Company. 157 

thej ii^d conttniied iheir nunc only to bar nesct adjoining 
vasreropm, th^ would haye found 30»000 pieces of eight 
buried in jars for foar of fire; beside that room was not 
boanded. After ^aidng two months in vain for an oppor- 
tunity to cut die boar<^ one of them, who was a smith, pro- 
posed to work through our planks by means o£ fire. Ac- 
eording^y, about ten at night of the 28th May, 1604, they 
put a candle to the planks, through which they presently 
burnt a round hole. When the fire got through, it imme- 
diately communicated to the mats of our bales, which began 
to biurn and i^ead. All the while we knew nothing of the 
matter, by reason of the closeness of the warehouse, idl the 
windows being plastered up for fear of fire over-head. 

After the first watch was out^ one of which I had been, the 
second watch smelt a ^txonafunk of fire, as it was by that 
time UMch increased, but &ey could not find out where it 
was after searching every corner. One of them remember-^ 
•d a rat^hole behind his trunk, whence he could plainly per- 
ceive the smolfie steaming out, on which he came iminedi^ 
ately to me, and told me our cloth warehouse was on fire. 
Going down immediately, and opening the doors ef the 
wardimise, we were almost svffocBted by the smoke, which 
was «o thick we oould not perceive whence it came. We 
had at this time two Jars of gunpowder in this warehouse^ 
nrhidi made us greatly f^ar being blown up : But, laying 
aside fear, wie puUed every thing away that lay upon these 
jars, and got tJbem out to our back-yard, the jars b^ng al- 
ready very hot. We now searched boldly for the fire, and 
at last found at. At length, by the aid of some Chinese 
]^rchaiits and others, w« cleared the room of above fifty 
packs of goods, sixteen of which were on fire. 

We wondered how diis fire had come, suspecting ihe 
Portuguese had hired some Mdays to do it : But a Chi-» 
nese bricklay^, who wrought at the Dut(^ house, told a 
Hollander next morning, who had been long in the coun- 
try, that it was done by the Chinese brewer and his accom- 
ptiees, who ^ere now fljed, and if we looked well in the 
room we should find how it had been done. The Dutch- 
man toid this to an English sui^on, desiring him to come 
aaad tell us, while he, the Dutchman, being perfect in the 
native language, would go and enquire aft^er the incendi- 
aries. Tlie surgeon came to me, and desired to see the 
room which had been oa fire; on going into which with a 


15$ Early Voyages of the pabt ir. book iir,* 

caildle, be presently disco^^red a little' round hole^ burnt 
quite through one of the planks of the floor, and putting 
down a long stick, wo could feel no bottom. I then called 
&r an axe, with which we wrenched up the plank as softly 
as possible, under which was a hole through which the lar- 

fest trunk or pack in our warehouse might hare gone down, 
immediately took three of our men armed, and went to 
the house whence the mine came. Leaving one at the 
door, with oi^ders to let no person out, I went into the 
bouse with the other two of my men, where we found three 
men in one of the rooms. There were two more in another 
room, who immediately fled on hearing us, by means of a 
back-door which we did not know of. After a few blows, 
we made the three men prisoners, and brought them away. 
One was an inhabitant of the brewer's house, but we could 
{H*ove nothing against the others, yet we laid all three in 
irons. I immediately sent Mr Towerson to the regent, to 
give him an account of the matter, and to desire the villains 
might be sought out and punished. He promised thi£^ 
should be done, but was very slack in performance. The 
Dutch merchants, hearing wc had taken some of the incen-^ 
diaries, and fearing the Chinese might rise against us, came 
very kindly to us armed, and swore they would live and die 
in our quarrel. 

After laying out such of our goods to dry as had been 
wetted in extinguishing the fire, we examined the person 
who dwelt with the brewer, who told us the names of six 
who were fled, but would not confess that he knew any 
thing about the mine, or setting our warehouse on fire. 
Then threatening him with a hot iroh, but not touching. 
Kim, he confessed the whole affair, and that .he was con- 
cenied in it, saying, that the two out-houses were built ex- 
pressly for ihe puipose, though put to other uses to avoid 
suspicion. I sent him next morning tp execution ; and as 
he went out at our gate> the Javans reviled him, to which 
he answered, that the English were rich and the Chinese 
poor, therefore why j^bould not they steal if they could from 
the English? 

Next day the Javan admiral took one of the incendiaries^ 
who was found hid in a privy. This was he who put the 
fire to our house. He confessed to the admiral that he 
had clipped many ryals, and had counterfeited some ; he 
pven confessed some things concerning our matter^ but not 



CHA^. X. stCT«'ii. English East India Company* 159 

much, and would tell us nothing. Because of his obsti- 
nacy) and that he had set our house on fire, I caused him 
to be burnt, by means of sharp irons thrust under the naUs 
of his thumbs, fingers, and toes, and the nails to be torn 
off; and, because he never flinched, we thought his hands 
and feet had been benumbed with tying, wherefore we burnt 
him in other parts, as the hands, arms, shoulders, and neck, 
but even this had no effect. We then burnt him quite 
through the hands, and tore out the flesh and sinews with 
rasps, causing his shins to be knocked with hot searing 
irons. I then caused cold iron screws to be screwed imo 
tha bones of his arms, and suddenly snatched out, and to 
break all the bones of his fingers and toes with pincers : 
Yet for all this he never shed a tear, neither once turned 
his head aside^ nor stirred hand or foot; but, when we adc- 
ed a question, he would put his tongue between his teeth, 
and strike bis chin on his knees to bite it off. After using 
th^ utmost extremity of torture in vain, I made him be 
.again laid fast in irons, when the ants, wluch greatly abound 
.there, got into his wounds, and tormented him worse than 
we haa done, as might be seen by his gestures. The king'a 
officers desired me to shoot him to death, which I thou^t 
top good a death for such a villain ; but as they* insisted, 
we led him out into the fields and made him fast to a stake. 
The first shot carried away a piece of his arm, bone and aU ; 
the next went through his breast near the shoulder, oii 
which he bent down his head and looked at the wound. AC 
the third shot, one of our men used a bullet -cut in three 
pieces, which struck his breast in a triangle, on which he 
jsunk as low as the stake would allow. Finally, between xmr 
men and the Hollanders he was shot almost in pieces.' 

At this tjme the admiral and sabander sent us an armed 
guard every night, lest the Chinese might rise against us* 
We were not, however, in any fear of them; yet we k«pt 
four of them to be witnesses for us, in case of their rising, 
jth^t.what we did was in our own defence. By means of a 


< This monster might have graced the holy office ! He must have de- 
lighted ia cruelty, or be could not have devised such horrible torments^ 
iuid given a recital of them. The Dutch at Amboyna did not inflict 
more savage tortures on the Engli^. Had not these things been related 
by the author himself, we could scarcely have believed such cruelty could 
'faav&existed in an Englishman^ — AstU L 295, a. 

160 Earhf Vcjfagn ^ftki mrt ii« book iHi 

liribe^ I pwic u ged another of the inceiidiariefly who confess- 
ed 'uffdmA his assodates. Hiese were VmHt the chief; 
itfidirfiMui his partner, dwelKng in the sam^ house ; HywUng, 
Omffgpay^j Hemsamcow ; Utee, who was shortly after crissed 
£oT neiiig caught with a woman; the informant, named 
B^fiojf ; Irrom and Lackowy who were fled to Jackatr% 
neither of whom I had before heard of. I used every means 
to get them^ but could not, unless I had been at great 
charges. Some of them belonged to great men among fht 
Javana, and had taken refuge in their houses, so that Wfe 
<ponld not get at them : Yet some of their masters c^red 
to sell them, on which we higgled for their price as one 
would do for an ox or calf^ but they held them so dear that 
I ^Ottld not deal widi them. I oJQTered as much for each as 
would have bought a slave in their stead ; but they were fit 
instruments for uieir purpose, being practised in all manner 
«>f villainy, so that they would not part with them, except 
ibr large sums ; for all the Javans and Chinese, from the 
liigbest to the lowest, are thorough-paced villains, without 
one spark of grace. Were it not for the sabander and ad- 
miral, and one or two more, who are natives of Ciyn^ there 
would be no living for Christians among them, without a 
fort, or a strong nouse all of brick or stone. We did not 
torture Boyhoy, because he had confessed, but crissed him. 

Among the other instruments of the devil on earth in 
Bantam, there wad a kinsman of the king, named Pang;rark 
Mamkticko, who kept one of the incendiaries of our house 
nnder his protection. He came one day to our house tO 
buy cloth, when I desired him to deliver up this fellow into 
our hands, telling him how good it would be for the ooun* 
try to root out all such villains. *^ Tell them so," said he^ 
^ who have the government in their hands, or care for the 
good of the country, for I do not.'' On another tim^ 
wanting me to give nim credit for cloth to the value of six 
or seven hundred pieces of eight, because I refused to trust 
him, he went away very angry, saying at the gate^ it was a 
pity our house was not again set on fire. 

The regent or protector gave us all the houses and ground 
that joined our inclosure, and had belonged to the incen- 
diaries that undermined our house, but made us pay enor- 
mously dear for the property. We bought also from A I 
Pangram^ or gentleman^ a house which came so near the 




CHAP. x. SECT. II* English Easttmdia Company* 161 

door of bur pqpper warehouse as to be very troublesome to 
us, so that now we had a spacious yard. 

Hie 9th September, the reg^it made proclamation, thajt 
no Chinese should wei^ pepper to the English and Hol- 
landefrs; which proclamation was procurea by the H^- 
landers, for tibey told ud themselves that day at dinner, that 
the protector owed them 10,000 sacks of pepper ; but I said 
,to them that it was not so, as they would not be such fools 
as to trust them so largely. I went next morning to an old 
-wonuin, who was called queen of the land by the sabander 
and others, and commands the protector, though not eve^ 
of the royal bloody but is hdd in such estimation among 
them for her wisdom, that she rules as though she were 
queen of the country. Having made known our griefs, she 
sent for the protector that I might talk with him in her pre- 
sence. I asked the reason why he had prohibited our trad^ 
on which he said that he must buy 10,000 sacks of pepper 
for the king; but I then said that I was informed by the 
Hollanders he owed them 10,000 sacks, and that he was 
working underhand for them against us. He used many 
shifts ; out the old queen, who was our fast friend, said he 
should not hurt us. Finding they could have no trade with 
the people for p^per, the Hollanders had bribed the pro- 
tector into this plan. But if we had possessed 10,000 pieces 
of eight more than we had, the Hollanders would have got 
little pepper that year in Bantam, for they are much dis- 
liked, and what trade they have is through fear of their 
shnps, which they have in great numbers in those seas. 
. In the end of September, the Pamran MandeHcko fell to 
robbing the junks, and seized one from Johor laden with 
fice, and having a number of men and women on boards 
all of whom he carried off as prisoners, and converted the 
ric^ to his own use. This was a ready way to keep all 
other junks from the place, and to starve the inhabitants^ 
as the la«d is not able to feed a quarter <^ its people. The 
king and protector sent to command him to deliver up the 
people and goods, but he refused, and fortified his house, 
beliig supported bv all the other /Miiigrans of the royal Uood, 
who were all^ like him, traitors to the kin& so that the Jong's 
officers durst not meddle with him. ^e protector, sa- 
bai^der, apd admiral, sent to us to take heed to ourselves, 
as the rebels grew stronger every day. I borrowed some 
small pieces of cannon of the Chinese merdiants, who were 

VOL, VIII. L our 

162 ^arly Voyaga of the VAWt lu book ith 

our friends, causing our men to make chain^ehotf lan^ 
ridge, and bar-shot, and fortified our quarters the best way 
I could with bushes and chains. So much were the inha- 
bitants in fear of the rebels, that all trade was at an end* 
Every day some spies of the rebels used to conie into Qur 
yard, very inquisitive about what we were doing, so that we 
looked nightly to be attacked, and made every preparation 
to give them a warm reception. 

About the 20th October, the King of Jackatra came to 
Bantam with 1500 fighting men, besides stragglers, and 
was to be followed by 1000 more. He challenged .the re- 
bels and pangram to fight him, having a great quarrel 
against them all, as they had endeavoured to nave. him de-^ 
posed from his kingdom. But the rebels kept within their 
fortifications. The King of Jackatra apd the Admiral oi 
Bantam sent for us on the 26th October, to know if there 
were any means to fire their fortifications from a reason* 
able distance, beyond reach of their basesy of which they had 
a great number. We told them, if we had a ship in the 
roads it might have been easily done, but we hardly ex- 
pected to find materials for the purpose, such as camphor^ 
salt-petre, and sulphur, having already some other thinga^ 
for the purpose of making fire-arrows. The admiral pro- 
posed the use of a long bow and arrows for this service, but 
in my opinion a musket would have answered better. We 
meant likewise to have shot red-hot bullets among them 
from the king's ordnance, which would have made sad work 
among their thatched houses and fortifications of canes ; 
for as Mandelicko had sought all means to set us on fire, 
we now meant to try if we could return the compliment. 
But, whether firom fear of the King of Jackatra, or hearing 
that we were employed, the rebels and pangrans came to 
an agreement two days afler, by which Mandelicko enga- 

fed to depart from the dominions of Bantam within six 
ays, with only thirty followers, which he did. The Javans 
are very unwilling to fight if that can be avoided, as their 
wealth consists chiefly in slaves, so that they are b^;gared 
if these be slain; wherefore they had always rather come 
to a set feast than a pitched battle. 

. In November and the beginning of December, we were 
constantly busy in completing our Duildings, and getting in 
and cleaning, pepper. A fiutch pinnace came into the 
roads on the 14th December, by which we were iDfonmecl 


CHAP. X. SECT. 11^ English East In3id Company. 163 

of the death 6f Queen Elizabeth, and the great plague and 
sickness that had prevailed over all Christendom. This 
occasioned more distress to us than all our late troubles ; 
but they told us that the King of Scots was crowned, that 
our laiiu was in peace, and that peace was likely to be con-* 
duded between England and Spain ; which news was very 
comfortable to us. They could give us no intelligence of 
our ships, having no letters for us : But the Dutch fleet 
soon followed^ on which I went immediately on board their 
admiral to welcome himy and enquire for letters, whidi were 
found in the vice-admiraL 

Umetet the chief of those who undermined and set fire to 
our house^ haviftg long lurked in the mountains, was now 
forced by want of food to repair to certain houses near Ban- 
lam^ whence he was brought to the house of the rich Chi- 
nese merchant. As soon as I heard of this, I sent Mr Tow- 
erson to inform the protector, and that we meant shortly to 
execute him. Since the time of the mischief this man oc- 
casioned, I had never gone out of our houses but once when 
the protector crossed us about the pepper, as before men- 
tioned, being in constant fear that our house would be fired 
before my return ; and three times a week I used to search 
aH the Chinese houses in our neighbourhood,- for fear of 
nH>re undermining. 

^ .5. Arrival of General Middleton, and other Occurrences* . 

In the evening of the 22d December, 16|04, we joyfully 
descried our ships coming into the roads ; but wnen we 
went on board the admiral, and saw their weakness, and 
ako heard of the weakly state of the other three ships, we 
were greatly grieved; well knowing that Bantam is not a 
place Tor the recovery of side men, but rather to kill men 
who come there in health. At my first going on board, I 
found the general, Captain Henry Middleton, very weak 
and sickly, to whom I made a brief relation of the many 
troubles we had endured. I also told him we had lading 
ready for two ships, which was some comfort to his mind, 
being' much grieved for the weakness of his men; as they 
had scarcely fifty sound men in the four ships, and had lost 
many of their sick men. . Even of those who came here in 
health, many never went out of Bantam roads. 


164r Earhf Voyages of the part n. book hi; 

The 24th we executed the arch-villain Unieiej who was 
the fourth of these rascals we had put to death, besides a 
fifth who was slain for stealing a woman. At my coming 
away four remained alive ; two of whom were at Jackatra» 
one with the rebel Mandelicko, and one with Cov Sana* 
patta Lanuiy whcMn we could not then get at. The same 
day our vice-admiral, Captain Coulthurst, came on shore 
with some merchants, and we accompanied him to court, 
to notify to the kin^ diat our general had letters for him 
from the King of iSigland, and a present, but being weary 
and sick with nis long voyage, would wait upon him as soon 
as he was refreshed. 

On Cfaristma&-day we dined on board the generaL But 
I ought to have previously mentioned, that, on the 23d, it 
was agreed the Dragon and Ascension were to be sent to 
the ISfoluccas, and the Hector and Susan to be loaded with 
pepper, and sent home. We busied ourselves to procure 
fresn victuals, vegetables, and fruits^ for the recovery <^ 
our men, who were in a most pitiable case with the scurvy; 

The Slst December, our general came on sh<Mre, and be- 
ing accompanied by all the merchants who were in suffici- 
ent health, and by several others, he went to court with the 
king's letter, which he delivered along with the following 
present : A fair basin and ewer, with two handsome stand- 
ing cups, and a spoon, all of silver parell gilt, and six mus- 
kets with their furniture. The general employed two or 
three days following in visiting our chiefest friends, as the 
skbander, the admiral, and the rich Chinese merchant, ma- 
king them presents, which they thankifuUy received. We 
then fell to work to pack up goods for the Moluccas ; but 
as our men recovered from the scurvy they feU ill of the 
flux, so that it seemed quite impossible for us to accomplish 
our business. 

The 7th January, 1605, the Dutch fleet, being nine tall 
shlps,^ besides pinnaces and sloops, set sail for Amboyna 
ana ibe Moluccas, so that we were long in doubt of getting 
any loading in those parts this year for our ships, so many 
having gone before us ; nor was it possible for ours to go 
earlier, owing to their weakness^ The lOth January^ our 


' Tills expression, tall ships, so often used in these early voyages, evi- 
dently means squareKigged vessels havine top-masts $ as oontradistin- 
^aishcd from low-masted vessels, such as Joops and pinnaces^— £. 

caiAF. X. jSECT. xu English East India Cprnpany. 16$ 

two ships tbat wei*e to go home began taking in pepper^ 
but were so b|)pre8sed with sickness that they could make 
ho dispatch. The other two having taken in all the goods 
tre thoiiglit meet for those parts, set sail on the 18th of Ja« 
nnary for the ishuids of Banda, their men beins still weak 
and sickly ; but how they spent their time till weir return 
t6 Bantam, I must refer to their own reports. Ilnmedi-^ 
ately after the departture of these ships under the general^ 
the protector sent to us for the custom, which we thou^t 
had been quite well understood, by what was paid when the 
A^. wereVe before, but he demanded iany dutie. of 
Vfbidi we had never heard form^ly, and because I refused 
payment, he ordered the porters not to carry any mora 
pepper for us. To prevent, therefore, this hindrance in 
loading our ships, I was forced to pay him in hand, as had 
been oone on the former occasion, and to let the full agree* 
ment remain open till the return of our general. 

It pieksed God to take away the two masters of the two 
ships whkh were now k>adin^ Samuel Spencer, master of 
the Hector, and Habakkuk JPery, of the Susan; as also 
William Smith, master's mate of the Hector, and soon af* 
terwards Captain Styles, with several other principal men, 
and many of their sailors, so that we were forced to hire 
men to ease them of their work in loading, and also to en- 
gage as tn«xy as we could get of Guzerat and Chinese 
mariners, to nelp to navigate the ships home^ at a great 
expence. With much ado we got them laden by the 16th 
February; but it was the 4<th of March before we could get 
ready for sea. They then sailed, the Hector having on 
board 63 persons of all sorts, English and others, but many 
of their own men were sick. The Susan had 47 of all sorts, 
but likewise had many English sick : I pray God to s^id 
us ffood riew&f of them. 

The 6th May a Holland ship came in, which came from 
the coast of Goa, [Malabar,] where, along with two other 
Dutch ships bound for Cambay,* they took four very rich 
Portuguese' ships, one of which, laden with great horses, 
they set on fire. This ship had left Holland in June^ 1604, 
but could give us no farther news than we had already got 
from our own ships. The captain of this ship was Come* 


* Cmnbayyin this place, probably means Camboja, or Catnbodia, ia 
Eastern Indian not Cambay in Guzerat. — £. 

166 Early Voyaga of the part ii. book iii« 

lius SyverBon, a proad boor, having neither wit, mannera, 
honesty, nor hamanity ; and presently aftar his arrival the 
Hollanders withdrew their familiarity from us. I shall 
now, however, leave this deviser of courtesy and hater of 
our nation, with his rascally crew, and give some account 
of the ceremonial of the young king's circumcisipB, and the 
triumphs held daily in consequence for more than a month 
before he went to church, [mosque] in preparations for 
which all the better sort had been busied since February 
or March, till the 24th of June. 

For this ceremonial a great pageant was prepared, the 
fore part of which was made in the resemblance of a great 
devil, on which were placed three chairs of state; that in 
the middle for the kin^, being elevated about two foet above 
those on either side^ ismicfa were for the two sons of Pofi- 
gran Goban^ heir to the crown if the king should die with- 
out issue. This pageant was placed on a green or open 
space, in front of the palace gate, and railed in all round. 
The custom of the country is, when the king comes to the 
throne, or at his circumcision, all that are able. must make 
the king presents publicly, and with as much shew as possi- 
ble; such as cannot do so of themselves, whether natives 
or strangers, join in companies to make their oomplunents. 
About the 25th June these shews began, and continued all 
that month and the next, every day except some few when 
it rained. The protector or regent of the kingdom began 
on the first day, and was succeeded daily by the nobles and 
others, each having their day, not as they were in rank or 
birth, but as each happened to be in readiness, sometimes 
two or three companies in one day. 

As the Javans are not expert in the use of fire-arms, the 
protector borrowed some shot both of us and the Holland-* 
ers. When these went forth, there was great strife which 
should go foremost, whether our men or the HoUanders, 
they despising our small number^ and ours their sordid ap-r 
pearance. Our men were in neat apparel, with coloured 
scac& and hat-bands ; they in greasy thrum caps, tarred 
coats, and their shirts, or at least such as had any, hanging^ 
between their legs. Our men, therefore, chose to take the 
rearward, refusing to go next after the Hollanders. 

Every morning the king's guard, consisting both of shot 
and pikes, was placed round the inclosurewiuiout the rails, 
bejng usually three hmflred men; bn(; pn some pripcipal 


%UkP. x» i^CT. It; EngUsh East India Company. 167 

r4«fs there were upwards of six hundred, in files acoordinsr 
to ottr niM-tiiil discipline. In our marching, we di£Per mucn 
iircHn them^ as :we usually go in column of three, fire, seven^ 
'or Jiin« al^-east ; while diey always march in single file, fol- 
lowing as close as they can, and carrying their pikes up- 
rigbu As for their fire*«rm8, hot bdng used to them, they 
are very unhandy. Their drums are huge pans, IgongsiJ 
made of tomback^ which make a most hellish sound. Thw 
have also colours to their companies; but their standards 
and ensigns are not like ours. Their ensign staff* is veiy 
long and high, being bent at top like a bow; but the co- 
'kmrs, hardly a yara in breadtli, hang down from the top 
Uke a long pendant. The first day, being the greatest 
shew, there were certain forts made of canes and other 
trash, set up in firont of the king's pageant, in which some 
Jsvans were placed to defend, and o£er companies to as- 
sault than, many times the assailants firing upon the de- 
fenders. AU this was only in jest among the Javans with 
their pikes ; but our men and ttie Hollanders were in ear- 
nest with their shot, and were ther^re forced to be kept 

Meeting the Dutch mepchimts in the evening, I asked 
^ne of them if he thought that Holland were able to wage 
war with England, that they should make such contention 
with our men, striving who should go foremost? I likewise 
uAi them aH, that if the English had not once gone before^ 
they might have gone behind all the other nations of Europe 
long ago. But they answered^ that times and seasons 
change : And doubtless^ owing to their great numbers here 
in India, they hold themselves able to withstand any other 
nation in the world. I cannot, however, say what may be 
the opinion of their states at home, and of the wiser of their 
nation.' « 

Always, a little before the shews began, the king was 
brought out firom his palace, sitting on a man's shoulders 
bestriding his neck, and the man holding him by the le^. 
Many rich tirasolg, [parasols or umbre&s,] were earned 
over and round about him. His prindpal guard walked 
befine him, and was placed within the raih, round about 


3 La this business of the Dutch, wherein many shewed their pride and 
inff^atitade, as the fiuilt I hope is not in their nation, but only personal, 
I nave mollified the author's style, and left out some harsher censures. 
BeatipaeificL — Purch. in a side note. 

1$8 Earfy Foyofgaofthe PiURTn.BOOKxn# 

the pageiuit After tbe kfn^, a nmnber €S the pritacipal 
pemle fi^ow^, seioniDg to DaVe Omx stated dii^s fX at- 
tendance. The shews wer^ in this maimer : First ^ame a 
crew armed with match-locks, led by hoiiatgentlemanr^aoe; 
then came the pike-men^ in the middle of whoti "were the 
colours and mnsic, beibg teii or twdve paiks of tombadr, 
carried on a staff between two people. These ,were tune-' 
able like a peal of bells, each a note above the other^ and 
always two people i;^alked beside them, who were skilled in 
the country music, and strudi upon them with something 
they held in their hands. There was another kind of mu- 
sic, liiat went both before a^d after ; but these pans or 
gongs formed the principal. Tbe pike-men were followed 
by a company of targcte^s carrying darts. Then followed 
many sorte of trees with their fruit hanging upon them ; 
and after thei^ many sorts of beasts and birds, both ativ^ 
and also artificially made^ that they could not be distin*? 
gnished from those that were alive, unless one were near. 

Theki came a number of maskers, who danced and vault-? 
ed before the king, shewing many strange tumUing trick% 
some of these being men and others women. After all 
Aese fdlowed sometimes two hundred or even three hun- 
dred women, all carryit^g presents of some kind; only that 
every ten were heilded by vba, old motherly wconan empty 
handed, to keep them in order like so many soldiers. These 
presents were commonly rice and cashed on frames of ^it 
canes, curiously laid out foi* show, and adorned with gilt 
paper, but the present itself seldom exceeded the value of 
twelve-pence. Then followed the rich presents, being com- 
monly some rich tuch^^ or some fine cloth of the countnr 
fashion, curiously wrought and gilded, or embroidered with 

gold, for the kii^g's own wearing. These were also carried 
y women, having two pikes borne upright before them % 
and every present intended for the kings wearing had a 
rich parasol carried over it. Last of all followed the heir to 
t^he person sending the presait, being his vouncest son, if 
he had any, very richly attired after dieir fai^ion, with 
many jewels of gold, diamonds, jubies, and other precious 
stones, on their arms and roimd their waists, and attended 


^ A sDecies of coin formerly explained. — E. 
' Tuck, tuke, or tuque, the old term for a turban, worn by Mahomet- 
ans, or for the sash of which it is made.-*AsTL. I. 301. c. 

CHAP. x« sECT^in EngBsh Easi India Company. ' 169 

by a number of men and womto. Aft^ h^ hte mbde his 
obeisaRce td the king, he sits down on the ground on a 
mat, and all the presents are carried past the king^s pa- 
geant into the palace^ where certain officers are ready to re- 
oeire them. 

When all these were gone by^ a person within the king's 
pageant spoke out of the devil's mouth, commanding silence 
in the kin^s name. Then begins the chief revels, accom-^ 
panied wim mtisic, and now and then the musketeers dis- 
charged a voUey. The pikemen and targeteers also e&hi- 
bitecf their feats of arms, being very expert, but their shot 
exceedingly unskilful. Always when the pikemen and tar-^ 
gibers go up to charge, they go forwards dancing and 
skipping about, that their adversaries may have no steady 
aim to throw their darts or thrust their pikes. During the 
shews, there likewise came certain representations of junks, 
as it were under sailj very artificially made^ and laden with 
rice and cashes. There were also representations of former 
history, some from the Old Testament, and others from the 
chronides of the Javan kings. All these inventions have 
been learnt by the Javans from the Chines^ or from the 
GtKierates, Turks, and others who come hither for trade^ 
for they are themselves ignorant blockheads. 

Our present was preceded by a fine pom^anate tree fiill 
of fruit, some ripe^ half ripe, green, and only budded. Its 
had been dug up by the roots, and set in earth in a frame 
made of rattans like a cage. The earth was covered with 
green sod, on which were three silver-haired rabbits, given 
ine by the vice-admiral of our fleet ; and all amcmg the 
branches we had many small birds fastened by threads, 
which were continually fluttering and singing. We had 
likewise four very furious serpents, very artificially made by 
the Chinese^ on which we hung the clodis that were meant 
for the king^s use, being five pieces very curiously wrought 
and gilded in their fashicm ; together with other pieces of 
stuff for the king to bestow on his followers. We likewise 
presented a betronel, or horseman's pistol, and a brace of 
smaller pistols, finely damasked and in rich eases, having 
silken strings and gold tassels. Haviuff no women to carry 
these thkigs, we borrowed thirty of the prettiest boys we 
could get, and two tall Javans to carry [Mkes before them. 
Mr Towerson had a very pretty Chinese boy, whose father 
bad been lately slain by thieves^ and we sent this youth as 


170 Early Voyages ofihe pabt ii. book titj 

gallantly attired as the king himseir, to present these things, 
and to make a speech to the king, signifying, if our num- 
bers and ability had equalled our good -will, we woaki have 
presented bis majesty with a much finer shew. The kiag 
and those about him took much delight in our rabbits, be- 
ing great raritiosy and also in some fire-works which our 
men played oS^ but the women cried out, fearing they might 
set the palace on fire. 

The Hollanders gave but a small present, though they 
made a mighty bnag about it. Neither do Jthey spare brag-^ 
gingof their kiug, as they called Prince Maurice, whom 
at every word in those parts they styled Rata Holianda. 
Many quarrels took place between their men and ours, the 
Hollanders always beginning in their drink to brawl, and 
usually having tne worst. I had much ado to restram ottr 
men, which yet was necessary, considering our great chaige 
of goods, all of which lay on me. We were also in a dan* 
gerous country, and but badly housed; and if we bad come 
to blows, it was likely that a great number would come 
upon us, and we being few, could not have defended our- 
selves without bloodshed, which would occasion revenge* 
Now of them there were above an hundred men, includm^ 
those in their house, ship, and fly-boat, all of whom would 
have come against us^ while we were only thirteen in a 
straw house. 

The king of Jackatra came on the 18th of July to pre- 
sent his shew before the king, attended by a guard of seve-< 
jral hundred persons. Immediately on his coming in sieht, 
the guards of the king of Bantam rose up, and handled 
their weapons, not from fear of the king of Jackatra offering 
any violence, but because there were a number of other petty 
kings present, who were mortal enemies to the king of Jack- 
atra. On coming near the innermost rank of the Bantam 
guards, and seeing that he had to pass through amon^ a 
number of these inimical petty kings, and being afraid of 
the cowardly stab so usual among this people^ he appeared 
much alarmed, though as brave as any in those parts; 
wherefore he would not pa^s through them, but sat dowa 
on a piece of leather, which every gentleman has carried 
along with him for that purpose. He then sent to the kingy 
to know if it was his pleasure he should wait upon him ; 
upon which the king sent two principal noblemen to escort 
him into the presence. And when the king of Jackatra had 


eHAF« X, secT. SI. Ef^Ush East India Copnpany. 171 

made his ojbeisance, the young king embraced huri, and he 
of Jackatra took his seat in the place appointed for him. 

Then came the presents of the king of Jadcatra, carried 
by about SOO womeus &nd attended by about as many sol« 
diers, consisting of rice, cashes, and many strange beasts 
and birds, both alive and dead. Among these was a furioua 
beast, called by them a Matchan^ somewhat larger than a 
lion, and very princely to behold, if he had been at libertv* 
He was spotted white and red, having many black streaks 
from the reins down under his belly. I have seen one pf 
diem leap eighteen feet for bis prey.. These matcham oftea 
kill many people near Bantam ; and often the king and all 
the people go out to hunt them, sometimes even in the 
Right This matchan was in a great cage of wood, placed 
^n the trucks of old gun carriages, and beins drawn by 
buffidoes, seemed like a traitor drawn on a huidle.^ There 
were several other curious articles in this shew, with many 
maskers, vaulters, and tumblers, strangely and savagelv at^ 
tired. Last of all came the youngest son of the king of Jack- 
atra, riding in a chariot drawn by buffidoes, which had to 
me an unseemly appearance. They have indeed lew horses 
in this island, which are mosdy small nags, none of which I 
ever saw draw ; being <mly used for riding and running tilt» 
after the Barbary fashion, which exercise they ordinarUy 
use every Saturday towards evening, except in their time 
of Lent or ramadan. 

The second day after this shew, the king was carried on 
h^ pageant to the mosque, where he was circumcised ; his 
pageant being carried aloft by many men, four hundred, as 
the king's nurse told me, but I think she hed, as in my opi«* 
nion so many could not stand under it* 

§ 6. Account of Quarrek between the English and Dutch at 

Bantam^ and other Occurrencet. 

Our general returned into the road of Bantam from Ter^ 
Bate on the 24th July, 1605. As soon as we saw and knew 
the Dragon, I took a vraw and went on board ; when the 
general recounted all tne dangers he had £one through, and 
the unkind usage he had received of the Hollanders, though, 
he had saved some of their lives. He told me that he had 


^ This matchan of Java is obviously the tiger^— £• 

172 Early Vo}/ag€$ of the vajslt ii. book iii» 

procured a ^ood c|iianlity of cloves towards his loadings 
thoagH with much pains and tnrmoil. For this £ood news^ 
ind especially because otir general was returned in safety, 
we gave hearty thanks to God) not doubting but we should 
soon Complete his loading. The 28th of me same month 
came ili the great Enkhu^en of Holland ftx>m Temate ; and 
an the seme day the king of Jackatra came to Visit our ge^ 

The 1st August, in the afternoon, while the general and 
Jkll our merchants i^ere very busy in the warehouse, taking 
an inventory of all the prize goods remaining, andof all our 
dther good% word "^a^ brought that the Hollanders had 
wotmoed two of our men, whom we presently afterward saw 
toter the gate bleeding. Our general immediately orderefd 
ev^ry man to tak^ his weapons, and to lay them soundly- 
over the Dutdimen's pates^ which was done accordingfy^ 
and the Dutchmen were bathed home to their own houses 
oiie being ruh through the body, who was said by some to 
have recovered afterwards ; ana two more lost their arms. 
Th^ Dutch merchants elnd several others came out with fire-. 
arms ; but hearing that their men began tbe fray, they said 
they had only their deserts : and, after taking a cup oi wine 
in at friendly manner with our general, they kindly took their 
leave. News was carried to court that the Hollanders and 
us were by the ears^ and that two were slain ; on which some 
of the king's attendants asked, whether the slain were Dutch 
CT English ? and when told they were Hollanders, they said it 
was no matter if they were all slain. I thank God that only 
1?wo of our men were hurt in this a&ir, which were those 
lEk^ntioned at the first ; one having a cut over the hand, and 
the other a stab with a knife in the side, but not very deq). 
This was the first serious affray, but it was not long before 
we were at it again pell-mell, again and again, when the 
Hollanders sped as they did now. 

The 11th August two ships came in from Cambaya, 
which had taken much wealth from the Portuguese, and the 
same day one ship came from Ternate.' The Ascension 
came in from Banda on the 16th* The 8th September the 
Dutch mertbants iiivxted our general and his masters and 
merchants to a feast, where we were treated with good cheer 


' Though not mentioned in the text, these thre^ ships were most pro- 
bably tlollandersir— £.. 


CHAP. It. SECT. XI. English Easi India Company. 173 

and much friendship^ The 15th September, two Dutch 
ships set sail for Holland, one being a small ship laden with 
pepper at Bantam \ and the other, having taken in some 
cloves at Ternate^ was loaded out with prise goods, taken 
from the ships that came from Cambajra. The Dutch ad- 
miral came in from Banda on the Slst, and next day ouc 
general sent some merchants to the Dutch house to congra- 
tulate him ; on which day a drunkeii Dutchman caused a 
new fray, which began with our surgeon, but was augment-^ 
ed by several on both sides^ and some of the Hollanders wer& 

About one o'clock that same afternoon, while our genera) 
sat on a bench at our gate, conversing with a Portuguese^ 
a drunken Dutch swab came and sat himsdf down between^ 
them, on which our general gave him a box in the ear and 
thrust him away. Ssme oi his comrades came {H'esently 
round our gate, drawing their knives and settles^ [hangers,] 
and began to swagger. Taking the butt-ends of our pike» 
and halberts, and some faggot sticks^ we drove them to an 
arrack house, where tbey^ut the door upon ns ; but we 
forced it open, knocked some of them down^ and carried 
them prisoners to our general. Soon after another troop of 
Hollanders came down the street to take part with theii* 
comrades, on whom we laid such load that they took to 
their heels, some being knocked down, and many having 
their pates pitifully brok«i, while others had to runr 
through a miry ditch to escape us. The master of their ad^ 
miral bad occasioned this tumult, as he had gone from ship 
to ship, desiring the men to go amied oh shore and kill all 
the English they could meet : and when some of our peoplf^ 
were going on board the Dutch ships, some Englishmen they 
had in their ships called out to them not to come on board, 
as orders had been given to slay as many English as they 
could, on board or on shore. These fi^ys were much won« 
dered at by all foreigners in Bantam, that we should dare 
to go to blows with we Hollanders, who had seven large tall 
ships in the road, while we had but two. None of our men 
met with any harm in this affiray, except Mr Saris, one of 
our merchants, who got a cut on his fore-finger with a 

At the end of this frav* the Dutch general came to our 
house with a great guard of captains, merchants, and others, 
and being met in a similar manner in the street by our ge-^ 


174 Eat'^ff Voyages of the part ii. book hi. 

serai) was invited into our house. When the caiiM of tlii» 
affray was reported to the Dutch general, he approved of 
what we had dcme. When some of his people complained 
that their men bore aU the blows» as was apparent by their 
bloody pates and shoulders, the Dutch general said he saw 
plainly the &ult lay with his men, and he would take order 
to prevent so many of his men coming on shore in future- 
After much talk, a banquet of sweetmeats was served, the^ 
Dutch general took a kindly leave of ours, and all the Dutch 
and English merdionts shook hands and parted. 

Some Javans, who belonged to two of the principal men 
of Bantam under the king, had stdbn nine muskets and 
callivers from the gun-room of our ship the Ascension ; 
and two of them returning shortly after to steal more, were 
taken by our people with the stolen goods upon them. Our 
general sent me to examine into the matter, and to brine 
wem on shore. After some examination, they ccmfessed 
whose slaves they were, and said the pieces were forthco- 
ming. After they came on shore, the general sent to the 
iking and protector, desiring to have the pieces back ; but 
the masters of these slaves said they had no pieces except 
what they had bought with their money ; yet they request- 
ed our general to defer executing the slaves for two days^ 
which he agreed to. But as these nobles were not reckon- 
ed great good-wishers to the king, the protector sent the 
executioner with a guard of pikes to put them to death. 
When they came to the place of execution, our general 
wished to spare their lives ; but the executioner said he had 
the king's orders, and must therefore put them to death, 
which was done accordingly. This the thieves very pati- 
ently submitted to, as is the manner of their nation ; for 
they hold it their greatest glory to die resolutely, as I have 
seen them do often, both men and women, in the most care- 
less manner. One would think these men ought to be ex- 
ceUent soldiers, but they are not; as this vSour is only 
when there is no remedy. Against their own countrymen 
they are reasonably brave ; but they will not venture with 
giropean*, unless with manifest great advantage in num- 
bers or otherwise. 

The Sd October our general made a farewell feast, to 
which he invited the Dutch admiral, with all his captains, 
masters, and merchants, and we were all exceedinglv mer- 
ry on this occasion, with much friendship between the two 


CHA^. X. SECT. u. English East India Company. 115 

nations. Next day our general went to court, accoitipanied 
by our merchants and others, to take leave of the kihg and 
his nobles. The 6th, being Sunday, our general, with att 
who were bound for England, went on board, and on pass- 
ing the Dutch house, went in and took leave of the Dutch 
general and merchants, Mr Gabriel Towerson, who was • 
to remain agent at Bantam, and some other merchants, ac- 
companied us on board, some returning on shore after din- 
ner, and others staying till next day« We weighed anchor 
al30ut three o'clocl^ samting the town and Dutdi »hips with 
our cannon. About eleven at night we came to anchor under 
ati island, where next day we took in wood, which our ge- 
neral had sent some men to get ready cut beforehand. To- 
wards evening of the 7th. October, 1605, we again weighed 
anchor and set sail : Mr Towerson and some other mer- 
chants now took their leaves to go on shores whom we com- 
mitted to the protection of the Almighty, and ourselves to 
the courtesy of the seas, praying God to bless them and us> 
ands if it be his holy will, to send us a happy meeting again 
in England. 

§ 7. Obseroations by Mr John Saris, of Oecurrerftes during 
hi$ abode at Bamiam, from October^ 1605, to Octoberj 
1609, « 

This, and the subsequent subdivisions of the present sec- 
tion» are given by Purchas as a continuation of the forego- 
im observations by Mr Scot, to which Purchas affixes the 
following extended title, for the better understanding of 
which it is to be noticed, that Mr Saris was afterwards cap- 
tain or general, as it was then called, of the eighth voyage 
fitted out by the English East India Company, which sailed 
in 1611. 

" Observations by John Saris, of Occurrences which 
Jiappened in the East Indies^ during his Abode at Bantam, 
from October, 1605^ to October, 1609. As Ukewise touch-^ 
ing the Marts and Merchandises of these Parts ; observed 
by his own Experience, or taken from the Relation of Others ; 
extracted out of his larger Book, and here added as an Ap- 
pendix to his greater Voyage. These may serve as a con- 
tinuation of the preceding Observations by Mr Scot ; and 


I Purch. Pflg. I. S8#. 

179 Marbf f^ajfogei of tie j^abt ii. book iif. 

to these are added» certain Observatioiis W tbe saaie Aa • 
ihor^ touching the Towns and Merchandise of principal 
Trade in those Parts of the World-^-^^PicrcA. 

In the PilgrimSf these obs^nratians are appended to the 
voyage of Captain Saris to India and Japan, in 161 1, but 
are here placed more naturally as a continnation of the ob- 
servations by Scot, because considerably prior to that voy«> 
age, and precisely connected with these observations. Se*- 
veral uninteresting particulars are omitted from these ob» 
^rvations in the present edition«i^£. 


On the 7th of October, 1605, our general Henry Mid- 
dieton, and Captain Christopher Coulthurst, dqmrted from. 
the road of Bantam, leaving eighteen men in all, of whom 
five were mariners and thirteen sailors.* The 23d there 
arrived a Dutch junk from Priaman, by which we learnt 
that Sir Edward Mitcbelbume and Captain Davis were 
ppon the coast, and that they bad captured a Guzerat ship 
jn the straits of Sunda, bound frpm Bantam to Priaman* 
On the report of the Hollanders, we of the English factoiy 
were summoned to court on the 25th, and were required to 
say if we knew Sir Edward, wnd why he had offered vio^ 
lence to tbe Icing'^ fiiends, who had done him no wrong* 
We answered^ that we knew a person of that name^ but 
knew not if be were upon the coast, nor whether be had 
taken the Guzerat vessel^ except by the report of the Hol- 
landers^ which we held to be false, and were more apt to 
believe it had been done by ope of the Dutch ships, which 
sailed from Bantam two days before the departure of that 
Guzerat ship. We were then desired to dqmrt till fur<» 
tber proof could be had. 

Sir Edward Mitcbelbume came here to anchor in the 
toad of Bantam on the 29th, when Mr Towerson and I 
went on board to visit him, and were well entertained. He 
then informed us of having takai the Guzerat vessel, and 
we entreated of him that 1^ would not capture the Chinese 
junks, which he promised not to do on the word of a gm* 
tleman. He set sail from Bantam on the 2d November, di* 
recting his course for the straits of PaUnbangan. 


* ThiB piece of information is placed as a mar^'nal note by Purchas, 
and confirms an idea formerly hazarded, that marmers were in these old 
times of a higher description thax^ sailors; the former being thorough- 
bred seamen, the latter only ordinary.^E. 


The 18di X um d bn, m swJI DnMk pimce shMI fer 

oTthekidlcdkdKwGmiiM, mlikiiv^ 

gveat 'JiAnrc of «<!U. TWe 2<) Jsdihh 

.w, 1G06^ a jook act sul fiv TnDor,*^£r«^Elilrd Irr Ctuneoe 

Beades Ei^ifi^ inMi, cause porciebaiH taifl^ 
pan and bdl% dicT carried winb ihe«i what 
called Arnrf pieces of saher, beii^ beaten out Tefjthiii 
a haad-tiRadtii Iq sace. On tfae^SOth tlwYe armed a 
Oiiwiff jank, wUdi Sfar Edvaid MitdiellNnnie Iiad capta* 
xady Botvidistaiidmg hk promise to Mr Tovetsoa and mew 
We ame called lapaa to make restitotioiH the adUka.'a or 
pSot of tlie jonk alk^og to ha^e kist manj ricli coiaaiodi- 
tiesy aod the oomior and principal courtiers mpere j^rieT^ 
<NisIv ofiended ; bat br the fiiTour of the admiral and sa« 
bander ve woe let oC 

' On the 23d Maj, there arrired a small ressel bdonj^ing 
to the Hcdlanders fiom Tematei» bringing away the mot^ 
diants left there by B^tUiamsoRy irho were soit away by the* 
i^Hniard^ by whom that island was now takc^, together^ 

to I^Miin. Wlule aboat ten lea^ies from Jackatra, this 
small Tessel fdl in with the king of Bantam's fleets by which 
tjiey were pillaged of every thing they had saved from the 
Spaniards ; and though they now used every endeavour to 
ppocnre restitution, tbcy could have no redress* 

On the 15th June, y/okhada llugaH, a cHng^manf arrived 
in a Javan junk from Banda with a cargo of mace and nut- 
laegiSf which be sold here to the Guzerats for loO dollars 
the Bantam bahar, which is 450 cattets- He told me that 
the Dutch pinnace, which wont upon discovery to New 
Gniaea, had found the island ; but tliat, on sending Uieir 
men ashore to endeavour to procure trade, nine of them had 
been slain by the natives, who arc canibfds or man-eaters ; 
so* that the Dutch were forced to como away, and had gone 
te Banda. 

The 6th August, the moon was eclipsed about eight in 
the evening, and continued so: for two hours, during which 
time* the Chinese and Javans made a continual noise by 
beating on pots and pans, crying out that the moon was 
dead. The 4th October, the whole Chinese qua ler of 
]3aTitam was burnt down> yet it pleased God to prescrVQ 

- V0I4, VIII, W 

17S Early Voyages of the pabt u. book in. 

our house. That same night a Dutch ship sailed fox HoU 
land} laden with 15,000 sacks of pepper, besides scnne raw. 
silk, and great store of China sugar. The 9th, arrived a 
pinnace from Succadanea in Borneo^ laden with wax and 
cavalacca, and great, store of diamonds. 

The 14th May, 1607, there arrived here at Ba4tam a 
junk from Gre$e, by which we learnt that one Julius, a 
Dutchman, who went from hence on the 30th November^; 
1606, for Succadanea, had been put. to death at Sanjarmas- 
sen, in Borneo, and all his goods confiscated by the king of. 
that place, because, as was reported, Julius had used certain 
insolent Bpeeches concerning the king^ which came to hi. 
knowledge, upon which he sent for Julius andthe master of 
the junk, and had them slain by the way. 

The. 7th August arrived a pinnace from the island of St 
Lucia, in lat. 24^ 30' S. about a mile from the coast of Ma« 
dagascar, where they were forced to take shelter in the ship 
which left this on the 4th October, 1606, having been 
obliged to throw overboard 3000 sacks of pepper^ besides 
other commodities of £^eat value, to lighten the ship and 
preserve their lives. They found this. island an excellent 
place for refreshment, the natives having no knowledge of 
money ; so that they boiu;ht a fat ox for a tin spoon, and a. 
shee{i for a small piece of brass. The anchorage, as they 
reported, was very good, being in seven or eight fathomsy 
upon hard grouncL 

The 14th November, 1607, Captain David Ailiddleton ar-^ 
rived here in the Consent' 

The 2d October, 1608, the Dragon arrived here from. 
Friaman, in which was General Williai^ Keeling, com-, 
mander in the third voyage fitted out by our English East 
India Company. He went to court on the 7th, and deli- 
vered our lung s letter to^the King of Bantam, together with 
a present of five handsome muskets, a bason, an ewer, and 
a barrel of gunpowder. 

Very.earw in the morning of the 13th, the governor of 
B«ntam and his Jerotoolies were put to death by the Pun^ 
gavaSf the sabander, the admiral, Ky Daaatty Utennagar* 
ra, and others. The conspirators assembled over night at 
the house of Keyiruu Patty^ and beset the court, laying hold 


^ Mr Saris gives here a long account of inddents concerning a Dutch 
fleet outward lx)und, having no connection with the afiairs of Bantam, or 
with those of the English trade^ and which is therefore omItted.--ȣ. 

cn/iv. X. SECT. II. ' Engliifi East India Company. 1*79 

in* the first place of the king and his modier. They then* 
hastened to the rteidence af the governor, thinking to have* 
found him in bed ; but he hid himsdf at the back of the bed, 
where they found him, and wounded him in the head. He 
then fled for protection' to the priest, called Key Fitikketf, 
who came but to theih, and entreated they would spare his 
18e ; but they were inexorable, and having forced their way* 
in, they dispatched him. ■ '- 

^ The 9th November, Samuel Plumiher went firom hence 
for Succadanea in Borneo, where he' intended to remain. 
In th6 afternoon of Sunday the 4th December, our general,: 
Wflliam Keeling, set sail irom hence for England ; biit on^ 
t!i^ 6di he was forced back by bad weather and westerly 
winds. He set sail ^aih on the' 10th, and returned a se* 
cond time on the IStn, having met with the Dragon in the 
st^its of Sttnda, the men belonging to that ship being very 
weak in consequence of the scurvy ; besides which the Poiv» 
tugiiese of Damaun had treacherously seized their boats at 
Stirat, taking nineteeti of their men, together with cloths 
trhich had 'cdst'9000 dollars at that place. In their wtiy^for' 
Bdntam, the Dragon had captured a pinnace belonging to 
Columbb, out of which they took eleven paicks of cloth, con-* 
tainihg in all 83 pieces, thirteen pieces being poulings^ which 
were sent to the island of Banda. On the S3d, the Dragon, '' 
commanded by Captahi Qabriel Totrerson, set sail again 
for England. 

The 1st Jatinarj', 1609, oui^'general, William Keeling, set 
sail in the Hector for Banda. The ^th M^rch, a Chinese 
house next to our warehoute was burnt down, but it pleased 
God that our house escaped. ;Next day I was sent for to* 
court by Paugf an Areaumgalla, the governor, and went ac-* 
cordingly, carrying the rollowing' present : One piece of 
maltee goobaer, one piece malldifo pintado, a musket with a' 
bandeleer and 6 roH of match, which the governor accepted 
very kindly. He then told me he had sent for me, having 
heard that there were two men in chains at our house for 
debt, and he desired to know by whose authority I thtis 
confined them. I said we had laid hold of them by order 
of the king, atid I hoped lie would not take them from us 
tin I were satisfied for the debt, or at lea^t some part of it, 
and in proof of its being due I showed their bills. He said 
he knew that they were indebted, but knew likewise that the 
king h^d not given us leave to chain them up^ and desired 

10 therefore 

180 Early Foyaga of the part ii. book hi. 

therefore they might be set free ; but I persuaded him to 
allow me to keep them till Tamfomge^ who owed 4*20} dol-* 
lars, should pay 100, and Bnngoone, who owed 500 dottars 
and 100 sacks of pepper, should pay 20 sacks of pepper and 
JOO dollars in money, pursuant to his agreement and bill. 
The governor sent one of his slaves home along with me, 
to inmrm the prisoners of this, and to desire them to pay 

The 24th I was again sent for to court, where the Hol- 
landers were likewise ; on which occasion the governor ask- 
ed the Hollanders, whether it were customary m their coun- 
try to take a man prisoner for debt without informing the 
king ? The Hollanders said, it was not. Whereupon, for- 
getting his promise made only three days before, he com-, 
ibanded me to liberate the prisoners immediately, although 

I reminded him of his promise to no purpose ; and he "sent 
one of the king's slaves to take them out of our house. I 
am satisfied this rigid course was taken on the suggestion of 
the Dutch, induced by Lackmoy, the great Chinese mer- 
chant, on purpose to prevent us from giving credit to the, 
Chinese, that we might be constrained to deal only with him- 
self: and, as he is provided by the Hollanders with all kindsi 
of commodities, he will entirely overthrow our trade, as we 
cannot now give credit to any one, justice being refosed to 

Captain William Keeling arrived here from Bandaon the 
26th of August, having laden there 12,484} cattees of mfice 
and 59,846 cattees of nutmegs, which cost him 9, 10, and 

II dollars the bahar. The cattee there weighs IS} English 
ounces ; the small bahar of mace being ten cattees, and the 
small bahar of nutmegs 100 cattees ; while the lar^e bahar is, 
100 cattees of mace, or 1000 cattees of nutmegs : so that if. 
a person owe ten cattees of mace, and pay 100 cattees of 
nutmegs, the creditor cannot re&se payment in that man-, 

Captain Keeling having taken in the rest of his loading, 
at Bantam, consisting of 4900 bags and 3 cattees of pepper,. 
set sail in the Hector for Englandon the 4th October, 1609 ; 
on which occasion I embarked in that ship to return home, 
having been four years, nine months^ and eleven day^ in the 

GBAP. X. S£CT« II. EngUA East India Cohtpany. 181 

§ d« Rules for the Choice of sundry Urugs, mth un Account 
y the Places whence th^ are procured. * 

Idgnum aloes, a wood 8o^called by us, is called garroo by 
j;he Mallays. The best comes from Malacca, Siam, and 
Cambodia,^ being in large romid sticks and very massy, of 
& black colour interspersed .with ash-coloured veins. Its 
taste is somewhat bitter, and odoriferous ; and when a splin- 
ter is laid upon a burning coal it melts into bubbles like 
pitch, cmitinuinff to fry till the whole is consumed, diffusing 
a most delightim odour. 

Benjamin, or Benzoin, is jsl gum called Minnian by the 
MaUays. The best kind comes from Siam,. being very pure^ 
clear, and white, with little streaks of aniber colour. And« 
ther sort, npt altogether so white, yet also very good, comes 
from Sumatra. A third sort comea- from Priaman and 
Barrowse, which is very coarse^ and not vendible in £ng«» 

The best civet is bf a deep, yellow colour, somewhat in* 
dining to golden yellow, and not whitish, as that kind is 
usually sQ^sticated with greaiSie. Yet when civet is newly 
taken from the aniuial, it is whitish, and acquires a yellowish 
colour by keeping;;. 

There are three 9orts otmusk, black, brown, and yellow ; 
of which the first is good for nothii^, the second is good, 
and the last best. It ought ta be of £e colour of spikenard, 
or of a deep amber yelfow, isiclosed only in a single skin, 
and not one withip another ^ it often is. It should not be 
too moist, which adds to its weight, but of a medium mois« 
.turet having a few hairs likt; bristles, but not many, and 
quite free from atones, Icad^ or other mi^ed trash, and ha-* 


'• Furdi. P3gr«*Iv389, being a cooCinuafion of the ObsemitioDs by Mr 
Saris,— E. ■ . . , . , , . . . 

^ In the Pilgrims this last place is called Cambaya^ but which we sus* 
pect* of beitig^ an error^of the press. — ^E. 

3 On this sabjectPurchas has the following marginal note. ** Burrowse 
yieldeth Tincal^ called fmru in England ; worth at Bantam a dollar the 
catiee, and here in England ten ishiSings the pbiind. It is kept in'^ea^/' 

The substance of this note has not the smallest reference to benjamin 
or benzoin^ ^nd evidently means borcw, called hurris or hurrowse, which 
used likewise to be called tincal^^ a peculiar salt much used in soldering, 
and which is now brought from Thibet by way of BengaL— ^£. 

122 Earfy Vojfagei of the paat m BoiiK iif « 

ving a very strong fragrant smell, which to many is very oF- 
£snsiTe. When diewed it pierces the very brain with its 
scent; and. should not dissolve too soon in the mouth, nei« 
ther yet to remain very long undissolved. Musk must not 
be kept near any sweet spioes, lest it lose its soent< 

Bezoatj of which there are two kinds, oneof whi^cosaes 
from the West Indies, called occidental^ and the odier from 
the £ast Indies, called oriental; which latter is worth double 
the price of the other. Both are of divers forms ^ some 
round, others oblong like the stones of dates, some like pi- 
geons efifgs, and others like the kidtaeys of a kid, and others 
again like chesnuts ; but most are blunt at both, ends, and 
not sharp. There is no less variety in the cokmrs % some 
being lightered, others like the colour of honey, many of a 
dark ash-colour, but most of a waterish green. The East 
India or oriental beaoar oonsisls of many coats, artiSciaDy 
compacted together like the coat& of an onion, each inclo- 
sing the other, and all bright and shining, as if polished by 
art ; when one coat is broken off that immediately below 
being still brighter than the former. TEese several coats 
are of different thicknesses, in prc^oriion to the size of the 
bezoars ; and the lai^ger is the stone so much the more is it 
in request. There is one sure way to make trial of bezoars : 
Take the exact weight of the stone^ and then put it in water 
for four bours; then see that it is not cracked, and wipe it 
quite dry ; and if it now weigh in the smallest degree hea- 
vier than before, you may be assured that it is not good. - 1 
have ascertained this many times at Bantam, having foudd 
many of them to turn out mere chalk, with a bit c^ stiekin 
the middle, that weighed a Javan tot/e, or two English oun- 
ces. Most of the counterfeit bezoars come from Sueceda- 
nea in Borneo, The true oriental bezoars come from I^ 
tane, Banjarmassen, Succadanea, Macasser, and the Iscda 
das Vaccas at the entrance to Cambodia.^ 

Of Amber,' in r^rd to colour, there are many difierent 
kinds, as black, white^ brown, and grey ; of all which the 
black is usually the worst) and the grey the best. That which 


.^ In old timeSy oriental b^soor iros prized st a bigh rate in medicine, 
having many fancied valuable qualities, now found by experience to be 
altogether imaginary; so that it is now conifined to cabinets of cariosities. 
It is merely an acadentarconcretion, which takes place in the^ stomachs 
of various animals, somewhat similar to a gall-stone.— 'E. 

^ Ambei^s is assuredly meant in ths text— E. 

ibHAP. X. sscT. II. EngU$h East India Canquu^. 183 

18 freest from filth or dross of any kind, and purest in itself 
ought to be chosen ; of a colour ihcBiung to whiter or ash- 
colourM, or intermixed with asfa-colour^ yeins> and other 
whit^ reins. When put into urater it ought to swim ; and 
though some that isr sophisticated will likewise float, it is cer- 
tain that none which is pure will sink* The greatest quain*- 
tity of (his commodity comes from Mozambique and S^ala. 

§9. Of the principal Places cf Trade in India , and the 

Cimmodities they qffbrd.^ 

Bantam, a town of Java Major, stands in latitude 6^ S« 
and the variation here is 8** W.^ It is a place of great re* 
sort by various nations, and where many different commo* 
dities are to be bought «nd sold, though of itself it produce 
iewthings, besides provisions^ cotton^wool, anid p^per. The 
quantity of this last at the yearly harvest, which is in Octo- 
ber, maybe about 82,000 sacks, each containing 49^ Chinese 
cattees, and each cattee 2 1 1 rials Ei^Ush.^ A sack is called 
a timhang^ two of which are one pekul, three pekuls a small 
bahary and 4| pdnils a great bahar^ or 445 J cattees. As the 
Javanese are not very expert in using the beam, they most- 
ly deal' by means of a weight called coolack, containing 7^ 
cattees. - Seven cooktcks are one thnbangf water-measure^ 
being 1| cattees more than the beam weight, although 
there ought to be no difference; but Uie wei^er, who is al- 
ways a Chinese, gives advantages to his countrymen, whom 
he favours^ as he can fit than with greater Or smaller 
weights at his pleasure. 

/ In the months of December and January, there always 
come many junks and proas to Bantam laden with pepper, 
from Cherringin and 3atdy^^ so that there is always enough 
of pepper to be had at the end of January to load tnree large 
ships, lliere is no money coined here, all the current com 


' * * . , 

^ * This subdivision is likewise a continuation of the Observations ofSa- 
rls» while &ctor at Bantam, and is to be found in the Pilgrims, vol. I. p. 

* The latitude of Saatam is 6^ S. as in the text, and its longitude is 
106° lo; W. from Greenwich.— E . 

' This seems a mistake for ,Engh*sh ounces. If so, the sack weighs 
1065^ ouiKses, or 66 libs. 6| ounces. — ^£. 

^ Cherringin, is probably that now called^ Cberibon on the south side 
•f Java; but Jauby is not to b^ rsoogoised in our modern maps.— £,. 

li|4 . £arfy1^QifnBti.ofAt jf^Kxu^Bpof^iti^ 

.being ft-Qin Cbi&a, called cathesp whicb itre mi^4^bwx xecf 
iiQpm^ bras«, in round thin, pieces, bavwg holei^ pa wbica 
to string tb^n i 1000 caabes on a string is calleid' a. peeas^ 
wbi(^ is of difierept valnps^ according as cashes. rise or fii)l 
in demand. Their accounts are kept in the following uw^ 
ner : 10 pecoos are a laxsau, 10 las9ai{s a ctUlee,, LO caitees^ 
uta, and 10 uias a bahar. There are two waySvof stringing 
the casheSf one called China-chuchuckf and the other Java* 
chmhuckj of which the Java is the best» as there oiighl to be 
200 cashes upon a tack^ but in the Chinese tacks you wiU 
only find 160 to 175 ; and as 5 tacks make a pecoo^ you may 
lose 200 cas/iesf ov 150, on each pecoo; which in.exten^ive 
dealings will rise to a considerable matter. By the laiK of 
the country there ought to be just 1 000 cashes upon a,stmg 
onpecoOf or they must give basse^ which is allowance for; the 
deficiency. On the departure of the Junks, you may buy .34 
or ^5 pecQos for a dollar ; which^ before next year, you may 
sell at 22 or even 20 pecoos for a dollar ; so thai there ia 
great profit to be ipade on this traffic ; but the dAQgert of 
loss by fire is great. 

The weight used in the purchase and sale of bezoars is 
called a iaile, which is 2^ dollars^ or 2 English ounces* A 
Mallay taUe is only equs^ to 1 1 dollar, or Ij English oun- 
ces* A China iaile is 1^ dollars, or 1^ English ounces ^ s^ 
that 10 China ttules are exactly equal to 6 Javai^ tailes<. 

The English commodities v/sndible here are as follow : 
English iron in long thin bars, sells for six dollars the pekuL 
Lead in small pigs, 5^ dpUars the pekul. The. barrel of 
fine corned powder 25 dollars. Square pieces samuined ip 
doUans each. Square fiieees dt^^^g^ked all ovi^, 6^ feet long, 
15 dollars each.' 3road-cloth, of ten pounds the cloth, of 
V^oice red colour, sells for S dollars the eas8e9 which i& | o^ 
a yard. Opium rmm^^ which is the l)est, $ dollars the 
ca^^ee. Amber, in large beads, one wqng and half a taih 
mallay> for 6 dollars. Coral in large branches, 5 or 6 dol- 
lars the taile mallay. Dollars are tne most profitable com- 
modity that can be carried to Bantam. 

In February and March every year, there come to Ban? 
tarn three or four junks from Cnina, richly laden with raw 


5 These pieces were probably matchlocks. — E. 
^ Misseree here certainly meatia from £gypt.-7*£« 

sSk^ and wroiid^t 4ilk»<^ TAiriour staffi, CbiAa coate, por^ 
cdain^ cotton doth) and other things* The prices of these 
are as follow: Raw i»lk of Lanking^ [Nankin] which is the 
best, 190 doHarsthe peknl;' raw silk of Canton, whidi h 
co^rs€»;, 80 dollars the pdoil ; taS!^$. in bolts, ISO yards in 
the piece, 46 dollars the c^rge^ or SO pieces ; velvets of all 
cokturs, .IS yMds the piece, £ot 12 dollars p Damasks of all 
colours, 12 yar^ the piece^ at 6 dollars ; white 8attin% ill 
pieces <^ 12 -yards, -8 dollars each; Burgonesy of 10 yaaxb 
^g tbfe piece, 45 dollars the corge ; ideeve silk, . the best 
maaecQlours^* ^ dollars the mttee ; the best rousk, 22 do^ 
lars the cattee ; the be^t sewkig gold tfarefld^ 15' knots, and 
every knot 30 threads,' one dollar ; velvet hmigiiigs with gold 
^embroideryr 18 dollars; npoHsattins, 14 dollars; wjkiliecuiv 
^tain stuffs^ 9 yards the piece, ^0 dollars the cargt ; flat while 
damask, 9 yards the piece, 4 dollars- each ; white sugar, very 
dry, d^-doiWsF the pekul; very dry si^ar^candy, 5doUani 
the pekul ; very fine-broad porcelain basons^ 2 dollars' the 
piece ; coarse calico cloths, white or brown, 15 dollars the 
corge^,. They bring likewise coarse porcelain, drugs, and 
various other conunodities ; but as these are not siutable to 
our country, I (Muit to mention them^ but the following miiy 
be enumerated : Very good and white benjamin from 30 
to 35 dollars the p^ul; alum, from China, as good as 
English^ 2 1 dollars the pekuL Coromandel cloths are a 
principal commodity here, and those most vendible are^eo* 
bares; pintadoes or chintz, of four or five colours ; fine iap^ 
pies from St Thomas ; baUachos ; Ja^a girdlesi ^berwise 
called caim-goolang ; calico lawns ;rbo(^ calicos; and white 
calicos made up in rolls. ^ Agoobar is .double, fOid coih 
tains 12 yards, or 6 hastaes sin^; coarse and fine balh^ 
chos contain from 32 to 34 Jtastaes, but the finest: are always 
longest. In general, all sorts of cotton cloths that are 
broad and of good length are here in.gOod request. 

The king's custom, c^led chuekejf, .is 6 bags on the 100^ 
rating pepper always at 4 dollars the sack,, wjiatever be its 
price. Billa^billian is another custom of tliis port^ by 
which every ship that arrives here^ whatever be its ladings 
as cloth or the like, must in th^ first place give notice to 
the king of all the sorts and quantities of commodities, with 
their several prices, before landing any of them ; upon which 


I Probably turbans«— E. 0% 

ISe Earfy Vcffogn of the vktiriu lab^S^ ni. 

the king sends his officers to look at the goods, who take 
for him such goods as he inclines, at half the prices affiled 
to them, or somewhat more, as can be agreed-upon : Thus, 
. tf the cloths be rated , at 20 dollars per corgej the king idll 
only give 15 or 16 dollars at the most. Instead of this, (he 
Hollanders have been in use to pay to the king 700 or 800 
dollars at once for the freedom of a ship's loading,' tb clear 
them of this troublesome htHa^iUian. By the custom of the 
country, this duty upon 6000 sacks of pepper Is fixed at 666 
idollars, if you purchase and load the pepper from the mer- 
chants; or otherwise to pul^hase so many thousand sacks 
of pepper from the king, papng him half or three quarters 
iof a dollar more than the current price at the time. Eveh 
a you have provided a loading beforehand, you must pay 
this exaction before you can be permitted to load. Hooba^ 
roobe is the duty of anchora^, and is 500 dollars upon 
6000 sacks. The sabander's dutv is 250 dollars on 6000 
sacks. The weighers have one dollar on every 100 sacks ; 
-and the jerotooHeSf or weighers belonging to the custom- 
house, have a similar duty of one dollar the 100 sacks. 
^ Jartan is a place to the eastwards of Jackatra, called 
likewise Sourabaya^ which produces plenty of provisions, 
together with cotton wool, and yam ready spun. There 
come to thia place many junks from Jauhy^ laden with pep- 
per, and several small proas belonging to this place trade 
with Banda; so that some mace and nutmegs are to be had 

Maeasser is an islaad not far from Celebes, having abun- 
dance of bezoar stones, which are there to be had at rea- 
•sonable rates. It has plenty of rice and other provisions; 
and as it has scxne junks which trade with Banda, nutmegs 
and mace are likewise to be procured there, but in no great 

Balee, or Bally,'1s an island to the eastward of Macasser, 
standing in 8^ SO' S. latitude. * It produces great abun- 
dance ci rice, cotton-yam, slaves, and coarse white cloth^ 
which is in great request at Bantam. The commodities for 
sale there, are the smallest sort of l^e and white beads, 
iron^ and coarse porcelain. 


s Instead of the eastwards, Baliy is W.S.W. of Macasser, in long. 1 15^ 
£. and lat 8° S(X S. while Macasser is^in about the lat. of ^ 15' S. and 
inJSO^E. long.— lU- 

^iBBA»k z» sBiflwu. Snghih Mtai Indim Compaf^. 187 

t Tim&r is an island to thd eastwards o£ Balfy, in the lati* 
tude of 10^ 4(K This island produces great quantities of 
Chindaimay called by us white saunders, of which the lar^ 
gQst logs are accounted the best, and which sdb at Bantam 
&r 20 dollars the pekuli at the season when the junks are 
•here. Wax likewise is brought firom thence in large cakes^ 
worA at Bantam IB^ 19, 20, and even SO dollars the pe» 
]^1, according to quanti^ and demand. Great frauds are 
practised with this article, so that it requires great attention 
in tKe purcfaas^^ and the cakes ought l>roken, to. see 
that nothing be mixed with it* 'Ilie commodities carri^ 
there for sw are chopping knives, small bugles, porcdain, 
coloured taffetas, but not blacks> Chinese ffying-panSf 9 Chi* 
nese bdls, and thin silver plates beaten out quite ^ flat^ and 
thin Hke a wafer, about the breadth of a himd. There is 
much profit made in tliis trader as the Chinese have scmie- 
times given four £>r one to our men who had adventured 
with tnem. 

' Banda is in the latitude of 5^ S. and afibrds greatstore 
of mace and nutmegs^ together with oil of two sorts. It ha^ 
no king, being ruled by a saband^, who unites with the 
sabtoders of Nero, Lentore, PuIoway,.PttIorin,.and Laba- 
tacca, islands near adjoining* These . ishuids- were .all for- 
merly under the dominion of the King of Ternate, but now 
govern themselves. In these islands they have three har- 
vests of mace and nutmegs every jrear, in the months of Ju- 
ly, October, and February ; but the gathering in July is the 
greatest, and is called the ar^ooUe monsoon. Their man- 
ner of dealing is dik : A smali. bakar is ten aUtees of maoe^ 
and 100 of nutmegs i a great bahar being 100 cattees of 
maoe^ and 1000 of nutmegs. Thecattee is five libs, l^*^ 
ounces English, and the prices are variable. The commo- 
dities in request at these islands are^ Coromandel cloth^ 
cheremaUayy sarratses, chintzes or pintadoes of five colours, 
fine baUacbotj Uack girdles^ chelfyes^ white calicos, red or 
stammel broad-doths, gold in coin» such as English rose-* 
nobles and Dutch ducats and dollars* But ftoid i& so much 
preferred^ that you may have as- much for uie value of 70 


^ Perhaps, as stated in oonjunction with bells, gongt are here meant, 
which are' ik<>t ufilike fr^ing.paCns. — E, 

*° On a former oceasioD, the Banda eattes was said to contain only 
15( ounces.English, SP that this accoant i$ quite irrecondteaUe to the. 
former. — ^E. •% 

188 EarfyFdyagesoftke buud u. book m. 

dollars. in gold as muld. cost 90 doflan* in siker. Fine 
china basons without rims are likewise in request^ togel^r 
with damasks of liffht gay colours, taffet^ V6lvets» cbina- 
bostes, gilded countxars, gold chains, gilt silver cupS) bright 
and damasked head^pieces, fire-arms, but not many sword 
blades, which must be brandt and backed to the point 
Likewise Caihbaya doths, blaclc and red calicos^ calico 
lawns,' and rice, which last is a* good commodity to carry 

The Mbhteca islands are five in numb^; viz. Molucca 
Proper, Ternate, Tidore, Gilolo, and Makian, and are uii^ 
der the equinoctial line. They produce great abundance 
df doves, not every year, but every third year. The catiec 
tikere is 3 libs. 5 ounces EngHsh, and the bahar is 200 eat-^ 
fees. . Thus 19 Molucca cattees make exactly 50 Bantam 
cattees. The commodities most vendible in these ialands 
are Coromandel cherematlays, but fine, Siam girdles or 
sashes, sahilosj but fine, ballachos and chelleys, are in most i:e- 
quest. Likewise China taffetas, velvets, datnasksf great ba- 
tons, varnished counters, crimson broad-cloths, opium, beln* 
coin, &c. 

Siam is in the lat. of 14® 30' N. It produces great stdre 
of fine benzoin, and many rich precious stones, which are 
brought from Pegu. A taile is 2i dollars. There is here 
much silver bullion, which comes from Japan, but dollars 
are most in request, for 2^ dollars in coin will purchase 
the value of 2| doUars in bullion. Stammel broad-doth^ 
iron, and handsome mirrors are in much request, as also 
all kinds of Chinese commodities are to be had therie better 
and cheaper than at Bantam. The Guzerat vessels come 
to Siam in June and July» touching by the way at the Mal« 
dive ishmds, and then at Tanasserim, whence they go oy^ * 
land to Siam in twenty days.< At Tanasserim there is al<^ 
ways 5 i to jS fathoms water. 

^fior^eo is in Jat. 3® S^^' This island affords great store 
ef gold, bezoar, wax, rattans, cayulacca, am dragons 
blood. At Bemermassith [Banjarmassen] one of the towns 
of this island, is tlie chief trade for these artides; and at 
this place the following commodities are in prindpal re- 
• . . . 

" This is rather a vague account of so large an island, which reaches 
frpm the lat. of 4® W S. to 6^ 40" N. and between the loneitudes of lOO^ 
1 2' and n^'9!/E, from Greenwich ; beiing above 700 English mfles from 
N. to S. and 670 froi» E. to W.— E. 


CHAP. X. SECT, lu Englulk Eatt IndiijL Compam/. 189 

quest: Coromanddl cloths of all kinds, China siiks^ da« 
Biasksy tafifetaSf velvets of aU colours buit black, stammel 
broad-cloths, and Spanish dollars. Bezoars are here scykl 
by a wel^tcalled taile^ equal to a dollar and a half, and cost 
5 or 6 dollars the toVe, being 1^ ounce English* Succada^ 
nea' is another town in Borneo, in lat. P SO^ S. and is about 
16(V leagues N.E. of Bantaisi. The entrance taits harbociF 
has five fathoms water at the height of the flow, and three 
at ebb, only a falcon shot from the shore, upon ooze. There 
is great trade at this place, which produces great quantities* 
of the finest diamonds in the work^ which are to be had iu 
abundance at all times of the year, but chiefly iri January^' 
April, July, and October, but the greatest quantities in Ja«* 
Buary and April, when they are bspught down the riter 
Ijavee m proas* They are said to be procured by divings 
in the same manner with pearls; and the reason why they 
are to be had more abundantly at one season than aQoth«»r 
is, that in July and October there &Ils so much rain, thai 
the river deepens to nine fathoms at the place where they 
are got, and occasions so xapid a stream that the people 
can hardly dive in search of them ; whereas in other months 
it is only lour fathoms or four and a hal^ which is found ta 
be the best depth for diving. 

The commodities most vendible at Sitccadanea are Ma** 
lacca pintados, very fine sarapa^ goobareSj poulings, chera^ 
Java, calico lawns, light-coloured China silks, sewing gold^ 
sleeve silk, stammel broad^cloth, all sorts t)f bugles, especi-* 
ally those blue ones which are made at Bantam, shaped like 
a hogshead, but about the size of a bean.' These cost at 
Bantam a dollar for 400j and are worth atSuccadanea a 
masse the 100, a masse being three quarters of a*doIlar.» 
Likewise Chinese cartes and £>llars are in request, but more 
especially gold ; insomuch that you may have a stone fiir 
the value of a doUar in gold, which you would hardly get 
fi^r a dollar and a half, or a dollar and ^ree quarters, iu sil- 
ver. On this account, therefore, when intending to sail for 
Succadapea, it is/best to go in the first plac^ to Banjermas« 
sen, where you may exchange your commodities, for gcdd, 
which you may purchase at the rate of three cattees o£ casket 
the Mallayan taik, which is nine dollars, as I have been cre- 
dibly informed it has been worth of late years. Afterwards 
carrying the gold to Succadanea, and paying it away for 

diamonds, at four cattees of cashes the taile, each of which 



190 Earfy Voi^get of the bart- n. book nr* 

18 the weight of 1§ and | of a dollar, you sain | of a doHar 
on each taik : Yet, after all, the principal profit must be 
upon the diamonds. 

The diamonds of Borneo are distinguished into^tir wu- 
ten, which they call vamOf viz. Varna Amb&n, v^irna Loudj 
vama Sackar^ and vama Besae* These are respectively 
white^ green, yellow, and a colour between green and yeh 
low; but the white. water^ or vama ambon, is the best. 
Their weights are called Sa-masa^, Sa^copangi Sa^boosuck, 
and Sa^pead: 4 copangs are a masse ; 2 boosucks a copang; 
and 1 1 pead is a boosuck. There is a weight called pakaWy 
which is four masse, and 16 masse are one taik. By these 
weights .both diamonds and gold are weighed. 

In r^ard to goods firom CMna^ the best raw silk is made 
at Nankin, and is called howsa^ beinff worth there dO dol- 
lars the pekul. The best taflbta, caDed tue^ is made at a 
small town called Hoei^Uf and is worili 90 doBars the carge* 
The best damask, called towa, is made at Canton, and is 
worth 50 dollars the cofge. Sewing gold, called kimsma, is 
sold by the chippauj or bundle, each containing ten pahees; 
and in each paper jure ten knots or skeins, sold for three 
paweSf or two dollars, the best having 36 threads in each 
Knot. Sewing silk, called couswa, is worth 100 dollars the 
pekul. Embroidered iiangings, called paejfi are worth for 
the best 10 dollars the piece. Sattins, called hpiy are worth 
&r the best one dollar the piece. Great porcelain basons, 
called chopauj are sold three for a dollar. White suffiu*, 
called petangf the best is sdd for half a dollar the pesul. 
Thejunall sorts of porcelaki, called poa^ of the best sort,' 
sell for one dollar tne caUee, Tlie best pearl boxes, called 
chanab^ are worth five dollars each. Sleeve silk, called 
J0unckes9 the best seUs for 150 dollars the pekul. Musk, 
called sakea, seven dollars the cattee. Cashes, 60 pecoos 
for one dollar. 

Broad-doth, caHed iahn^y is worth seven dollars the sa^ 
socke, which is | of a yard. Larce mirrors, called kea^ are 
wordii 10 dollars each. Tin, caSed sea, worth 15 dollars 
tbepekuL Wax, called Ar, 15 dollars the pdkul. Muskets, 
called cauchiag^ ^Buch burel worth 20 dollars. Japan sa- 
bres or cattanSi called safntOf are worth 8 dollars each. The 
best and largest elephants teeth,' called go, worth 200 dol- 
lars the peku], and small ones lOQ dollars. White saun- 


OIA7. x« s£cr. Ill* EngUA Easi Lidia Con^m/. 191* 

ders^ cxSktBi tmwheo^ the best large logs sell &r 40 dollars^ 

In China, thecastom of pepper, inwards is one iaile upon 
a pekolj hxA no custom is paid outwards. Great care is 
taken to prevent carirlng any kind of warlike ammunition 
out of the country. In Marclh the junks bound for Mbt 
nilla dqiart from Ckuchu, in companies of four, &ve, t^^ 
or more, as they happen to be ready ; their outward lading 
being raw and wrou^t silks, but of far better quality than<^ 
those they carry to Bantam. The ordinary voyage from- 
Canton to Manilla is made in ten days. They return firom 
ManiOa in the beginning of June^ -bringing back doHarsy' 
and there are not less tfian forty sail <^ junks yearly em- . 
ployed in this trade. Their force is absolutely nothing, so . 
that the whole might be taken by a ship's boat. In Qiina 
this year, 16O8, p^per was worth 6i tailes the pekul, while; 
at the siuBe dme it was selling in Bantam for 2| dollars the 

Section III* 

Second Voyage of the English East India Compam, in 1604> 
under the Command of Captain Henry midaUton^ 


There are two relations. of this voyage in the Pilgrims • 
of Purchas, or rather accounts of two separate voyages by . 
different ships of the .fleet; which consisted of four, the Red 
Dragon, admiral. Captain Henry Middleton general ; the 
Hector, vice-admiral. Captain Surflet; the Ascension, Cap* ' 
tain Colthurst; and the ^Susan* . These were, in all proba- ' 
bility, the same ships which had been in the former voyage 
under Lancaster. The former of these Journals, written on 
board the admiral, confines itself chiefly to Captain Mid- 
dleton's transactions at Bantam and the Moluccas ; havings 
sent Captain Colthurst in the Ascension to Bandeu The 
latter Contains the separate transactions of Captain Cd«' 
thurst, and is described as a brief e?Ltract fiom a larger dis- 
course written by Thomas Cktyborne, who seems to have 

Purch. PiJgr. 1. 185, and 1. 703. Asd.!. 879« and I. 281. 

192 Earfy Voyage of the fart n. book in. 

sailed la tbe Ascension ; and, besides desaibing wKat par- 
ticnkriy relates to the trip to Banda^ gives some general ao 
count of the whole vov^e. 

; In the Pi^rims of inirchas, these narrative are tran- • 
sposed, the rormer being given in vol. I. p. 70S, and the 
latter in vol. I. p. 185. ** But should have come in due 
place before, being the second voyage of the company, if 
we had then had it: But better late than nevet.'' Such is 
t^lie excuse of Purchas for misplacement, and we have thete- 
fcure here placed the two relations in their proper order, iii 
separate subdivisions of the stetion. The first indeed is a 
very bald and inconclusive article, and gives hardly any in-^ 
formation respecting the object and Success of the voyage 
to the Moluccas. 

^ 1. Voyage of the General, Henry MiddletOn, afterward Sir 
Henry, to Bantam and the Mohiecas, in l604.' 

Being furnished with all necessaries, and having taken 
leave of the company, we set sail from Gravesend on the 
25ljb March, 1604*, and arrived aboilt the 20th December^ 
after various accidents, in the road of Bantam, with our 
crews very weak and sickly. After many sahitations, and 
interchange of ordnance between us and the Hollanders, 
the general of the Hollanders dined with our general on 
the Si St December, Next day, being 1st January, l()05, 
the general went on shore with a letter and presents from 
James I. King of England^ to the Kiiig of Bantam, then a 
youth of thirteen years of age, and governed by a protec*> 
tor. The l6th of the same month, our general catne on- 
board to proceed for the Moluccas, having appointed Cap-* 
tain Surflet to go home in the Hector, llie 7ih February, 
we anchored under the shore of Veranulay the people of 
which having a deadly hatred against the Portuguese, had 
sent to the Hollanders for aid against them, promising to 
become their subjects if they would expel the Portuguese. 
In short, the castle of Amboyna was surrendered to the 
Hollanders; after which, by their command, the governor 
of the town debarred us from 'ail trade. 

At this time there was war between the islands of Ter-^ 
nate and Tidor, the former assisted by the Dutch, and the* 


* Purely. Pilgr, 1. 703. AsU. I. %79. 

CHAP. X. SECT. li; EngU^ EdU IniHd Company. 19S 

letter by tSe Pbm^^esfe. l^dWly aftgt iM gbt neat Ihd 
coasl of Tiii6r, we SaWj belwiseh Fulo Ctoally and Tidor, 
trmffallib or (Hdracbrdi bdoh^^bg to' Terfadte^ making great 
haslfe iow^ds ^s, aiid waving ibr us to shoi*ten sdil and waif 
for tliem* At ths samfe tim\*i *ev^ gallies of Tldor were 
rowing between us and the shore to assault Hxe Terrmte^s; 
^d seeing tfaeili Ih d^Ugbr, otUr gi^eral la^ to, to s^e what 
was th^ matter. In the fore&ib^ of thb iV^d gallibi^ We^i^ 
'the King iof Ternkte With fce^^rnl of hfe nobles^ arid three 
Dutteh merchants^ Who W^e in gf^at feiai' 6f their enemies; 
And prayed our general for God^s Sake to save Uibm from 
the TidoHans, who wbuld sBeW them iio mei*cy if we did 
hot protect them: They like^i^e feritreated him to feave the 
other co^fificorfl", wHich lbllb\y6d thetii, in which were several 
Dutchmen, whb expected nothing biit death if taken by tHefl? 
cruel enanies. Our getiieral thereupoi) coriimantjbd his 
ghnner to fire at the ildor gallle^; yet they boarded the 
isecohd Tehiate cbf aedrii everi uhdibr our ^uhs, and put all 
oH board to the swOrd, ^iccept thrte, who skveS theiuselveij 
by s^immifi'gi ^^'d ^^^^ takfejx up by our boat. 

Being determiniid to gd to Tidbr, the Dutchmeh en- 
treated our general hot tb ^IWW the Kln^ df Ternatc and 
them to fall into the hdhd^ bf theSr ehemi^s, frbm ^hom he 
had so lately delivered them ; promising hini mountains of 
cloves and other commodities at Ternate, and Makeu, but 
]performin^'hiol&-hilI&, verifyiiig the jprbverb', ** When the 
danger is over the saint id deceived.'^ One thing I may not 
forget : When the King of Ternate caine on board, he was 
trembling for fear ; ivhlch the general supposing to be from 
eold, prit oil his back a black damask gbwn laced with gold, 
and lined with imshbrn velV^ ; which he had hot the man- 
ners tb restore at his d&pirture^ but kept It as his own. ' 

When w€ arrited dt tb6 Portuguese town in Tidor, the 
governor of the fort sent ofle Thomas de Torres on board 
with a letter^ Stating, that, the King of Ternate and the 
Hollanders reported there was nothmg but trfcachery and 
TiUaitiy to be fexpected from us; but that he believed better 
of us, considering their reports to be entirely malicious^ 
Such was our recotopence from these ungrateful men. Not 
Jong afterwards, on coming to the town of the King of Ter- 
nate, our general sent Mr Grave on board the Dutch ad- 
miral, who gave him only cold entertainment, affirming that 
Hre had assisted thp Portuguese in thq late wars against the 

VOL. vin. N King 

194 !Earlif Voyage ^the PJkRT xi* book iii« 


King of Ternat^ an4 them, with ordnance and ammoni-. 
tion ; which oi^r general proyed to be untixie by some Por-f 
tuguese they had taken in that coniSict, on which, being 
ashamed of this slande^r, the Dutch . general pretended he 
had been so informed hy a renegado Guzerate^ but did not 
believe it to be true. 

Not long afterwards, when the King of Temi^te seemed 
\o affect our nation, the Dutch threatened to forsake him, 
and to join with his deadly enemy the King of Tidor, if 
he suffered the English to have a fiictory, ot allowed them 
any trade; affirming that the English were thieves and 
robbers, and that the King ofHolland^ as thejr called their 
atadtholder, was stronger fit sea than all the otner powers of 
Christendom ; a just consideration for all nations, to think 
what this insolent ifrothy nation* will do, if they gain po&^. 
session of the East Indies. Tp these insolent speeches, our 
general made answer, that whatsoever Hollander made 
$uch reports lied like a traitor, and that he would make it 
good against any one who dared to spread any such report ; 
affirming, if Queen Elizabeth had not taken pity upon them^ 
thejr bad been utterly ruined and endaved by the King of 
Spain, and branded for rebels a^nd traitors. The particu-. 
lar wrongs dbne by them to our nation would fill volumes^ 
and amaze the world to hear. 

. Appended to this very unsatisfactory notice of the VOTa^ 
of Middleton to the Moluccas^ are two letters to the King, 
of England, one from the King of Ternate, and one from 
the Kmg of Tidor. In the former, the King of Ternate 
mentions, that one of his predecessors, about thirty yeara 
before, had sent a ring by Sir Francis Drake to Queen 
Elizabeth. He complains that the Hollanders had prer. 
vented him from permitting Captain Middleton to esta- 
blish a factory in the island, for which he craves pardon^ 
being against his wiU» and promises a better reception af- 
terwards to the English ships. 

The letter from the King of Tidor requests the King of 
England to take pity of him, and riot permit him and his 
country to be oppressed by the Hollanders and the King 


* This is to be understood of the merchants who traded> or warred 
rather ; not of the whole ppuntry or best men oi Holland. Losers wiU^ 
have leave to speak, and merchants envy each other*— PtircA, 

CHAP. Jc. SECT, nt English East India Company, 195 

bf Ternate, but to send him succours, which he requests 
may be under the command of Captain Henry Middleton 
Dr his brother. 

There is a third letter likewise, from the King of Ban- 
lam to King James^ acknowledging having received a pre- 
sent by Captain Henry Middleton, aiid announcing that he 
)had sent in return, two bezoars, one weighing fourteen rnas^ 
and the other three. 

' I 2. Voyage of Captain ColtJmrUf in the Amrmon^ to 


TheSdofApril, 1604, we had sight of the Lizard. The 
23d we fell in with the western part of St Jago, bearing W. 
by N. six leagues; when we stood eastward for Mayo, ha- 
ving the wind at north. The 24th we fell in with Mayo, 
find stood to the southward of that island, coming to an- 
chor in fifteen fathopis. We landed on the 25th, when one 
of our merphants was taken by the people of the island. 
Next day we landed 100 men to endeavour to recover our 
merchant, but could not get near any of the islanders, so 
that we had to leave him behind, setting sai^ that njght with 
liie wind at north. We passed the equinoctial on tne 1 6th 
May, and got sight of the Cape of Good Hope on the 13 th 

The 17th Jul^ we came to anchor in Saldanha bay, In 
lat. 83* 56' S. or 34% having sixty m^n bad of the scurvy, 
all of whom, God be praised, recovered their health before 
we went from thence^ where we remained five weeks want- 
ing one day. Here Mr Cole was drownedj who was mas- 
ter of the Hector, our vice-^mir^. We weighed anchor 
from Saldanha bay on the 20th August, standing to the 
westwards with the wind at south. On Sunday the 23d 
December, 1604, we came to anchor in Bantam roads, 
where we found six ships of Holland, and three or four 
pinnaqes. , The 18th Jfanuary, 1605, we sailed put of Ban- 
tam roads, with the Dragon and Ascension, but parted at 
Amboyna, the general going with the Dragon to the Mor 
luccas, while the Ascension, Captain Colthurst, went for 
panda. The Hector and Susan laded pepper at Bantam^ 


! Purch. Pilgr. L ^85. AstI, I. 281, 

196 Marfy f^9¥oges of the part ir. book m, 

and sailed' thence &r Eqgland about the middle of 6p* 

We arrived in the Ascension at Banda on the 20th Fe^ 
bruary, and anchored in 4| fathoms beside Nera, the prin«< 
cipal place in these islands. From the south part of Am« 
boyna to Banda, the course is £. by S. and to the south? 
Wards, 30 leagues. The latitude of Banda is 4"* 40" N. and 
the going in is to the westwards. There is a very high hil) 
which burns continually, which hill must be left to lar-? 
board, having the great island on the starboard. The ?n- 
try is very narrow, and cannot be seen till within half i| 
mile; but you may stand fearlessly to within two cable'a 
length of toe island on which is the high hill, for so you 
must do, and will have 2Q fathoms. Then stand along tha( 
island, at the distance of a cable's leng^h^ if the wi^d p^r 
mity when you mU find the water sho^ng, 8, 7, 6 fathpm^ 
land 5 in the narrowest part, which depth contjii^ues till yoi| 
get into the road of Nera. With God's help, a man may 
ffo in without danger, keeping near the beibre-mentioneq 
feland. It is nomewhat sihallow on the starboard side of the 
narrow passage, but that will shew itself. There are two 
'^mall islands, Pulo-way and Pulo-rin, about three league 
West of this entrance^ but there is no danger about thfCin 
that is not quite obvious ; and you may leave these isUunls 
on either side you find convement, eiUier in going in or 

At this place we found the wind variable about the mid^ 
die of March, and it so continued till about the middle of 
April ; when it became stationary between £• and S.% four 
months to our knowledge : But, as the people of the coua- 
try say, it continues so for five months ; and likewise fiv^ 
months between W. and N. W. the other two months be-\ 
ing variable. In the dark mopns, they have here much 
gusty weather with rains. We staid here t^enty«one weeks 
and six days, in which time eleven of our men died, mostly 
of the fiux. 

We sailed from Banda the 2 1st July^ 1605, haying the 
wind at E.S.E. and stood to the westwards. The 22d we 
fell in with the south end of Bourro* The 27th we iellja 
with D^selem, and then came about to the south end of the 
island, leaving seven islands to starboard. We then stobcl 
dose by the wind to the northward, hard by the main is- 

dkA?* iu BtifT. itU English Easi India Company. 19? 

hnd 6f Deselem, to dear ourselves of a small island, and a 
shoal off the S.W. part of Deselem; then, leaving this i^ 
knd atid ali the other shoals on our larboard side, we st6od 
N.N.W. alon^ the W. sidb of Deselem, till we catne into 
the latitude of 6** lO* S. Hien steered 18 leagues west, and 
fell iiT with the shoal off th6 S. W. point of Celebes, the very 
ildutbmost part of ^hich is in lat. 6* S. [only 5° 45* J and 
l»elng clear of that, we steered weistwatds, coming to anchor 
bl Bantaih roads on the 16th August 

We set sail from Bantam on the 6th Octobef, the* Dra^ 
^A and Aseensibn in complany. The 15th November, we 
werem lat. SI** 48' S. the wind W.N.W. thick foggy wea- 
ther, when about 10 a. m. we came within oUr chip's length 
ef a rock or sunken island, on which the water appeared 
▼esQr browti and muddy, and in some places very blue. 
T^en^ a ship^s breadth or two* to the north of it, the watei^ 
Ifty the ship's side was very bldck and thick, as thot^ it had 
earth or coarse sand boiling up from the bbttom. The Vari- 
a:^fi hi^re viras dl degrees westerly. The 16tii December, 
in lat. 34'' 2(y S. we had sight of the land of Ethiopia, 
|f Afric^^ about 12 leagues from ufir. The 26th, being in 
ht 34f SO' S. and within one lea£:ue of the Cape of Good 
Kbpe^ we-steered N. W. and N.M.W. and N. going round 

The- 27th w^ cameto anchbr ih Saldanha bay, where we 
found our admiral and the Hector. Our admiral had iall- 
tnr in with that ship seven days before, driving up and down 
M sea, about four leases* from the Cape of Gbod Hope, 
^Ving only ten men m her ;. all the rest, to the number of 
55, having died since leaving Bantam nine months before. 
Being ih great distress, three months after leaving Bantam, 
die lost company with the Susan, which ship was never 
heard of afterwaras. We came to anchor at l^ildanha bay 
ill seven fathoms iV^al^r, having the low point going in N. W. 
hy W. the sugai'-loaf S. W. half W. the point of the 
breach of the Penguin island N. W. by N. the hill between 
the sugar-loaf and the low point, W.S.W. and the peak of 
Ae hill to the eastward of the Table S. by £• 

In the morning of the 16th January, 1606, we sailed from 
Saldanha bay, going to the northward of Penguin island, 
between it and the main. We sounded when we had the 
land south from us about a mile and a half, and had ground 
at 20 fathoms, white c«ral and broken shells. On clearing 


198 Early Voyage$ of the ^a&tikbqps.i^ 

the island, we stood W. by S. and W.S.W. till we brought 
the island to bear S.E. by E. being now about six in the 
evening, when we saw the Hector coming.out by the south 
side ofihe island, having left her at anchor when we w^h^ 
ed. The wind being at S. we stood all night westwardSf 
and in the morning had lost company witn the Hector^ 
when we steered NrVV. with' little sail till noon, thinking to 
get sight of the Hector, but could not The Ist February, 
inlat. 16*" 20' S. we had sight of St Helena, 12 or 13 tear 
gues N.W. The 2d, having the wind at S.E. we lay off 
and on east of the island most part of the night, and in the 
following morninff we stood to the north of the island, oo* 
muig to anchor aoout noon in the road of St Helena, in 20 
fathoms, on blackish gravelly sand. We had a point of 
land to the N.E. a sharp hill like a sugar-loaf, with a cross 
upon it, N.E. by £. the church in the valley S.E. In this 
valley there are many trees^ the high land S.£. from th^ 
church, and the entire valley being full of trees. We moor^ 
ed S.E. and N.W. the anchor in the offing being in 21 &« 

At night of the Sd, we had sight of the Hector coming 
round the south end of the island, but she could not feu£ 
into the road, yet stood to the northward as near as she 
could, having the wind at east. The 4tb and 5th our boat% 
went out to endeavour to help her into the road, but could 
not Having a little wind on the 6th, our boats towed her 
in, bringing ner to anchor in 35 fathoms, a mile and half 
from shore, bearing from us S. W. by W. distant about two 
leagues. The 1 1th we set sail from St Helena, the wind at 
E.N.E. and steering N.W. The N.W. part of St Helena 
is in lat. 16® S. ana the variation is 7® 4•5^ The churchy 
that bore S.E. of us when we were in the road, stands ia 
the bottom of the fifth valley from that point which bore 
N.E. from us. We came to anchor in the Downs on the 
6th May, 1606, where we lay at anchor eight days, waiting 
for a fair wind* 

tHAF» X. SECT, m EngSsh Ea^ India Cmpam/. 199 


Thiird Voyage of the En^ish East India Cornpany, in 1607« 

by Captam WilMam Keeling^ 


Ik tliis voya^ three ships were employed, with about 
SIO men; the Dragon, admiral, Captain Keeling, who wa^ 
diief coimnander or general ; the Hector, vice-admiral^ 
commanded by Captain William Hawkins; and the Con- 
Benty Captain David Middleton. The relation of the voy- 
je, as appears from its title in Purchas, was written by 
.e^lipgS the chief t»>mmander or general, or, as he would 
now be called, the commodore : But, by a side-^note, Pur- 
chas informs us, that he had abbreviated the narrative from 
the journals written at sea, by Captains Keeling and Haw- 
kins, which were veiy voluminous, occupying a hundred 
flheets of paper, and &at he had onlv retainea the most ne^ 
cessary observations for sea and land affairs. 

. The editor of Astley's Collection observes, ^< That this 
narrative is writtcfn very obscurely, in an abrupt, uncouth 
fityle,. which he thinks Purchas ought to have reformed 
wnen abridging it. The author seems to have kept no re- 
gular journal, but onlv to have entered such things from 
time to time as seemed most material. In many places it 
consists only of loose imperfect hints, thrown together without 
connection, and often referring to things not mentioned be^ 
fore. Possibly these defects may have been owing to Pur- 
chas, in order to abbreviate the journal; and indeed^ whe- 
ther from want of care or judgment^ he spoiled almost 
^very thing he abridged. It contains, however, many va>- 
luable nautical remarks, and many particulars respecting 
the conduct of the Dutch, who now began to lord it in 
India, whidi may atone for its defects. If the dryness of 
flome of the details may disgust any of our readers, we hope 
they will consider that our design is to give a series of tJte 
English Voyages ; and in so doing to steer equally between 
the two extremes of redundance and imperfection.'" 


* iPurch. Pilgr. I. life. Astl. I. 312. 

* This paragraph is inserted from the previous remarks tO the voyage 
«f Keeling, by the editor of Astfey's Collection.— £. 

200 jj^rljf Vcy9f^f^^ MET n« MaiL J3% 

Purcbas remarks punningly in a side-note, << That the 
Consent held no conc^ot. iKlth: thfi Dragon and Hector.'' 
Her voyage will be found in the sequel of this section, with 
qeveraii other articles copi\ected Mfitb it, whi^ haye.xv>t been 
noticed in Astley's. CoUeii^tiQBa «nd vWch appeared neces- 
sary to elucidate the early commercial connections of Eng- 
land with India, and the manners and customs of the eas- 
tern nations. We have endeavoured to amend the uncouth 
and abrupt style of Purchas, but it was impossible tx> dear 
up his obscurities; and in viany insj^yoces. we h9,ve abbre* 
vii^^ or lopt off redundancies aod nnimpoxftOByt partic»- 
Iflti^s. — E. 

§ I. Disasters in the Outsei of the Vojfag/s^fiorcmg thesgi back 
iQ Sierra Leom ; tn^iih OccunenceSi till kaving SaidamAa 

By the 1st of April, 1607,. tikeBrraon and Hector had 
xeached the Downs. After passing the line in the fae§^ 
ning of June, and getting four, ojt five degrees to the soiUhr ' 
wards, we w^re so crossea by gusts, cahns, sains,, and sick- 
ness, aa to be cooatrained to return northwaids. "M^lmng 
the kland of Fei;nando Noronha* 1 coDsuIted on the SQtk 
Jnly with the master, nami^ rTavemer, v(bo, tbooghfe we 
must return for England ; but Sierta Leona being men^- 
tioned, of which place 1 had fi>m^y read good accouati^ 
I sent for the book,* and both Mr Tavemer and myself 
took a the place. Our company being very much 
•diseased, and being exceedingly in want of water, with no 
hopes of getting to Femafido Nbronha, I called a coundJ^ 
and after dinner desired their opinion what was fittest to 
be done? They were all of opinion that we coi^dnot stand 
any longer to the south, for many reasons; and, demand- 
ing tlieir opinions in regard to a watering^fplaoe. Church^ 
man, Savage, and Tavemer, proposed Mayo; Ea^ming, 
Pockham, Molineux> and ray master, preferred Sieiara Le- 
ona lor many causes, whidi likewise wa& my own opinion, 


' Purchas makes the followSng remark in a side-note :— *' Mr Hakluyt's 
book yias here of good profit ; for, as Sir Thomas Smith affirmed to me, 
it now saved ^20,000 to the company, which they had beea endamaged 
if the ships had returned home; which had certainly been the case if tSoat 
book had not been consulted." 

0B£p* X. sics. X7» EngSA Ea$f India Gompany* 2ai 

wherefore w^ oonchided to make fot Sierra Leoiia, wkk 
which detenninatkni I acquainted the ctews, ta theit wetj 
greaS comfort 

On the morning of the 4th Ai:^st, we saw many flow- 
ers, a strong sign of approaching kmd, and towards evening 
had ground in £roiB 20 to 16 fethoms, yet saw no land. By 
means of onr skiff, I set the current to the S.E. at the rate 
of two miles each watch. Hie 5th we steered aH morning 
eastwards, and E. by S. having from SO to 20 and 10 fa- 
thoms, and still no land to be seen. The greatest depth was 
on an oose bottom, the least a coarse yeltow sand. About 
nine o'clock we espied land, bearing N.E. about 8 leagoen 
distant, being a round hummock ot middling height. By 
noon we were in latitude 7^56^ N. having steered all day easty 
«oin<^tiiiies half a point north or soutrh^ as our wat^r deep- 
ened or shoaled, for we would sometimes have ten &thoras 
or more one east^ and the next seven fathoms, the ground 
being full of pits, believing that we were upon the edge of 
the shoals of Santa Anna^ otherwise called Madera hombtu 
In ibe afternoon we had 9, 10, 11, and 12 fathoms. The 
firstHieen land proved to be Ilha Verde^ a very round land^ 
and a very notable maa4& for any ship bound for Sierra Le- 
ona from the southwards. 

About s^ven p« ro. we anchored in 20 fathoms oH hard 
sand, the south part of Mha Verde^ bearing E. and the Cape 
of SSerra Leona, which is a low point, N. by E. about eight 
leagues dktant But the land ova: the cape is vqtj bigb^ 
and may be seen fifteen leagueis off in clear weafiheir. About 
9ix next morning we made sail &v the* road, and had not 
less than 16, 15, 10, and 9 fathoms, till we ranged north 
and south with the rocks which- Me about \\ miles west of 
Cape Sierra Leona; and vhen one mile fix>m the nearest 
shore we had seven fathoms, good shoaling between u»and 
the rock. Immediately when past the rock we had 20 fa-^ 
thorns, and shoaled to 18, 16, 12, and 10 fathoms all the 
way into the roads, keeping very near the south shore ; fov 
a sand lies about two miles from the north shores or a 
league from the south shore, and upon it the sea continu- 
ally breaks. We came to anchor in ten fathoms on good 
ground, the point of Sierra Leona bearing W. by N. the 
north point of the bay N. by W. and the sand or breaker 
KKE. • 

In the. afternoon we were wared by some men on shores 

tSOt Early Voyages of thi part ii. book in^ 

to whom I sent ray boat) whicb, leaving two hostagesi 
brouffht off four negroes, who promised us refreshments; 
My skiff sounded between our anchorage and thebreakers^ 
finding fair shoaling, with tutro fathoms water within two 
boats length of the breach, or sand on which the sea bredks^ 
All the previous observations of the variation, since our 
coming from 2^ N. latitude to this place, proved ^^rone^ 
ous; for to each distance, having reference to any meridian 
eastwards, there roust be added 30 leagues, and from such 
as referred to western meridians, SO leagues must be sub* 
tracted ; for it appeared, by our falling in with the land^ 
that the ship was so much more westerly than we supposed; 
myself j notwithstanding this error, being as much, if not 
more westerly than any of the mariners. Yet every man 
must trust to his own experience ; for instruments may de« 
ceive^ even in the hands of the most skilful. 

The 7th August, some negroes of a superi(»r appearance 
came aboard in my boat, for whom, as for all others, we had 
to leave one of our men in hostage for every two of themi 
These men made signs that I should send some men up the 
country, and they would stay as hostages. I accordingly 
sent Edward Bradbury, and my servant, William Cotterelv 
with a present to the captain, or chief, consisting of one 
coarse shirt, three feet of a bar of iron, a few glass beads, 
and two knives. They returned towards night, and brought 
me from the captain, one small gold ear-ring, worth some 
eight or nine shillings ; and as it was late^ the hostages re^ 
mained all night on board without any one in pawn for 
them. I sent my boat, and brought off five tcms of watery 
very good, and easily come by. 

1 went ashore on the 11th, when the people came to us^ 
acoompani^ by their women, yet feared we might carry 
them away. We got plenty of lemons very cheap, as they 
gave us 200 for a penny knife. The 13th 1 bought an ele^ 
phant's toojth of 63 pounds weight, for five yards of blue ca^ 
licoj and seven or eight pounds of bar iron. The 15th,' in 
an hour and a half, we took six diousand excellent small 
fish, called cavaUos. That afternoon we bought two or 
three thousand lemons at the village. « It rain^ so much 
at this place, that we esteemed it a. dry day when we had 
three hours of fair weather. The 16th I allowed our week^ 
ly workers to go on shore with me for recreation. ,In our 
walk we saw not above two or three acres sown with rice^ the 
surface of the ground being mostly a hard rock. The 16tb 


eH&Pb su u%iST» IT* Eng^ Bast India Company* SFO^ 

a&d 17tli were qtiite fidr, imd on the latter I t^used a quan<* ' 
tity of lemon water to be madew 

The 20tb, John Rogers returned and brought me a pre* 
sent of a piece of gold in form of a half-moon, worth five 
or six shillings. He reported the people to be peaceabley 
^e chief without state, the landing to be two leagues up 
the ri^er, and the chief's village eight miles from the land** 
ing. The 22d I went on shore, and made six or seveii 
barricos full of lemon juice ; having opened a firkin of knives 
belonging to the company, wherewith to buy limes. The 
afternoon of the 7th September we went all on shore, to 
try if we could shoot an elephant; when we shot seven or 
dght bullets into him; and made him bleed exceedingly, as 
appeared by his track; but night coming on, we had to go 
oB board without efiecting our purpose. 
' The best road and watering-place is the fourth bay to 
llie east of Cape Sierra Leona. The tide where we rode 
flowed W.S. W* and the highest water upon a spring tide 
was at the least 12 feet. I made no observation of the sun 
in thi» road, neither aboard nor on shore, though I propo« 
sed to have so d<me several times; but the master made the 
road where we lay 8° 36^ N. Cape Sierra Leona being west, 
a league or four miles ofi; He also made the variation 1^ 
50' eastwards; but my instrument was out of order, and I 
had not time to put it in repair. 

We w^^ed from Sierra Leona the 14th September^ 
with the wind all easteriv ; but it soon fell calm^ and we 
drove to the north, but drifted again S. W< by 8* with the 
ebb, and when the flood again maide, we anchored in 15^ 
&thoms, Cape Sierra Leona bearing N.E. by E. about se- 
ven leagaes off» We had not less than ten &thoms all this 
day. The 16th we found the current setting N« by W. 

The nth December, about two p. m. we saw land, be^ 
ing the Table at SaUanlia, and bore up towards it till three^ 
when I ordered the. master to steer E.S.E. and S.E. by £. 
to double the cape ; but as all the people, sick and sound, 
desired to put into Saldtfnha bay, we* bore up for it, and 
came to anchor about noon, [next day,] in 5| fathoms, the 
W. point bearing W.N.W. the island N.N.E. and the su- 
«r-loaf S. W. As soon as we were anchored I sent on 
Aofe, when there was found engraven on a rock, Captain 
MidcUeton, of the Consent, 24tVi July, 1607. I went on 
shore the 2l8t^ and bought 120 sheep, 12 bullocks, and two 

' * calves. 

204 "Earh/ V6yag& <^ihe i^A^UkMoHfm 

calves^ of whieh I aOowed a pf oportioAftI sha^' td tbe H^* 
tor. This market continued several da^fs, In wbiek w^ 
bought much cattle, paying in aQ 200 Iron h<)ops £1^ 450 
i^heep, 46 ccws^ 10 steers^ 9 calves, and one bvdL 

f £4 Depaftartffom SaMattha,dni Oceu^enteifiS fh&Skfjp^ 

parted Company. 

By sun-rise of the first Januaty^ 1608, both vessek iv^re 
under sail, and by six p. m. were ten leagues tsfest-^oviikeriy* 
from the south point of the bay of Saldanha% The 19th vpi^ 
shipped much sea at the hehn pdrt, and at the hole abaft iH 
Hnr gallery, about two hours after midnight, whieh w^ sotti^ 
Wour bafes of cloA. We were then in lat. SS^" WS. [I;*. 
Ibw thirteen leagues S.S.E« wind E.N«£. and N.E* she IdH^ 

gee drift S. and three leagues N.E< wind all we&terly.'] 
ir too great quantity of KiMledge goods occasions ota 
Aip to labour greatly, which the company must have-spoM^ 
rial care of on anothet" voyage. The 20th I ^arefyiy ail«d 
and dried our cloth, oiled the fire<-armiS' and sword blad^ 
belbnging to the company, strengthened the packing cas^ 
ftc. This afternoon, contrary to expectation, and to th# 
astonishment of all our mariners, we sslw land beafrintf 
H.N.W. about twelve leagtte8-<^, being in thfe lat^^of 54**^ & 
If I had not had dear experience of the strong westeriy oui^ 
tent in my last voyage, I likewise had admired^ thisi^ yet I 
am more westerly in my reckoning than any, having doubted 
the currents for causes before noted; being by redcotting 
100 leagues more easterly than the sight of land wan^ntecL 
- The 17th of February we saw land, bearing E. about; 
eight leagues from U95 and, as I judged^ in lat; 24^ 2b' 8t 
About noon we were athwart two smdl islands^ which secffO^ 
ed to make a good* road ; but not being sure of our lati- 
tude, we stood off and on till high nooB^ when We might 


' Th!6 unusualexpression, and others gknilar, as west^nortfaerl^.eaBt^i 
fiontheriy, and east-northerly». which frequently occur in thi» voyi^,. are 
most probably the same with the usual expressions of west by sentOy west 
by north, east by south^ and east bv north.-— E. 

^ These observations within brackets are unintell^ble: Probably notes 
in tiie log-book, for being attended to in caloulatingJthe ship's day's work$ 
and either left unexplained as a species of short^haod writing of Kedin& 
or rendered unintelligible by the igporant abbreviation of Purchase Such 
often occur in this article or the Pilgrims ; but, except in this fnstaDce, av 
an example, we have omitted such useless uaiptelligibilities.'—E* 

fiWL9. X. SEPT. iVf IkigHth EtsU IneKa Ompany* 205 

taike an; obeeryatioO) bavii^ 00 ground mth 60 &tKaini 
Une witiiin two miles of the shore. The 18th, in lat. 23* 
^V we aocbored in .7i fathoms sandy ground, the two is- 
lands bearing. S. W« pne mile distant. There was an island 
)B. by N. from us about three leagues off, whidi the master 
ai^posed to be St Augustine, for which we proposed to 
$€^rchr The variation here was IS^ SO'. The 19th we 
weighed \n tlie morniiygi when we broke one <^ our . an* 
chors, through an original defect; which surely deserves 
much blai^e^ but fpr which I refer to a oertificate I made 
on die subject* We now steered for the seining harbour 
pr bav of 8t Augustine, having from our former anchorage 
in saiUng towards it, firom ten to twelve and twenty fathoms; 
und on poising near the point of the bay^ we had no ground 
with 160 fathoms, till we came far into the bay, our skiffi 
going befpre^ and ih&x bad ground at thirty, shoaling to 
aig^t fathoins. We anchored in eighteen fathoms, and laid 
put anothe^r anchor in forty fathoms, the deepest water be« 
ing pn the south shore, the other beiog made shallow by 
|;he cpming down of rivers. The land bore W. b^ S« and 
^* from pur anchorage and to the north avecertam sboab 
0JX which the sea breaks, so tibat it was only open to &vi 
points of the wind ; but. the road is very full of pits and 
deep Dfaters Md a. strong stream runs always down from 

Captain Hawkins came on board me^ and, as I was very 
linwell, I sent him ashore with the boats oC both ^ipa. lU 
iretumed on bpard towards ni^t, without having^ seen any 
people^ though their tracks were quite recent in several 
places. He left some beads mid p»ther trifles in a canoe^ to 
l^ure the natives. In his <^>inion we bad smaU chance 
here of any refr^ments; bujt my fishers from the other 
jside of the bay tpld me of having seen great store of beasts 
bones^ and bones certainly have once nad flesh. George 
Evans, one of the Hector's men, was sevet ely bitt^ by an 
altgarta^ [alligator.] I gave orders to fiU our water casks 
wiui dl speed, and propose in tiie mean time to seek for 
|-efreshment. The tid^ flows here nearesp cos^,' and rises 
high.' The 21st we saw four natives, to whom I sent some 


. 3 As the bay of St Augustine, in lat. 2S>° SO' S. is on tbe west coast of 
Madagascar, where the coast is direct N. and S. the current of the tida 
•4D0uld not set from tbe east. The e;q>ression in the text, therefore, pro^ 
bably means that it is h^h*water wbeii the moon is nearJy east.— £• 

C06 Earfy Voffn^et of the part ii. book nu 

beads and otfaer baubles, making them understand by sfgni 
that we were in want of cattle, when they promised in the 
same manner to bring plenty next day. Seeing people on 
shore next day, I went a-land, and found them a subtle 
people^ strong-built and well-made, almost entirely naked» 
except a cloth of bark carelessly hunff before them. We 
bought a calf, a sheep, and a lamb, out they would only 
deal for silver. In the afternoon I rowed up the river, 
which I found shallow and brackish. The 24tn we bought 
three kine, two steers, and four calves, which cost us about 
nineteen shillings and a few beads. These cattle have far 
better flesh than those we got at Saldanha, and have bunches 
of flesh on their shoulders, like camels, only more forward* 
Some affirmed that the people were circumcised. We here, 
found tht beautifi4 beast.^ 

> Where we rode at anchor the water by the ship's side waa 
very fresh at high water, and very salt at low water, contra- 
ry to what might have been expected ; and at high water it 
was very fresh on one side of the ship, and very salt on the 
other. In a gust of wind at N. W. on the 25ih, our ship 
drifted and broke a cable, by which we lost the anchor. We 
bou^tht this day a calf, a sheep, and a Jamb, the sheep having 
a great tail ; blU three costing us 2$. Sd. I found certain spi« 
ders, whose webs were as strong as silk. All along the low 
land from £. to W. about half a mile from the shore, there 
runs a ledge of rocks on which the sea continually breaks^ 
between wliich and the shore are two fiEithoms water, wqih 
derfully full of fish, and having a fine beach on which to haul 
the nets. 

The 28th in the morning we got under sail to put to sea» 
This bay of St Augustine is a very unfit place fot ships ta 
touch at for refreshments^ as these are to be had only in 
small quantities ; and the bay is very untoward for riding at 
anchor, the water being deep and pitty and the ground mu^ 
as appeared by cutting our cable. By the 15th March we 
had only got into lat. 15^ 40' S. and I knew not what course 
to take to get out of the current, which was very swifi set- 
ting to the south, as keeping mid-cbahnel may endanger us^ 

^ This seems to refer to some creature then in the ship, and perhaps 
brought home with tbeoi to England. Astl. I. 3 IS. a.-*- Mr Finch says» 
there were in the woods, near the river, great store of beasts, as bis as 
monkiesy of an ash colour, having a small head» a long tail like a fox, ny> 
red with black and whitei and having very fine fur^-^E. 

«HAP. X* BEcr. IV. I^glish East India Compamf. 207 

upon In. de Nova ;' and in keeping near shore God knows 
what danger may befal, as it is indiscreet to continue where 
the wind does not stem the current. The 17th we were in 
lat. 14^ 57' S. so that we have got 25 leagues farther north, 
and the main power of the current seems now lessened. 
My mast^ is of opinion that the age of the moon may have 
peculiar influence over the currents, causing them to be 
strong till three or four days after the ftill : but I rather 
think that the deep bay between Cape Corientes and Mo- 
zambique causesan indraught or eddy of some stream or cur- 
rent, coming either from the N.E. or more easterly, and en- 
tering the channel of Mozambique at the N. W. of Mada- 
gascar, and so along the land to Cape Corientes ; or else the 
stream from the N. W . of Madagascar, meeting with the land 
of Mozambique^ may be drawn that way by me falling in of 
the land. If this supposition be true^ we committed an er^ 
ror in falling in with the land till we had got to the north of 
Mozambique point, which bends &r into the sea.** 


<^ Their sailing, along the islands, and trucking at Tama- 
ra, with other occurrences, I have left out, as being more 
iuHy known by later experience. Leaving Abdalcuria they 
were forced to ride in Delisa road to the north of Socotoray 
till the n^onsoon freed them ; at which time Captain Keel- 
ing set sail for Bantam with the Dragon, and Captain Haw* 
kins in the Hector for Surat, as shall after follow." ' 

§ 3. Instructions learnt at Delisa respecting the Monsoon^from 
the Moors and Guzerates; mth the Arrival of the Dragon 
at Bantam. 

♦ • 

The Moors of Delisa affirm that pieces of ambergris are 
some years found weighing 20 quintals, and so large that 
many men may take shelter under their sides without being 
seen. This is upon the coast of Mombaza, Magadoxa, Pa- 
ta, Brava, &c. which indeed are all one coast. From De- 

' This I understand to be the island of Juan de Nova, in the narrow- 
^g between Madagascar and the coast of Africa towards Mosambique. 
— AsTL. LS17. 

^ This is by no nieanB the caste, and we may therefore conjecture that 
(Cape St Andrew in Madagascar is here meant, which is of that descripf 
tion, and is in some measure opposite Mozambique.— -£• 

7 This latter paragraph is a side-pot^ in the original by Purchas.— £• 

on lie ^' •? a.M iirZ2^ <n^i^ •an,^ ^ 

'^"' "book!'"? """fcff r„trw« jW; ° ««i sii'! ^m 

" '••nd^ ^ '*»«!iu,. »',"?> on ijj P»n are"? "o ft, 

«&AP. X. SECt. IV. EngSsh Em India Campang, 209 

moras, hare vely little rice, and the people are veiy treach- 
erous ; and they report that about sixteen yedrs ago an £iig<^ 
lish shi]^ lost many metf by treachery on that island, whidi 
surely was James Lancaster in Raimond^s Ti)ya^«' 

We were farther informed) that this day, 26th May, I6OS9 
was the 224th from the Neyrooze, or new-yeairVday, ac- 
cording to their account : That there is no rairi on the coast 
df Arabia till the 70th day of this itiOhsoon : Th^t the SO^th 
day from Neyrooze is the best time fbr going to Surikt ; and 
tkat in ten or twelve days thejr get to UkAt port. Burrom^ 
Mekella, and Cayxem, [Keysheni) Kashin, Kasseen, Ka^ 
sin, or Kushem,] on the cOast of Arabia, are good harbours 
for shelter in both monsoons; but are (Places of no trade* 
Xael or Xaer* has no harbour or road tor any season, yet 
i&ight be a vent for iron or ledd. This place is commanded 
by a Turkish Ami, and they send thence fot commodities to 
Keyshenl, a days journey to the west ; bat there is no go- 
ihg there at this season. In both mOiisoons there is a very 
heavy sea on the cd^t of Arkbia, and the currents there 6e% 
along with the wind. There is do riding at anchor at the 
entrance to Surat, so as to hikVe shelter in the West mon* 
sbotis, both on ^account of bad ground, and because the tided 
run with such rapidity as to Overset ships that al^e not or* 
ground. This road of Delisa is very safe in the west m'on- 
-soon; but only two miles either east or west it continually 
blows so strong that no ship can ride. I can give no rea^ 
6on for this, unless that the distance of the high mountains 
produce this remarkable difference, as there is much low 
ground between us and them. 

We departed from Delisa on the 24th June, 1608 $ and 
on the 23d July we saw an island, and about noon two 
more, in lat. 4?° 2* S. We left two of these to the north 
and one to the south of our course; the most northerly be-* 
ing a large high island full of trees% Between the two sou-^ 
thermost of these three islands, ten leagues distant, and half 
way between them^ there is a dangerous reef of rocks, to 

VOL. VIII. o avoid 

' In the account of that voyage, as already given in Chap. IX. Sect. 6. 
<^this booky which was in 1591, Lancaster ^as said to have been l(>st in a 
storm. He may have got en shore in this island^ and been massacred by 
the natives. — ^E. 

^ This is the Portuguese orthography ; in English it should be Shael, or 
Shaer ; but the true name is Shahr, or Shohr; while seme call it Seer, — 
AsTL. I. S18. 1. 

210 Earljf Voyaga of the PABt ix. book tih 

avoid which we steered through a very good passa^ with-* 
in two leagues of the middle island^ the reef beipg' then to 
the 8outh» about three leagues from us, and is very danger- 
ous for ships going through by night. There seemed a^ 
likeness of a paspage througn between the middle island and 
the northermost, but it was not a league broad* The sour- 
them island is the largest of the three.^ 

Thp 2.6th July we were halfway between Friaman and' 
Tecu^abppt three leagues from the shore^ the two hummocks 
of Tecu> with high land over them, bearing N« by W. and^ 
S. by £• half a poipt east. There is a shoaffour miles from 
ahore, bearipg &. apd S. with the high land of Tecu. We. 
had here 45 fatlioms. water 2i leagues from shore, being, 
then N. £. by E. from the road of Friaman. In the after- 
noon we got into the road of Friapxan, ^d saluted the: 
town with five guns. 

The governor of the town sent me a goat, and I sent him 
in return three yards of stammel cloth, one piece of blu^ 
calico^ a stockea musket, a musket^-barrely and two sword 
blades. The messenger spoke good Portuguese^ to whom 
I gave a piece of blue calico^ lie was accompanied by av 
person of Acheen, with whom I conversed in Arabic, and 
by whom I had great hope pf trade, I went ashore early 
on the 29th, and going to (he gpvernor's house, he pre* 
sented me with a buQalo, and appointed some of his chief, 
men to make the price of pepper with me. Sitting down 
with about sixty of thiese men, they first proposed £at the. 
pq^per shpuld be weighed in town, while I insisted that it 
should be weighed in the island. They demanded fifty dol^ 
Jars t^e bahar, which much displeased me, as the Acheen ; 
man had desired me only to ofier sixteen : But that was his, 
craft, for be was a n^erf^hant, and wished to have engrossed. 
much pepper before I bppght, and then to have re-'sold it 
to me at his own price, ' Aitef ipuch time and many words, 
we lE^eed at 22h dollars the bahar, besides six per centumv 
custom, I at first refused to pay two othpr customs, or ex.i 
fictions rather, the one of 160 dollars, and the other not 
much less ; but at length I consented, and writings were 
drawn up between us. During the last night a man lay on 
board my ship who spoke Portuguese^ who oifered, in the 


7 Th^fte tbree islands seem to have been Pulo Minton> Good*Fortune| 
apii Nassau, off the south-western coast of Suioatra. — E, 

CXAP* X. SECT, ^m " En^ish Baa India Company^ il 1 

name of tbe widow of the former goviemory eallibg her 
qoeen, to give xne half tbe to^vn if I would help her in tBr 
king it from the present governor* But I refiieed any in- 
ter&fflice, as not answerable for my sovereign, and sent 
him on shore. I this day sold cloth to Nakmda^ for 159 
fBosse^of goldL 

The (town and bounds of Priaman do not yield above 5100 
babars of pepper jeai^Iy; but, with the parts adjoining, as 
]^Eis8amaR> Tecu, tieroose^ and the mountains over the town, 
there are gathered about 2500 bahars yearly, which quan-^ 
tity will load two good ships, and may oe bought very rea-> 
sonable, if a &ctory had means to buy all the year. Their ^ 
pepper harvest is in Atigust and September, and is fetched - 
away only by those of Acheen and Ja^a^ the Guzerates not 
being perniittedrto trade here, l^ ;the express .command of 
the King of Acheen. Therefore, a ship touching at Suxat^ 
and buying lliere esf^ecialfy hive oilicos, white cdiicos, bine 
md wmte striped and chequered stuffi, with some small fine 
pmnted cloths, .and then leaving afiu;tory at Priaman, might* 
lay the best foundation for profit that can be wi^ed, against 
next year. I say against- another year, for it does not seem 
to me that a ship could go to Surat and come hither in time • 
the same year. For this purpose^ however^ the licence of 
;the King aS Acheen must be procured for our safe proceed* 
ing in these parts. 

w'e made sail from Priamanon the 18th September^and 
on the 4^h October ^t into the road of Bantam, where we 
found six ships of Eblland^ two of which were ahnost laden 
with cloven :and other two were tp load with pepper. I found 
thirteen Englishmen her^ alive^ and veceiv^ a letter firom 
Captain David Middleton of the Consent. The 6th I paid 
Uncte and T^n, the two Chinese, their wages^ and dis* 
missed them. The 20th I called die merchants together^ 
having formerly resolved to return with the Dragon for 
England, and we now concluded that our pinnace, when 
finished, should go for Banda with Brown and Sidall. John 
Heame^ John Saris, and Richard Savage^ were to remain 
at Bantam ; and when the pinnace returned fi'om Banda, 
Jdm Saris was to go in her to Suckadanea, in Borneo. The 
L5th November, 1 sent for Jaques L'Ermite, theoommandr 


* Nakhada» or Nakfaadah, signifies the captain or^oixinmtujerof a ship 
in Arabic— AsTL. 1. 319, d. 

212 Early Voydgu of the pabt ii* book in. 

er of the Dutch vessels at Bttntatn, and discovert to him 
a plot of the Jdvans for ciittiiig the throats of all the Hoi** 
landers^ of which I had received particular intimation. 

The ambassador of Siam came to visit me on the ^Sd, 
and dined with me, and asserted that a thdusand pieces of 
red cloth might be sold in his country in two days, and a 
great quantity yearly, as it is used for housings to their ele- 
phants and horses. Gbld, he saidj was in such abundance 
in his country as only to be worth three times its weight in 
silver, though good gold. It has also great abundance of 
cheap precious stones. He said, moreover^ that his king 
would esteem it a great happiness to have commerce with 
the King of England, with whom, as he understdodj the 
Kins of Holland was not to be compared: 

The 28th November, I took leave of the king, the go* 
vemor, the admiral, the old sabander. Jura Bassa, Tan* 
yohg, and of the Hollanders, and went on board for alto- 
gether next day. The 2d December, at night, our mer- 
chants came aboard, bringing a letter from the King of 
Bantam to the King of England, with a present of two^*- 
cols of Cantoris Before wc got out of the straits we espied 
a sail on the 12th December, which proved to be the Hec- 
tor from Surat, where her captain, William Hawkins^ re* 
mained. I understood that the Portuguese had taken eigh- 
teen of our men, several of whom were factors, and goods 
to the value of 9000 dollars. The 14th we came back to 
Bantam roads, forced either to lengthen our voyage, or to 
go home with lost reputation. The 16th there came a small 
vessel from Amsterdam, giving notice of peace between 
France, Spain, and the Dutch. I appointed Messrs Moli- 
neux and Pockham for England in the Dragon, taking the 
rest with me in the Hector for the Moluccas, into which 
Qther ship I removed on the 17th, the masters shifting ships. 
The 21st I forwarded Mr Towerson in all diligence, wish- 
ing him to depart in all speed $ and on the 23d the Di*a- 
gon made sail from Bantam, God prosper her voyage.* 

§ 4. Voyage of the Hector to Banda, with Occurrences there. 

About one in the morning of the 1st January, 1609, we 


^ Mr Towerson seems from this time to have commanded the Dragon 
on the voyage home ; but this whole narrative is so ill expressed aiild in- 
coherent, that its meaning has often to be guessed at. — Astl. 1. 331. a. 

iSRAF. X. SECT* iv. EngH^ East I^dia C^mpany4 SIS 

veighed anchor, and with an off-shore wind got round th^ 
east pointy three leagues E.N,E. from our former anchorr 
age. Thence easterly to another point other three leqgu^Sy 
a yery long shoal with very little water extending bj^tw^en 
(the two, to avoid which it is good to steer half way between 
Java and the isles of Tondaj which are five leagues distant* 
East from the second point is the i^le of TanarOf so clpse to 
|he shore that it cannot be distinguished from any distance* 
From the second to the third point, are four league^ E.3-E. 
and one and a half mile off that point N. by W* is the isle 
of Lackee, between which and the point is only one and a 
half fathoms water, according to report* We rqde fiU night 
in six fathoms, having the isle eia^t of u^ a league* Weigh* 
ing on the 4th, we steered within half a league of JLackee in 
seven or eight &thoms ; from the isle to the west point of 
Jackatra being E.S.E, four leagRes* There is a dangeroua 
sand off the west point of Jackatray wherefore it is good tg 
keep nearer the island opposite ttiat point. 

The 8th I went to Jackatra,^ and anchored far out* The 
king sent his sabander to desire powder and njatch, and I 
sent him 30 pounds of powder and a roll of inatch^ I bought 
of them a Portuguese boy, given by the Hollanders to their 
kinff, but who refused to apostatize from Christianity^ and 
paid for him A^S dollars* We have ^en thirty or forty is- 
lands since leaving Bantam* The 1 0th we made sail from 
Jackatra* There is a. sunken island even with the water* 
about two leagues W* by N. from the east point of Jackar 
tra, which we left to larboard, .going between it and the 
easter island. The two points forming Jackatra bay bear 
E.S*E. and W*N.W. four leagues distant, the eastermopt 
island being in a straight line between both points* At 
noon on the. 1 Ith we were ten leagues N.E. from the east 
point of Jackatra. The 12t}i at noon, we were two leaguea 
S* W. by S* from an island, having sailed thirty leagues £« 
by S. The l'5th we came near Maidura^ contrary to my 
expectation, whence I suppose that the island of Java is not 
80 long as!it is laid down in the charts, or else that we had 
found a current setting to the east* The 18th we were near 
the islands of Nossaseres or Nussasiray which were N. by W* 

a league 

' On the Dutch making jthis place the metropolis of their Indian trade 
and dominion, they changed its name to Batavia, in honour of their own 
flountry, called by the Romans, insula Batavorum.'^'B, 

Q14f Earfy Voyages of the Mvff n. tx>0%$su 

a league from us, in lat 5« SC S. The 21»t, in the fore*- 
noon, we saw Celebes; but we could not fetch Macassar, 
Coming to aAchor, we parted our cable and lost an anchor. 
' The 4th February we saw Bourro. The 5th I held a €oua«- 
cil to consider what was best to be don^ as the wind <$d 
not serve for the Moluccas, when it was concluded to go 
for Banda. We saw Amboyna £. by N. from Bourro, 
twelve leiuriies. The 6th we saw the high land at Baada, 
in my opmioa 25 leagues £• by S. i S. from the eastent 
part of Amboyna. 

We got into the road or hsnrbour of Banda on the 8tb 
February, 1609, when the people and the Hollanders came 
r to welcome me. The 9th I went on shore, and delivered 
his majesty's letter to Nera, together with a present, bdng 
a gilt cup and cover, a head-piece and gorget, and one of 
Mr Bucke's firelocks^ which cost twenty^five doHars. I was 
received with much state, but they delayed giritig an an- 
swer about our house till next day. The Hollandera fired 
. five pieces at my landing, and ^s many when I returned on 
board, and I dined with them. The 1 1th we agreed for 
building a house. The 21st I went to Vrtatan^ to eon&r 
with the people, and on the 25th I went to Lantor^ whei^ 
I delivered our king's letter and present^ be&ig a smaller 
gilt cup and cover, a handsome target, a stocked musket, 
and a musket-barrel. In the night, Nakhada China, a my 
of the Hollanders, came on board, and advised me to be 
speedy. The )8th the people of Lantor demanded for- 8^ 
repinang^ 140 dollars, and I demanded leave to sell my 
cloth a6 I best might. The priest was sent to demand pay- 
ment of Rooba-rooba * before we traded, which I refused un- 
less they would bind themselves tb load me with mace and 
nutmegs within four months. He offered them at 100 
dollars, and I would not give past 90,^ wherefore he tock 
time for consideration ; when I observed that they deferred 
till the Hollanders might arrive, which was now doubti^, 
as the monsoon was almost spent. He took his leave, with- 
out making any bargain, having a smooth outside^ but a 
>ou^h mind. 


^^~lt appears in the sequel that this was some tax or custom.— £» 
" ^^ Aifidtner tax or imposition. — ^E. 

* We snpjKfae the Katti is here meant, as no quantity is expressed in 
^text.<*-Airwt 338. c. 

CBJ^* X. sxcT. IT. Mi^li^h East ImKa Company. 215 

' The 16l3i three large Dutch ships came vn^ and shot thir^ 
(y, sixteeDi and nine pieces of excellent ordnance. < Two 
of these camcTfrom Temate, where they had lost Paul Van 
Cardan, their admiral, with seventy^four of their men, be- 
ing taken by the Spaniards. The Dutch offered a raiisom 
£»r him of 50,000 dollars; but they would hearken to no 
lerms, except the surrender of fort Machian^ formerly ta^^ 
kefii iiroiii them by him. The ISth the Dutch officers of tihe 
two largest came to visit me, and staid to supper ; yet an 
Englishman reported that they meant to surprise me before 
t}ie end of a month. 

The states sent again for RooborTooba^ which I reftised 
to pay ; so they sent again to say, now that the Dutch were 
come, I should have no trade unless I gave above 100 dot* 
lars; but I refused to give more than 100. After a long 
dispute, we at length agreed at 100 dollars; Rooba^rooba, 
S80 dpllars; Serq^nang, 50 dollars; besides pmatirh being 
a duty to the four sabanders of four (ueces of SarassOf or 
Malayan painted cloth. We received a beam and weighty 
the cattee Deing 99 dollars, or 5 pounds 13^ ounces avoirdu- 
poise. The 20th we b^an to weigh, and the Hollanders 
coming on shor^ agreed at 100 dollars, pa3ring 400 for 
Jtoob^-TQiAa, together with serepinang and pissalin. We 
had U> bribe the Dutch in secret^ or we must have been 
idle. The 2Sd I made a secret agreement with the chief 
of Pulo*way to send a factory to that idand, for which I 
had to lend him SOO dollars, and to give 100 dollars more 
as ierepinang ; and the Dutch hearing of this next day, used 
their endeavour to prevent me. The 29th six large Hoi* 
land ships and two small pinnaces came into the roads, 
which I saluted with nine guns, and was only answered 
with three. The 1st April I received from Pulo-way 225J^ 
cattees of mace^ and 1307^ cattees of nutmegs. The 1 1th 
we began to carry our nuts on board, being so constrained 
by the Dutch^ who meant to land in a day or two i so that 
we had not time to select the best, nor to let them lie long 
enough in sweats. 

The 13th I went on shore, and proposed to the sabap- 
der of Nera^ as I had done several times before, the formal 
surrender of Banda to the sovereignty of the King of Eng- 


^ This straoge expression is probably xnesnt to indicate the respective 
number of cannon in each ship.'—E. 

hffA before the HoUfipders might land or coimaeooe tbeir 
iptffided fort. The state? seemed to like this prpposal, apd 
promised to take it into consideration, and to give me an 
answer, bnt I was doubtful df their inconstancy, neither did 
tbey come to any conclusion. The Dutch landed 1200 
men on the IStb from 20 boat^ and the natives fled. The 
20th I went (m shore to fetch rice, in. part of a d/ehl dne by 
Ji^ton Patee to our company $ but the Hollanders bad dia- 
honestly taken it, though their admiral prcMKu^ed I should 
b«Ye it. I then went among the Jayans to buy rice, but 
they universally said they were enjoined bv the Dutch not 
tp sell me aijy, althtnigh J o&red five doUars the coj^ng 
OM^re than the Dutch paid. When I got home, I fin^no 
the person whom the .admiral hdd formerly sent to me, add 
desired him to tell the admiral, that hia taking my rice W9i 
great injustice^ and if he were a gentlemafir no wquld not 
permit his base people to abuse me a3 1 walked about. He 
answered, that the adniiral was a weairer and no gentleman^, 
pd being an Englishman, J reprehended him for so ^^j^^r 
ing; but he affirmed that all the Dutch spok« so of bim-^ 

The 4«jth of May I went to Pulo-way, where I got 1000 
cattees of nutmegs, and 200 ^^iees pf inape* The 1st. Au* 
gust, the Dutch gave me a letter of credit, for the payment 
at Bantam of all the debts due me at Bandar ana this 
day J went on shore at Uie request of Uie Dntdi gQvemor» 
to view their fort;, which was a square redoubt, wiih thjrtji 
pieces of artillery, eight pf which were good >. brass demjr 
cannon. The 10th I we%bed a half hjundred against the 
ordioary Baoida weights, and found it to contain i^( catiee^y 
so thai: the cattiee appears to equal 5 pounds 14 J ouncea 
avoirdupoise. The 1 1th I ancheired near Macassar, in the 
island icf Celiebes, hoping to get dores there in barter for 
cloth ; but learning ttiat a Duteh ship bad been lost tbeDQ 
lately^ I desisted from, (the attempt, as the road of Macaa^ 
sar was reported to be diangerous. The 21st we anchored 
off Jackatra, in Java, wh^re ine found two Dutch shipsy 
which had brought our people and their goods from Amn 


^ We here otnit aloog s^sie^ of iUrtold disputes vnih tlie Dutcli ; who, 
pre^qning on their greatly superior force, interrupted the tmde of the 
English at Baoda, and finally obliged Keeling to withdraw, very inip^r> 
fectly provided with mace and nutmegs, and much dissatisfied. The nar- 
mtive in Parchas i^so abrMp^« disjointed, and ioooncluaive, that it was 
found quite impossible to give it any consiateaicy or ijiterestt«!^£. 

casAR X* SBOT. IT/ Enf^kk Emi India Ctmpang^ SI7 

boynau The S€th we met a praxr, in which was Ra]^k 
Heame, sent to me by Mr John Saris from Bantam, to 
sajir that he had ready 3481 bags of pepper for me. We 
got that day into the road of Bantami when Mr Saris came 
immediately on.board« 

' The ISth September, 1609, at the request of the King 
of B«<tiMn, I sent twenty-five armed men to make him pas<- 
tkne, in honour of his having the nig^t befoce consumma-» 
ted bis marriage. The SSd,* having taken on board 4900 
bags of pepper^ I prepared for our homeward voyage ; and 
<Mi the S7th I appointed the folbwing members of our fac- 
tory at l^at place : AugUBtine Spalding chief &ctor, at ^50 
a year; Frauds Kellie surgeon, at 405. a month'; J<^ 
Parsons at 30s. a month ; Kobert Neale 29s. Augustine 
Adwell 24s. Etheldred Lampre 20& William Driver 201^ 
William Wilson 22s. William Lamwell 16s. Philip Bad- 
nedge 16s. Francisco Domingo 12s. Joan Seraon lOs. 
Adnan, Mr Towerson's boy, 10s.'. Using every possible 
diligence to get away, I hired six persons to ffo aiohg with 
us mr Blngland in.assistance to our crew; and <m the SOth, 
delivered over the i^^arge of the factory to Spalding, giving 
him strict injunctions to beware of the Dutcm insolence and 
hatved towar^ls us, and therefor^ to luureas little intescoucse 
with th^n as possible. 

I took leave of the governor or r^ent of Bantam on the 
2d Octob^, 1609, requesting his &vour to our factory,* 
which he promised with scemitig heartiness; and on the 9d 
I went on boards after taking leave of all our friends. The 
1st November we were in lat. 25^ S. with 24° variiUion, be-: 
ing by our reckoning 6,50 leagues from Bantam, wl^ich we 
had ran in 24 days. The 29tfa, in lal;. 32® SO' S. and above 
18^ variation, we had all day a severe gale of wind, which at; 
ni^t became a storm at W.S^ W. ffimn the northward,* and 
put us to try with our main course,xontinuingall nig^t and. 
next day. In this, as sundry times before, we found the report 
of Unschot to be true, that generally all easterly winds, co- 
ming about to the northwards, if accompanied by rain, come 
presently round to W.S.W. with considerable violence. 
Early in the morning of the 8th December, 1 609^ we fell 


^ 7 These wages are here pardcularized, as- a cunoos record of the ori- 
giaal wages of the Cdmpaoy's servants in India. — £. 

* This expression is unintelligible; but from the sequd, it appears the 
gale had been originally easterly, had then changed to the north* and ii* 
nally settled in a storm at W^.W,— -£• 

"2 IS .' Earif Vojfagn ^ ilm fabt xi. book ni# 

in with the Terra c2r 'Nals/t' some six kagaeiwests being at 
noon in lat. 31" 2T S« with the yariaticm atodt 9^ dO^ we 
standing S.S.E. nnder low sails, with the wmd at &W« 
We met a Hollander, from whom we learnt that the Exaa- 
mns, a ship of the fleet which went home from Bantam at 
the time of my arriYBl thel'e in the Dracon, had sprang « 
leak at sea; and, bein^ Idt by the rest c^ the fleets steared 
for the Mauritius, where she unladed her goods, which 
were left there with twenty-five persons till tfa^ and the 
goods could be sent for, tne rest of her company being in 
this vess^. They farther told us, that there are. two har- 
bours in the island c^ Mauritius ; one called the north-west 
harbour, in somewhat less than ^* & the other called the 
south-east harbour, in 2S^ 15' S. All kinds of refreshments 
are to be had there, as fish, turtles, arid manatis, in greit 
abundance.' It has an infinite number and variety of 
fowls. Hogs and goats, only newly introduced, are in 
some reasonable number, and are fast increasing. The is» 
land is healthy, and between 30 and 40 leagues in circum^ 
ference.' The variation there is 21^ westwarasw They came 
from Bantam in May, were a month in getting to the Matt«- 
ritius^ had remained there four months and a naif, aindhad 
been six wedcs fi:om thence, seventeen days of which with 
contrary winds. 

The 22d of December we were in kt S5^ 28' S. within 
seven leagues of Cape Aguillas,*^ which. shews like two i&-' 
lands from where we were, being to the S.E. of it. Co* 
ming more athwart, it resonbled three isle% two bays, N.E. 
and N. W. making three conspicuous, low, and seemin^y 
round points. We had ground in the evening in 77 &• 
thorns upon ooze, being about five leagues south mm shor% 
find, as I guesd, nearly to the westwaras of the shoalest pan 
of the bank. When bound homewards on this coast,, and - 
finding no weather for observation, either for latitude or 


^ The Laroantin, Tricfaechus Manatus Australis, Southern Manati^ or 
Fish-tailed .Walrus of naturah'sts. This singular amphibious animal, or 
rather aquatic quadruped, inhabits the southern seas of Africa and Ame- 
rica, especially near the mouths of rivers, pasturing on aquatic plants/and 
browzing on the grass which grows close to the water. It varies in size 
from eight to seventeen feet long, and from 500 to 800 pounds weight, 
and the flesh is said to be good eating.— *£. 

'° This cape is only in lat. 34^ 48' S. So that their latitude here could 
not exceed Sd^ lO', giving an error in excess of eightieen minutes ia the 
text— £• 

caA^. x. mcTyt% Ml^^sk ^^ India Company. Ciy 

Variation^ we may boldly and safely keep in sixly fiitbosM 
with sheUy ground, and when &iding ooze we are very near 
Cape AgttiOas. When losing. ground wi& 120 fathoms 
liBe» we may be sure of having passed the cape, providing 
we be within the ktitnde of 86^ S. The 23d we steered 
all night W. by N. ana W.N. W. with a fresh easterly gal^ 
seeing the land all along about e^ht or ten leagues &om 
US) an high land* About noon we were .near the Cape of 
Good Hope, to wl^ch we sailed in seventeen hours from 
Cape Agailias. Being within Ihree leagues of the sugar* 
loai^ we stood off and on all night. The 28th I received by 
the Dutch boat from the idan^ six sheep, the fattest I ever 
saw, the tail of one being twenty-eight iiiches broad, mid 
weighing thirty-five pounds. I got a main-top-sail of the 
Dntcb» of which we were in extreme want, and gave. them 
enote on our company to receive twelve poumls^. twelve 
shillings for the same. For the &t sheq^ we got on F»i« 
guin Sand, we left lean in their room. The Dtatdi hmt 
behaved to us in a very honest and Christian-like manner* 
I left a note here of my arrival, and the state of xny oonr 
pany, as others had done before me. All the time we r^ 
mained at the Cape, firom the 23d December, 160^ to the 
loth January, 1610^ the wind was westerly and southerly; 
whereas the two former times of my being here^ at the samei 
fieason, it blew stcnrms at east 

The lOlh January^ 1610, we weighed and Iset sail kome^ 
wards. . The 20th about noon we passed the tropic of Ca- 
pricorn; and that evening the Dutch officers came and 
8iq>ped with me, whom I saluted with three guns at part- 
ing. The 30th before day-light^ we got sight of St Helena, 
having steered sixty^six leagues west in that latitude. We 
came to anchor a mile from dK>re^ in twenty-two fathoms 
sandy ground, N.W. from the chapel. This island is aboiit 
270 or 280 leagues west from the coast of Africa. We were 
forced to steer close under the high land to find anchor* 

>, the bank being so steep as to have no anchorage far- 
ler out. 

We weighed on the 9th February, making sail home^ 
wards, having received from the island nineteen goats, nine 
ho^ and thirteen pi^. The 16th we saw the iskmd of 
Ascnsion, seven or eight leagues to the W.S. W. In the 
morning of the 28th, the wind westerly and reasonably fair 
weather, we spoke tibe Dutch ship, which made a waft for 


xss at his mizen-top-mast head. He told us that he had on)/ 
eight or nine men ablje for duty, all the re^t being siick^ aivd 
forty-six of his crew dead. This was a grievous chastii^ 
inent for them, who had fo^rmerly offered tp spare me t^ef)r 
ty men or more upon occasion, and a nevejvsufliciently-tor 
be-acknowledged mercy to us, that they should be in so pir 
tiable a case, while we had not lost one man, and were eveii 
all in good health. Towards night, considjeripg our le^^ 
with many other just causes on our part, besides our want 
of means to aid them, and at my company's earnest desire^ 
we made sail and left them, not without sensible .Christian 
grief that we could give them no assist^ice^ Indeed, >(^ith- 
out asking us to remain by them, they d^ired us to acquaint 
any Dutdi ship we might meet of their extreme distre^ 
that the best means might be pursued for their XQlie(i. . W^ 
were then in lat. 45^ 6' N. 

The 1st May, having fine weather and the wind at S.W, 
we were in lat. 49"* 13' N. Early in the morning of the Sd, 
the wind came S. and blew a storm, putting us und^r our 
fore course; Towards night we spoke a Lubecker» who 
told us Scilly bore E. by N. thirty-eight German mile» 
from us, which are fifty leagues. I told them of the Dutch-* 
man's distress ; and as the wind was fair, made sail for ^gr 
land. In the morning of the 9th, Beechy-hoad ^as three 
leagues from us N.N.E. and on the iQd» May, }|5)0, we 
anchored in the Downs about sunset, having ^pent t^ree 
years, one month, and nine days on this voyage* 

Section V. 

Narratifoe hy William Hawkins^ of Occurrences during his 
Residence in the Dominiom of the. Great MoguL^ 


This and the next following section may be considered 
as supplementary to the one immediately preceding; as- 
Captfdn Hawkins in the Dragon accompanied Capt^ 


I Purch. Pilg, I. 206. 

CHAF. X. sect; 7« English East India Company. 221 

Kedling/in the ildrd voyage fiiliS out by the English Com>- 
pany ; and Finch was in the same vessel with Hawkins, 
and dceompanied him into the country of the Mogul. The 

E resent narrative is said, in its title in the Pilgrims, to have 
een written to the company^ and evidently appears to haVe 
been penned by Hawkins himseli^ without any semblance 
of haying been subjected to the rude pruning knife of Pur- 
chas ; except omitting do niuch of the journal as related 
to occurrences before landing at Surat. Purchas gives the 
following account of it in a Sde-note.-^E. 

<^ Captain Keeling and William Hawkins had kept torn* 
pany all the outward-bound voyage^ as already related, and 
theref<s>re not necessary to be here repeated, to the road of 
Delisa, in Socotora, whence, pn the 24th June, 1608, Cap- 
tain Keeling departed in the Dragon, as before related. 
Captain Hawkins sailed from Delisa in the Hector, for Su- 
rat, on the 4th August, having previously built a pinnace, 
and having receiv^ from the general^ Captain Keeling, a 
duplicate of the commission under the great seaL" — Purck. 

§ h Barbarous Usage at Surat by Mucrdb Khan ; and the 
treacherous Procedure of the Portuguese and Jesuits. 

Arriving at the bar of Surat on the 24th August, 1608, 1 
immediately sent Francis Bucke, merchant, and two others, 
on shore, to make known that I was sent by the King of 
England, as his ambassador to the kiiig of tne country, to^ 
gether with a letter and present. In answer, I received a 
message from the govemcn*, by three of his servants ac- 
companying those I sent, saying, he and ail that country 
could afford were at my command, and that I should be 
made very welcome if I pleased to come on shore. I ac- 
cordingly landed, accompanied by our merchants and others, 
equipped in the best manner I could, as befitting the ho- 
nour of my king and country. On landing, I was well re- 
ceived after their barbarous manner, and vast multitudes of 
the natives followed after me, desirous of seeing a new-come 
people whom they had often heard of, but who had never 
before visited their country. When I drew near the go- 
vernor's house, I was tokl he was not well, but I rather, 
think he was drunk with ajion [or opium,] being an aged 
man* I went therefore to the chief customer, being the 


^0ee Earbf Voyages' of the fajit lu book iri* 

only officer to whom sea-iaring causes belonged; as the' 
govenmient of Surat pertained to two great noblemen, one 
of whom, Khan^KhanOf was viceroy of the Decan,* and the 
other, Mucrob^Khatif was viceroy of Cambaya or Guzerat, 
who had no command in Smrat excq)t what r^arded the * 
Idng^s customs, and with him onty I had to deal. 

I told him that the purpose of my comins to Surat was 
to establish a factory there, and that I had a letter from the 
king of England to his sovereign for that effect, my sove- 
reign being desirous to form a treaty of peace and amity, 
with his, so that the EngHdb might freely come and eo, and 
make sales and purchases, according to the usiu^ of aU na^ * 
tions ; and finally, that my ship was laden with comihodi- 
ties from our country^ which, according to the intelligence 
of former travellers^ were there in request. To this he an- 
swered, that he would immediately dispatch an ^ipress to 
hia master at Cambaya, as he could do nothing of himself 
in the premises without his orders. So, taking my leave, 
I departed to the lojdging appointed for me^ which was at ^ 
the custom-house. Next morning I went to visit the gOr * 
Pernor of the city, to whom I made a present, and who re* 
ceived me with much gravity and outward ^ow of Isnd-; 
ness, bidding me heartily welcome, and saying that the 
country was at my command. After compliments on both 
fides, I entered upon my main business^ when he told me 
that my sSkirs were not in his department, as all sea-faring* 
or commercial matten belonged to Mucrob-Khan, to whom 
at Cambaya he promised to dispatdi & footman, and would 
writ^ a letter in my behalf, botn i^r the unloading of my ^ 
ship and the estabushment of a &ctory. In the meantime 
he appointed me to lodge with m merchant who understood 
Turktsky who was my truchanan^ or interpreter, being the 
captain of that ship whidh was taken by Sir Edward Mi- 

In cotise^ence of the great rains and heavy floods it waa 
twenty days befoce the messenger returned from Cambaya ; 
in whidi interval many of the merchants entertained me in 
a very friendly manner^ when the weather was such that I 
could get out of doors; for, during almost the whole time 
of the messenger's absence^ it rained almost continually. 
At the Old of twen^ days, the messenger came back from 


t He was on)j viceroy of the projected conquest of the Decan.— -E» 

C8AF. X. 6ECT* T« ' English Easi India Company • 2ZS 

GMDbeya with the answer of Mucrob Khan, giving licence 
to land my goods, and to buy and sell for the present vdy* 
Bigd ; but that he could not grant leave to establish a facto- 
ry^, or for the settlement of niture trade^ without the com* 
mands of his king, which he thought might be procured, if 
I would take a two months journey to deliver my king^s* 
letter to his sovereign. He likewise sent orders to the cus*. 
tomer, that all the goods I might land were to be kept in 
the custom-house tiU the arrival of his brother Sheck Abder 
Itackim^ who was to make all convenient dispatch, on pur- 
pose to chuse sudi goods as were fit for the lung's use. It 
may be noticed, however, that this pretence of taking some 
part of the goods of all men for the king, is merelv for their 
own private gain. Upon this answer 1 made all dispatch 
to ease my uiip of her heavy burden of lead and iron,* 
which must of necessity be landed, and were placed under 
the care of the customer till the arrival of the great man* 
The time being precious, and my ship not able to stay long, 
I sent on board for three chests of money, with which to 
purchase such commodities as are vendible at Priaman and 
Bantam, being those which the Guzerates carry there year* 
ly,. and sell to great profit I then began to make purcha- 
ses, to the great dissatisfaction of the native merchants, who 
mttle loud complaints to the governor and customer of the 
leave granted me to buy these commodities, which would 
greatly injure their trade at Priaman and Bantam, suppo* 
sing I meant only to have bought such goods as weiie fit 
for England. At the end of tms business the great man 
arrived from Cambaya, who allowed me to ship, my pur- 

In a oooncil of all our merdiants, respecting the delive- 
ry of the king^s lett^ and the establishment ofa factory, it 
was concluded that these weighty matters could only be 
properly accomplished by me, from the experience of my 
former travels, and my knowledge of the language^ and as 
it was known to all tiuit I was the person rapointed ambas- 
sador for tins purpose. I therefore agreed to remain for 
these ends, and made all haste to ship the goods and dis- 
patdi the vesseL Tliis done^ I called Mr Marlow and all 
of the ship's company who were on shore, and acquainted 
them with my intentions, directing them all to receive Mr 
]^ark>w as their commander, and to give him all due reve- 

224 Earb/ Voydges of the part ii. book iii* 

rence and obedience as they Bad done me* I then accoia«' 
panied them to the water-side, and biide them fio'ewell; 

Next day, when going about my affiiirs tt> wmt t^MiH 
Abder Rachim, I met teti or twelve of the better sort of our 
iben in a great fright, who told me that our two barks, with 
thirty men, and all our goods^ hikd been tf^en by a Portu- 
gese frigate or two,^ they only having escaped* I ask^ 
in what manner they were taken, and if th^y did nbt fight 
in their own defence ?^ They answened me, that Mr Mar-^ 
low would not allow them, as the Portuguese were our 
friends. They said also that Bucke had gone to the Pdr^- 
tuguese without a pawn, and had betrayed them ; but, in 
&ct, Bucke went on the oath and faithful promise of the 
Portuguese captain^ but was never allowed to return. I 
^nt immediately a letter to the captain«4najot* of the Por- 
tuguese, demanding the release of our men and goods, tA 
we were English, and our sovereigns were id peace «iit) 
amity; adding, that we were sent to the Mogul's country 
by our king, with letters for the Mogtil to procure licence* 
for us to trade ; and that I held the king's commission for 
the government of the English in that country $ that hii^ 
restoring his majesty's subjects and their goods woukl- be 
well taken at his own king's hands, but tlie contrary would 
produce a breach between the crowfis of England and 
Spain. On the receipt of this letter, as the messenger told ^ 
me, the proud rascal vapoured exceedingly, mo^t vilely 
abusing our king, whom he called a king oi fishermen, and 
of a contemptible island, whose commission he despised ; 
and scornfully refiised to send me any answer. 

I chanced, on the following day, to meet the captain of 
one of the Portuguese frigates^ who came on business 
ashore from the captain-major; which business, as I unt 
derstand, was to desire the governor to send me to him as 
a prisoner, because we were Hollanders. ICnowing what 
he was, I took occasion to speak to him of the abuses o& 
fered to the King of England and his subjects. He pre- 

^ Tbese fngates could only be small armed boats, otberwise the £og^ 
ihh in the barks could not l^ve b^en found fault with for not fighting. 
— E. 

^ This not fighting was upbraided to our men by the Ihdians as much 
disgrace ; but was since recovered with interest, by our sea-fights with^ 
the Portuguese. — Purcfu 


C»AP. X. sccT. T. Et^Ush Eaa India Cm^iiy. fi25' 

toided that these seas belonged 'torthe Kki^of Portugidy 
and no onroogbt to come there without his Ucence. I told 
hizni diat die seas of India nvere as free to subjects of Eng« 
land as to those of S^n, and that the Koence of the Kin^ 
of England was as valid as that of the KiQg of Spain, and 
whoever pretended otlierwise was a liar and a villain $ and 
desired him to tell his captain-major, that in abusing the 
King of England he wasa base villain, and a traitor to hia 
own king, which I was ready to maintaiit against him with 
my sword, if he dared to come on shore, whereto I challen-^ 
ged.hlm. Seeing that I was much moVed, the Moors cau- 
sed the Portuguese to depait^ This Portuguese came to 
my house some two hours after, and offered to procure thi& 
rdease of my men and goods, if I would be liberal to hinw 
I entertained him kindfy^, and gave him great promises ^ 
but before he left the town, my men and goods were sent 
off for Goa. 

I had my goods ready about five days before I could set 
a clearance to ship them, waiting for die arrival df Abuer 
Rachim, which was the Sd October ; and two days after* 
wards the ship set sail. I was now left in Surat with only 
one merchant, William Finch, who was mostly side, and 
unable to go abroad to do any business; all the rest of my 
attendants being two servants^ a cook^ and a boy, which 
were all the cddfipiany I had to defend us from so many 
enemies, who went about to destroy us, and endeavoured 
to prevent my going to the Great Mogul. But God pre- 
served me, and, in spite of them all, I took heart and resb* 
lution. to proceed on my travels. After the departure of 
our ship, I learnt that my men and goods had been betray^ 
ed to the Portuguese by Mucrob Khan and his followers i 
for it was a laid plot by Mucrob Khan and the Jesuit Pe- 
neiro, to protract time till the Portuguese frigates might 
come to the bar of Surat, which was done so secretly that 
we never heard of them till they had taken our barks. 

So long as my ship remained at the bar I was much flat^ 
tered, but after her departure I was most nnsufferably mis- 
used.; being in a heathen country, environed by so matiy 
enemies, who plotted daily to murder me and to cozen me 
of my goods, Mucrob Khan, to get possession of my goods, 
took what he chose, and left what be pleased, giving me 
such price as his own barbarous conscience dictated ; where 
tliiity-*£ve was agreed, giving me only dghjUsen^ not r^j^strdp 
, vox., viii. p ing 

99A Eaffy rojiagd tf the K&srn.BQOKim 

iMg his brddier's biU, who bad his fiiUavdiority. Dv^ aa 
bis own lerma^ k was hardly possible to get any money from 
his chief servant) as we only received a small part after the 
time appointed was expired, before Mncrob came to Surat ; 
and aftier be came I was debarred of all, though he outward* 
ly Battered and dissembled for almost tbree months, feeding 
me with continual promises. In the meantime I^e came 
three times to my house, sweeping me clean of all things 
that were good ; and when he saw I had no more worm 
coveting, he gradually withdrew his attentions and pretend* 
ed kindness. Most of this time William Finch was ill of 
the flux, but, thank God, he recovered past all hope. As for 
me I durst not venture out of doors, as the Portuguese weiu 
lurking about in crowds to assault or murder me, their ar« - 
mada being then at Surat. 

Thm first plot against me was thusl I was invited by 
Hagio [HajiQ Nazam to the dispatching of his ship for 
Mecca, as it is the custom on sudi occasions to make great, 
feasts for all. the principal people of the town. It was my 

S^od fortune at this time, that a great captain bdon^g to- 
e viceroy of Guserat, residing in Amad4ivari [Ahmeda» 
bad)] was then at Surat, and was likewise invited to thia 
feast, which was held at the water*side, near which tha 
Portuguese had two frigates of their armada, which came 
there to receive tribute for the ships about to depart, and 
likewise to procure refreshments^ Out of these frigatea 
there came three gallants to the t^t where I was, and some 
forty Portuguese were scattered about the water-side, ready 
to join in the assault on the first signal. These three gaK 
lants that came to our tent, were armed in- buff-coats down 
to their knees, with rapiers and pistols at their sides, andu 
immediately on entering, demanded who was the English; 
captain ? I presently rose, and told them I was the man {. 
and seeing some intended mischief, by their countenances^ 
I immediately laid hand on my weapon. The Mogul cap-r 
tain, perceiving treason was meant against me, both he and 
his followers drew their swords % and if the Portuguese had 
not been the swifter, both they and their scattered crew had 
come ill off. 

Another time some thirty or forty of them came to acK 
•ault me in my house, having a friar along with them t(l» 
animate their courage, and give them absolution. But I 
was always on my guards and had a strong house wj& good 


fBH^iX*mcr.t. iEngKih Eatt JmRd Con^mf. St? 

dodlt. Man^ cf th^ FDituguesd at other titii^ u^jgd to hak 
&r me and mine in the streets ^ so that I was fbfit^ to torn*" 
plain to the governor, that I could not go about taj hvt^i* 
ness on accdnnt of the Portuguese coming armed into the 
citj to murder me; and represented that they teere not in' 
use at other tjmes to come armed into the city. The go^ 
'Pernor then sent word to the Portuguese not to come armed 
into the city at their peril. 

MucK>b Khan came to iSurat accompanied by a Jesuit 
named Padre Peneiro, who had ojSered him 4*0,000 doUart 
to send iue prisoner to Damaun, as I was afterwards cer- 
tainly informed by Hassen Ally and Ally Pommory. On 
his arrival I went to visit him, giving hini presents^ besides 
ihose formerly given to his brother ; and for a time, as al- 
ready mentioned, I had many outward shows of kindness 
fh>ni him, till such time as I demanded my money, when 
he told me flatly he would not give me 20 mahmudies the 
vara, as bad been agreed, but would rathor give me back 
my cloth. I dissembled my sense of this unjust procedure 
as well as I could, entreating leave to proceed to Agra to 
wait upon the king ; telling him I meant to leave WilliaDi 
Finch as chief in my place, who wduld either receive the 
iponey or the goods, as he might please to Conclude. Upon 
this he gave me his licetlce and a letter to the king^ promi- 
mg me an escort of forty horsemen ; which promise he did 
not perform. After I got this licence^ Father Pineiro put 
into his head that he ought not to alloi^ lane to go, as I 
vrottld complain against him to the king ; thus plotting to 
overthrow my intended journey. Mucrob Khan could not 
prevent my goings because I was sent by a king ; but en- 
deavoured to prevail on my interpreter atid coachman to 
poison or murder me by the way; which invention was 
devised by the Jesuit. But God, of his mercy, ducovefed 
these plots, and the contrivances of the Jesuit took no effect* 

§2* Journey of the Author to Agra, and his Entertainment 

at the Court of the Great Mogul. 



William Finch being now in good health, I left all things 
belonging to our trade in his hands, giving him inatructions 
how to conduct himself in my absence. &> I b^; takf 
up Soldiers to conduct me in safety ; being denied b;^ Mu- 
crob Khan. Besides some shot and bowmen whom I hir^, I 
\' applied 

688 Barfy Foyage$ of the pabt 4i. book in« 

appUed to a captain of the Klian-Khaii8» to let me h«7e .40 or 
50 horsemen to escort me to the Khan-Khana* who was then 
viceroy of Deccan, and resided in BramporU* This cap- 
tain did all in his power for me, giving me a party of PatasK 
horsemen, who are much feared in these parts for their va- 
lour. If I had not done this I had surely been overthrown^ 
as the Portuguese of Damaun had induced an ancient friend 
of theirs, a Kajah, who was absolute lord of a province call- 
ed Crulyy situated between Damaun, Guzerat, . and the 
Deccan, to be ready with 200 horsemen to intercept me ; 
but I went so well provided with a strong escort, that ther 
jdurst pot encounter me ; and for that time ako I escaped** 
,Then at DaytOi'^ another province or principalky, my 
coachman having got drunk with some of his kinsmen^ 
discovered that he was hired to, murder me. Being ovei^- 
heard by some of my soldiers, they came and told me that 
it was to have been done next morning at the commeace- 
ment of our journey, as we usually set out two hours before* 
day. Upon this notice, I examined the coachman and his 
friends, in presence of the captain of my escort. He could 
not deny the truth, but would not reveal who had hired hiioDr 
, thojugh muph beaten ; and cursed his bad luck that he co^ 
.not effec.t his purpo^ So I sent him back prisoner to the/ 
governor of Surat My broker or interpreter afterwards- 
. told me, that both be and the coachman were hired by Mu«'. 
crob Khan, by the persuasion of the Jesuit, the one to poi-". 
son and the otlier. to murder me. The interpreter said he 
wa& to receive nothing till the deed was done, which hene^ 
ver meant to perform, being resolved to be feithful. Thus 
God again preserved me. This was five days after the com-, 
mencement of my journey, having left Surat on the 1st Fe-. 
bruary, 1609. • 

Ck>ntinui9g my journey for Burhanpoor, some two days 
after leaving Vayta^ the Fatans who had hitherto escorted 


' The nanies of places in Hindostan arc often viery much corrupted hk 
the earl J vo^agea and travels, so as sometimes to be unintelligible* Bur- 
. haropoor, or Boorhanpoor, in Candeisb, is certainly the place indicated in 
the text, about 260 £nglish miles almost due east from Surat.— >£. - 

^ Neither Cruly nor Dayta are to be found in our best modem map. 
of. Rindostau by Arrowsmith. It may be noticed on this subject, that 
. most j>laoefr in Hindostan. have more than one name ; being often known 
tP frfi^ natives % one name in their vernacular language^ while another 
tiame is affijced in I^ersian, by the Mogul conquerors. The names of pla- 
d^s iil^ewilse a^^'oflen changed, at the pleasure of successive possessors; 
and the continual wars and revolutions have made wonderful changes in 
the diatribittioa of dominion since this journey of Hawkins^— £• 

«^^» x« SBCT. t. * Engl&k East India Ctrnpany- i29 

ine Went b&ck, kaving tiic t6 be forwarded by motlier Pa« 
tan captain, who was goTemor of that lordship, by whom I 
was jujndly entertain^. His name was Sher^Kharif ,and 
having been some time a prisoner among the Portu^jese^ 
and speaking, that language fluently, he was glad to do nie 
jservice, being of a nation that is in great enmity' to. the 
Portuguisse. He escorted me in person with' forty horse* 
men for two days, till we were past the dangerous places ; 
during which time he encountered a troop of outlaws, of 
"whom he took four alive and slew eight, all the rest esca- 
ping. Before leaving me^ he gave me letters, authorising 
ine to use his house at Burbanpoor, which was a very greiat 
Y^ourtesy, as otherwise I should h^trdly have known whereto 
get lodgings, the city being so full of soldiers, which were {^re« 
paringfor war with the people of the Deccan. I arrived in 
safety at Burbanpoor, thanks be to God, on the eighteysnth 
of FebfuaTy. Next day I went to court to visit the Khan* 
Khana, who was lord-general and viceroy of ^he Deqcan^ 
wd made him a present, as the custom is, which he r^cei^ 
Ved very graciously. After three hours confereneq* h^ 
'inade me a feast ; and being risen from table^ he invested 
tne with two robes, one of fine woollen, and the oth^r of 
cloth of gold; giving' me a* letter of recommendation to the 
king, which availed me much. Then embracing me, I de^ 
parted. The language we spoke was Turkish, which he 
spoke very well. 

I remained in Burbanpoor till the 2d of March, not be- 
ing sooner able to effect the e:$:ch.ange of the money. I had 
' vemi me, and waiting likewisie to join a caravan. JEIaying 
then got B new escort of soldiers, I resumed my journey to 
Agra, where, after much fatigue at^d many d^ugerS} I anri- 
ved in safety on the 16th April. Being in the city, and 
seeking out for a h<Mise in a secret planner, notijce yra$ car- 
^ried to the king of my arrival, but that I wa9 not to bq 
found. He presently charged mapy troops both of horse 
and foot to seek for me, and commaBjded hi^ knight-mar- 
shal to bring me in great state to court, as an anumssador 
ought to be ; which he did with a great train, making such 
eaLtraordinary haste, that he hardly allowed me time to put 
on my best apparel. In fine, I was brought before the king^ 
bringing only a slight present of cloth, and that not estieiepiif 
ed, as what I had designed for the ki^g wan taji^en from tni^ 
^j Mucrob Khan, qf which I compku^ed tp h|» n^je^y* 


tS0 Ear^V^t^cfiU Pint* ft. BOot tt#. 

After maldiig my salutation^ he bid me heartilj welcome 
with a smiling countenance ; on which I repeated my obei- 
sance and duty. Having his majesty's letter in my faand^ 
)ie called me to come near nim, reaching down his hand from 
his royal seat, where he sat in great majesty on high to be 
seeA of the people. He received the letter very gracious- 
ly, viewing it fer some time, both looking at the seal and 
at the way in which it was made up ; and then called an 
old Jesuit who was present, to read and explain the letter; 
While the Jesuit was reading the letter, he spoke to me in 
the kindest manner, asking me the contents of tlie letter, 
which I told him : Upon which he immediately promised, 
and swore by God, tnat he would grant and allow with aH 
his heart every thing the king had asked, and more if ^ft 
majesty required. The Jesuit told him the substance of the 
letter, but discommended the style, saying that it was base^ 
ly penned, writing vestra vnihovitmajeBtad. On which I said 
to the king, «< May it please your majesty, these people are 
our enemies : How can it be that this letter should be irre^ 
Terently expressed, seeing that my sovereign demands fe- 
vour from your majesty ?" He acknowledged the truth of 
this observation. 

Perceiving that I understood Turkish, which he spoke 
with great readiness, he commanded me to follow him into 
his presence-chamber, having then risen from the place of 
open audience, as he wished to have farther c6nferenca 
with me. I went in accordingly, and waited there two 
hours, tin the king returned from his women. Then call- 
ing me to him, he said he understood that Mucrob Khan had 
not dealt well by me, but desired me to be of gckxl cheer, 
for he would remedy all. It would seem that the enemies 
of Mucrob Khan had acquainted the king with aU his pro^ 
ceedings ; for indeed the king has spies upon the conduct 
of all his nobles. I made answer, that I was quite certain 
all matters would go well with me so long as his majesty 
was pleased to grant me his protection. After this, he 
presently dispatcned a post to Surat with his commands to 
Mucrob Khan, earnestly enjoining him in our behalf^ as 
he valued his fi^iendship, which he would lose if he did not 
deal justly by the Ehglish, aiccording to their desire. By 
the same messenger 1 sent a letter to William Finch, de- 
siring him to go with this command to Mucrob Khan, at 
the receipt oi which he wondered that I had got safe to 

«itAF* X. 8BKrr« v« - EnglM £asf ItuUu Company. tSl 

j^ipra» and had fiot be» murdered or pdisoned by the way ) 
efwhich speech Finch ipformed me afterwards. 

After some farther coo&rence with the king, as it grew^ 
latey he commanded that I should be brought daily into. hia 
presenp^ and gave me in charge to one of his captains^ 
named Houshaber Khan, ordering that I should lodge at 
his house till a convenient residence could be procured for 
my use ; and that when I was in want of any thing from, 
the king, he was to act as my solicitor According to hia 
command, I resorted daily to court, having frequent con« 
ference with the king, both by day and by night, as he de- 
lighted much to talk with me, both of the a£&irs of Bnj^iuid 
and Qthercoontries ; and also tnade many enquiries respect- 
ipg the West Indies, ojf which h^ had heard long l)efore» yet 
doubted there being any such place, titt I assur^ him I had 
been in the countary. 

• Many days and weeks passed thus, and I became in high 
fifcvour with the king, to the great grief of all mine enemies;' 
when, chi^aing a &ycmrable time, I solicited his order or 
commisaioii for the eetablisfament of our factory. He ask- . 
ed me, if I meant to remiun at his court ? to which I ann 
awered, that I should do so tUl our ships came to Surat^ 
when I proposed to j^home with his majesty's answer to 
the letter from my king. He then said, that he expected 
I should stay n^uch longer, as he intended by our next, 
diips to send an ambassador to the King of England, and 
he wished me to remain with him till a successor was sent 
to me from my sovereign : That my remaining would be of 
material benefit to my nation, as I should be m the way to 
put all wrongs to right, if any were of&red to the English^ 
as whatever I might see beneficial for them would be 
granted to my petitions ; swearing by hisfathe/e soul, that 
if I remained with him, he would grant me artides for our 
factory to my full contentment, and would never go back 
from his word ; and that besides he would give me ample 
maintenance* I answered, that I would consider of his 
roposal : And, as he was daily inciting me to stay, I at 
St consented ; considering that I should be able to do 
mod service both to my own sovereign and him, especial- 
fy as he ofiered me an allowance of ^4200 sterling for the 
first year, promising yearly to augment my salary till I 
came to the rank of 1000 horse } xny first year being the 
aUowaace of commander of 400. The liobility of India 

12 have 


f9S. Sarfy Voyagu of the part ir. Booxtni 

h«9% their titleB and emdiiinietits des^ated by the nuaofcer 
of horse they command^ from 40 up to 12,000$ which last 
pay belongs only to princes and their sons. 
' Tmstuig, tberrfore^ to his promises, and beUering that 
it miffht be beneficial bo& to my nation and myself I did 
not think it amiss to yield to his request ; considering that 
I was deprired of the advantages I misht have reaped by 
going to Bantam ; and that your wor^ips would s^id an- 
other in my pLue after half a dozen years, while in the 
mean time 1 might do you service and leather my own 
nest. Then, beotuse my name was somewhat hai^ fior 
his pronunciation, he gave me the name of Im^ Khatif 
which is to soy Ef^Uih lord: though in Persia khan ia 
equivalent to' duke. Being now in the height of fevour, 
thejesnits and Portuguese did every thing toey could for 
my overthrow; and indeed^ the principal Mahometans 
arout the king envied much to see a Christian in sudi &» 

Father Peneiro, who was with Mncrob Khan, and the' 
Jesuits here at Agra, in my opinion did little r^aird their 
masses and other church matters, in studying how to over* 
throw my affairs. Advice being sent to Goa and Padre 
Peneiro at Surat or Cambaya, by the j^uits h&ceat Agrkf 
of my favour with the kiiig, they did all in their pow^r to 
gain Mucrob Khan to aid the Portuguese; for which pnr^ 
pose the viceroy at Goa wrote to him, sending rich pre* 
sents, together with many toys for the kmg. These pre* 
sents, and many fair promises, so wrought with Mucrob 
Khan, that he sent a memorial to the king, accompanied by 
the present from the viceroy, stating, that permitting the 
English to trade in the lana would occasion the loss of the 
maritime country about Surat, Cambaya, and other places; 
and that his ancient friends the Portuguese were much o& 
fended by his entertaining me, as a rumour went among 
them that I was now general of 10,000 horsey and was 
ready to assault Diu on the arrival of tlvs next English 
ships. . The letter of the Portuguese viceroy was mu^ to 
the same effect. To all which the king answered. That he 
had but one Englishman at his court, whom they had no 
reason to fear, as he pretended to none of those things they 
lilleged, and had refused an establishment near the sea, pre* 
ferrmg to live at court. 


ikiji?« X* SECR /«. i En^tiA J^effi Bidia Oknpam/. 3Mf 

The Poi^tn^uose were quite eniraged m^'tliis answer, 
and laboured incessantly to get me out of the world. I then 
represented to the king the dangerous pipedicament in which 
i wa% and the uncomfortable situation I was reduced to : 
My hc^ Stephen Grosvenor just dead> and diy man Nicho- 
las Umet extremely sick, .who was the only J^glish person 
with me, while i was inyself beginnii^ to &n much off. 
The king immediately, called for the Jesuits^ and assured 
them, if I died by any extraordinary casualty, that they 
should all feel it to their cost. The king waa then very ear- 
nest with me to take a white*, maiden from his palace to be 
my wife^ offering to give her slaves and all other things ne- 
cessary, and promismg that she .would turn Christian ; by 
which means, he said, my meat and drink would be pro* 
perly locked after by her and her woqien, and I might live 
without fear* In answer, I reftised to accept of any Ma- 
hometan woman, but said if any Christian could be found 
I would gratefully .accept his royal bounty. 
^ Then the kin^ called toTemeoibrance the daughter of 
oneMubarick Shah, who was an Armenian Christian, of 
theJmoBt ancient Christian race ; Mubarick having been a 
eaptain, ^and in great favour with Acbar Padisna, this 
king^s father. This captain had died suddenly, and with*- 
out a will,, leaving, a vast deal of money, all of which waa 
robbed by his brc^hers and kinsmen, or absorbed in debts 
due to him which could not be. recovered^ leavii^g only a 
few jewds to this his only child. . Considering that she waa 
&' Christian of honest descent, and that I had passed my 
word to the king, I could no Ipifger resist my fortune: 
Wherefore I took her, and, for want of a minister, I mar- 
ried her before Christian witnesses, my man Nicholas Uf- 
flet actii^ as priest ; which X thought had been lawful, till 
I met "wSh the chaplain who came with Sir Henry Middle- 
ton, who shewed me the error ; on which I was again mar- 
ried. Henceforwards I lived. contented and without fcar^ 
my wife being willing to go where I went, and to live as I 

After the settlement of this affiiir, news were sent me that 
the Ascension was coming to Surat, which was leamt from 
themenbdongingto her pinnaces, which were cast away near 


' Sbe went away alon^ with bim for England j but as be died by the 
V9y,sbe afterwards married MrTowerson.— PtfrcA. 

iS4t Earhf Fcjfogu ^Mr fart u. book Wk 

that plac«>« I aixeti west to the king» and told him of thi» 
circumstance, craving bis leave to repair to Surat» with hit 
eoinmissioa for setding trade at that port» which he was 
▼ery willing to allow, limittng me to a certain time of a]>« 
ience, when I was to return again to Agra* When the 
king's chief vizir, Abdal Hassan, heard this, who was an 
enemy of all Christians, he told the king ihai my going 
• would be the occasion of war, and might occasion the ruia 
of one of his great men, who bad be^i sent to Goa to pui^ 
chase toya for the king.^ Upon this, the king signified hia 
pleasure that I was to remain ; but gave immediate orders 
to have the commission effectually written and sent oS ta 
the chief factor at Surat. In fine, the commission was 
written out in golden letters under his great seal, as foUy* 
freely, and firmly, foj: onf benefit as we could possitilj c^ 
aire. This I presently obtained, and sent it off to Williajs 
I^ch at Surat. 

Before its arrival^ news came that the Ascension was cast 
away, and her men saved, but were not allowed to come to 
Snrat* I immediately communicated this intelligence to 
the king, who was much dissatisfied with the conduct of 
Mucrob Kban, my great enemy, and gave me another or^ 
der for their good usage^ and that every means should be 
used to save the goods if possible. These two royal ordera 
came almost at the same time to Surat, to the great joy of 
William Finch and the rest, who much admired how I had 
been able to procure them. Thus continuing in ^reat fa^ 
vpur with the king, being almost continually in his sight^ 
and serving him for half the twenly-four hours, I failed not 
to have most of his nobles for my enemies, who were chief* 
Vf Mahometans; for it went against their hearts to see a' 
Christian in so great favour and familiarity with the kin^ 
and more especially because he had promised to make faia 
brothcr'a children Christtaps, which he actually caused to 
be done about two years after my coming to Agnu 

Some time afier, some of the people beloi^ing to the As« 
cension came to me, whom I could have wished to hate be" 
haved themselves better, as their conduct wlis much pried 
mto by the king.^ In all this time I had been unaUe tor 


^ In a side-note at this place, Purchas says that Mr Alexander Sharpe^> 
their general, came to Agra along with them ; which is not mentioliea m 
the text, but will be found in the narrative of Sharpey's voyage ia the 
sequel.— E. 

nEA». X; stciL )r. . JSfig&& Easi India Compcm^* 8$< 

fecover the debt dae me by Mucrob Khan* At length be 
was sent for by the king, to answer for many faults bid to 
his charge, and much mjustice and tyranny he had been 
guilty or to the people under his authority, having ruined 
many, who petitioned the king for justice. This dog now 
sent many brib^ to the king's sons and the nobles about his 
person^ to endeavour to make his peace, and they laboured 
in his behal£ When news came that Mucrob Khan was 
iiear, the king sent orders to attach his goods, which were 
so abundant mat the king was two months In viewing them, 
every day allotting a certain quantity to be brought before 
him. what the king thought fit for his own use he kept^ 
and returned the rest to Mucrob Khan. In viewing these 
goods, there appeared certain muskets, with a rich corsjelet 
and head-piece, with other things, formilig the present I 
intended for the king ; which Mucrob had taken from me 
under pretence that they were for the king, and would not 
allow me to deliver myself. At the sight of these, I was so 
bold as to tell the king they were mine. 

After the king had viewed these goods, a Banyan mad^ 
a most grievous complaint to the king against Mucrob 
Khan, who had taken away his daughter, pretending she 
was for the king ; but had deflowered her himself, and gave 
her afterwards to a Bramin who was in his service. Tlie 
man who made this charge protested^ that his dau^iter 
surpassed all women he had ever seen for beauty. TThis 
natter being examined into, and the offence clearly proved 
against Mucrob, he was committed as a prisoner into the 
custody of a noble of high rank ; and the Bramin was con- 
danned to be made a complete eunuch. Before this hap- 
pened I went several times to visit Mucrob, who made 
many fair promises that he would deal honestly by me and 
he my friend, and that I should have my right After his 
disgrace his friends daily solicited for him, and at length got 
liim clear ; but with commandment to pay every man his 
right, and that no more complaints should be hqard against 
him, if he loved his life. So he paid every one his due ex- 
cept me, whom he would not p^. I then entreated him to 
deliver me back my cloth, that 1 might if possible end with 
him by fair means ; but he put me off from day to day with 
fresh delays till his departure shortly after ; for the king re^ 
stored him his place again^ and he was to go to Ooa about 

a fair 

SS6 - Earfy Voifagfi of the part h. book, xiiR 

a fair baHas ruby and oth^ taritite which Werie promised to 
the king. 

§ 3. The Inconstancy of the King, and the Depbrture of 
Ca!ptam Hawkins with Sir Henry Middleton to the B^d 
Seoj and thence to Bantam^ and afterwards for Eng^ 

All my going and sending to Muferob Khan for ray mo- 
ney and cloth were in vain, and seeing myself so grossly 
abused by him, I was forced to demand justice of the king, 
who commanded that the money should be brought before 
him ; yet for all the king's commands, Mucrob did as he 
liked, and in spite of every thing I could do or say, he fi- 
nally cheated me of 12,500 mahmudies which he owed me^ 
besides interest.' The greatest man in the whole country 
was his friend, who with many others took his part, ana 
were* continually murmuring to the king about sumiring the 
English to come into the country, saying, that if our nation 
once got footing in the country we would dispossess him of itl^ 
The Idiig, upon this, called me before him to make answer 
to these charges. I said, if any such matters were doneo^ 
attempted, I was ready to answer with my Hfe, for the 
English wipre in bo respect that base nation that our ene- 
mies represented ; and that all these things were laid to our 
chaise merely because I demanded my due and could not 
get it. At this time I used to visit daily the king's chief &« 
vourites and nearest relatives, who spoke to him in my fa* 
Tour, so that he commanded no more such injaries to be 
offered me. So, thinking to use my best endeavour to re-f 
cover my loss, I spoke to the chief vizier, that hemight aSd 
me ; but he answered me in a threatening manner, that if 
I opened my mouth again on this subject, he would oblige 
me to pay 100,000 mahntudi^ which the king had lost m 



. ' On some other occasions in tliese voyages, the raafunudy is said to 
t^ worth about a shilling. — ^£. 

^ This may appear somewhat in the spirit of prophecy, as the English 
are now masters of a very large portion of the Mogul empire in Hindos- 
tan. This unwieldy empire broke in pieces by its own weight* and tiie 
original vices of its constitution ; after which its fragments have gradual- 
ly been conquered by the India Company* whose dominions now include 
^elht and Agra, two of its great capitals; and many of its finest provia* 

ifiiAP. x» SBCT. T« £jiitg&A Edsi India Company. 

hh cu^tmns at Surat, to which no persons durst now trade 
tor fear of the Portuguese,, who were displeased because the 
kins entertained me, and granted licence for the English ta 
traqig. Owing to this I was constrained to be silent^ for I 
knew' that my money had been swallowed up by these 
dogs. . 

Mucrob Khan was now ordered in public to make ready 
to depart upon an appointed day for Guzerat, whence he 
was to proceed to Goa, and was on that day to come tO' 
^oiirt to take leave, as is the custom. At this time three 
principal merchants of Surat came to court about affairs in' 
which they had been employed by the kuig or the chief vi* 
zier« Likewise, some six days before this, a letter came to 
the king from .the Portuguese viceroy, accompanied by a 
present of many rarities ; in which letter the viceroy repre- 
sented how highly the King of Portugal was dissatisfied 
at the English being admitted into the king's dominions, 
considering the ancient amity between liim and his majes- 
ty. After many compliments, the viceroy stated^ that a 
merchant h^d arrived at Goa with a very fine ballas ruby^' 
.wdghing 350 rotties, of which the pattern was sent. On 
coming to take his leave, accompanied by Padre Peneiroi 
who was to go along with him^ the three Surat merchants 
being in the presence, Mucrob Khan made his speech to . 
Hhe king^ saying that he hoped to obtain the great ruby^ 
dind many other valuable things, for his majesty from the- 
Portuguese, if the privileges gi*anted to the English were 
<^anhulled ; and besides, that k would occasion great loss 
to hi3 majesty and his subjects, if the English were suffered 
any more to frequent his ports. . In confirmation of thisp 
be called upon the Surat merchants to declare to his ma^ 
jesty what loss was occasioned by the English, as they best 
knew. They affirmed that they were all lifcely to be un- 
done because of the English trading at Surat^ and that no 
toys or curiosities would, hereafter come into his majesty's 
dominions, because the Portuguese, being masters of the. 
sea, would not sufier them to go in or out of the ports^ be- 
cause of the licence granted to the English. All this was 
a plot concerted by the Portuguese with Mucrob Khan and 
the vizier, with the assistance of the Jesuits ; and by means 
of these speeches, and the king^s anxiety to procure the 
great ruby, together with the promises of the padres to pr«>* 
cure-many rarities for his majesty^ my affiurs w^e utterly 


fSS Eafly Voyages of the . ^abt if* b(m>k iih 

oT^rthro^im ; and the king cMitiiaiided Mnerob Efami M 
inform the Portuguese viceroy, that the English should not 
be suffered any more to come into his ports. 

I now saw plainly that it would be quite bootless, for me 
to make any attempt to counteract these plots, by petition- 
ing the king^ till a good while after the departure of Mu« 
crob Khan, as my enemies were very numerOud^ though 
they had received many presents from me. When I saw a 
oonyenifflit time, I resolved to petition the king agiun, ha«^ 
ving in the mean time found a fit toy to present, . as the 
ottstom is, for no man who makes a petition must ccM^ae 
empty banded. On presenting this petition, the kinjg im- 
mediately granted my request, commanding the vizier to 
teake me out another commission or licence in as ample 
form as before, and expressly commanded that no perscm 
should presume to speak to him to the conti'ary, it being 
l^s fixed resolution diat th^ English should have freedom 
to trade in his dominions. Of this alteration the Jesuits at 
ikgra had immediate notice ; for no matter passes in the 
court of the Mogul, however secret, but it may be known 
in half an hour, by giving a small matter to the secretary 
qf the day; for every thing is written down, and the wri<* 
ters or secretaries have their i^pointed days in torn. The 
Jesuits instantly sent off a speedy messenger with letters to 
Peneiro and Mucrob Khan, giving them notice of this new 
turn in my affairs ; on receipt of which they immediatdy 
resolved not to proceed to Goa till I were again overthrown. 
Thereupon Mucrob Khan transmitted a petition to the kin^ 
and letters to his friend the vizier, slating that it was not for 
his majesty's honour to send him to Goa, if the promises 
made to the Portuguese were not performed; and that 
the purpose of his journey would be entirely frustrated, if 
the new licence given to the English were not recalled. On 
reading this, the Idng went again from his word and recall- 
ed my licence, esteeming a tew toys promised him by the 
Jesuit^ beyond his honour. 

Being desirous to see the fina.1 issue of these things, I 
went to Uogio JaAa^, £Haji Jehan], who was lord-general 
of the king's palace, and second officer of the kingdom, en* 
treating him to stand my friend. He went immediatdy to 
the king, telling him that I was sore cast down^ because Ab<* 
dul Hassan, the chief vizier, would not deliver me the oom« 
mission which his maj^ty had accorded to me. Being in 


VUA x» SECT, v« ' Ef^ifUk Eati India Compam/^ f 39 

like jMresctaee, and v^ry near the king^ I heard him give the 
pillowing answer : << It is very true that the commission is 
ieafed and readv for delivery ; but owiiur to letters received 
from Mucrob Khan, and better consideration respecting 
the affidrs of my ports in Guzerat, I do not now diink fit 
that it should be granted.'' Thus was I tossed asKl tum- 
bled, like a merchant adventuring his all in one bottom, and 
losing all at once by storms or pirates. In regard likewise 
to my pension, I was mightily crossed ; as many times when 
I. sf>plied to Abdul Hassan, he would make answer, ^^ I 
know well that you are in no such need, as your own mas* 
ter bears your charges, and the king knew not what he did 
in giving to you, from whom he ought on the contrary to 
xeceive.'' I represented to him that it was his majesty's 
ideasure, and none of my isquest, .and being his ma|esty'il 

fift, I saw no reason for bdng deprived of mv right Then 
e would bid me have patience, and he would mid me out 
a good living. Thus was I put off from time to time by this 
mine enemy ; insomuch diat all the time I served at court 
loould not get a living that would yield me any things 
the vizier giving me always my living on assignments on 
places that were in the hands of outlaws or insui^ents, ex- 
cept once that I had an assignment on Labor by q)ecial 
command of the king, but of which I was soon deprived ; 
and all I received from the beginning was not quite £^QO^ 
and even <£ this a considerable portion was spent upon the 
charges -rfmeo sent to the Jondships •n which my peimon 
was assigned. 

Seeing now that the living which the king had bestowed 
qpon me was taken away, I waes past all hope ; for before 
diis, on hearing that our ships were arrived, I expected the 
king wonld perferm his former promises, in hopes of recei« 
ving rare timigs from England* When I now presented a 
petition to the king concerning my pension, he turned me 
over to Abdul Hassan, who not only refused to have 
my pension, but gave orders that I should be no more per* 
mitted to come within the red rails, being the place of btv 
nonr in the presence ; ipdhere all the time of my residenioa 
kftherto I wa& placed very near the king's person^ only fi«9 
men jof the whole court being before me* 

My affairs bem^ thus uttmy overthrown, I detawiaed^ 
with the advice aimv friends, to know exactly irhat I ha4 
in xest iipaDy and either to be veil ill or wdi ant 1 tber^ 


8ia Marly Voy^ti of the paUT It. bom^ iiT> 

fore made ready and presented a petition to tbe king^ re^ 
presenting how I had been dealt with by Abdol Hassan, 
who had himself appropriated what his majealy had been: 
pleased to order for my living : That the expences of my 
residence at court for so long a time^ at his majesty's com- 
mand, and under promises to provide lor me^ would be my 
utter ruin ; wherefore, I humbly entreated his majesty m 
take my case into his gracious consideration, dther to ests^ 
blish me as formerly, or to grant me leave to depart* In 
answer to this, he gave me permission to go away, and com- 
manded a safe conduct to be given me, to pass freely and 
without molestation throughout his dominions. On recei-^ 
ving this passport, I came to make my obeisance, and to 
take my leave, when I entreated to have an answer to the 
letters of my sovereign. On this Abdul Hassan caiHe Ux 
me from the king, and utterly refused in a disdainful man- 
ner ; saying, That it was not meet for so great a monan^ 
to write a letter to any pettv prince or governor. To this 
I answered, That the king knew more of the mightiness of 
the King of England than to suppose him a petty gover- 
nor. - ' 

I went home .to my house, using all my endeavours to^t 
my goods and debts gathered together, meaning to pur-^ 
chase commodities with the money remaining, and exerted 
every diligence to get out of the country, waiting only fo* 
the return of Nicholas Ufflet from L^hor with some indiga 
then in charge of Williiam Finch, who was determined to 
go home over land, as he had no hope of our ever being 
able to emlmrk at Surat. . I would willingly have gone 
home by the same route, but it was well known that I could 
Bot travel through Turkey, especially in company with a 
iemale. I was forced therefore to curry favour with tbe Je- 
suits, to procure me a pass or seguro irom the Portuguese 
viceroy, to go by way of Goa to Portugal, and thence to 
England. But when the mother and kindred of. my wife 
saw that I was about to take her away, and supposing they 
should never see her more, they were so importunate with 
me, that I was forced to engage that she shou)d go na far- 
ther with me than Goa, which was in India, and where they 
could go to visit her ; and that, if at any time I were^to go 
to Portugal or elsewhere, I should then leave her with such 
a dower as is usual with the Portuguese when they: die; 
But knowing that if my wife should chuse to go wiu me^ 

<aiAP. "x. SECT. T. ISngUsh East India Company. 241 

an these might have no effect, I concerted with the Jesuits 
to procure me two 8e:ruros or passports; one giving me fre« 
pernnission and lib rty of corwcience to reside and trade af 
Goa, which only I meant to show to my witVs relations^; 
whrie the other was to contain an absolute grant for a free 
passage to PortuiraK and so for England, with my wife and 
goods, so as not to be hindered by any interference of my 
wife's relations ; any thing that I might be under the ne» 
cessity of conceding to them to be void and of no effect, but 
that I should have liberty to stay or go when I pleased, 
with liberty of conscience for myself. Iliis last seguro was. 
desired to be transmitted to me at Cambaya by the fleet of 
Portuguese frigates, as at my ^departure our ships were not 
yet come. 

The fathers would readily have done this and much 
Hiore for me, only to get me out of the country. About 
this time I bad notice of the arrival of three English ships 
at Modia, and that they were surely to come to Surat at 
the propier season ; which news were sent me from Burhan- 
poor by Nicholas Banham, who had gone from me six 
weeks before for the recovery of some debts, and with let- 
ters for our ships if any came, and it were possible to send 
them. While I was preparing to depart, niews came of th« 
i^eturn of Mucrob Khan from Goa, with man-y rare and fine 
things for the king ; but he brought not the ba4as ruby, 
saying that it was false; or at 4east he made this excuse, 
lest) if he had given the Portuguese merchant his price, it 
inight be valuea much lower* when it came to the king, and 
he be forced to pay the overplus, as had happened befors 
on similar occasions. I likewise understood that Mucrob 
Khan did not receive such satisfaction from the Portuguese 
as he expected. 

At this time my great enemy the chief vizier was thrust 
out of his place, owing to the complaints of many of the 
nobles who were in debt for their expences, and were un- 
able to procure payment of their pensions, having their as- 
signments Cither upon barren places, or on such as were in 
rebellion, Abdul Hassioi having retained all the good dis- 
tricts to himself, and robbed them all. From these com- 
plaints and others he had much ado lo escape with his life, 
being degraded from his high office, and ordered to the 
wars in we Deccan. One Gaih Beg^ who was the king^s 
^ef treasurer, imd whose daught^ was chief queen or ntr 

fQU vi|i. Q vonrite 


l!4f Early Voyages of the part ii. book iiu 

vourite, was made vizier in his stead. The new vizier was 
one who, in outward show at least, made much of me, and 
was always willing to serve me on occasion. His son 
and I were great friends, having often visited at my liouset 
and was now raised to high dignities by the king. On thia 
change of affairs, and being certified through various chan* 
nds of tlie arrival of our ships, I determined to try what I 
^ould now do to re-establish my affairs ; and knowing that 
nothii^ could be accomplished through these Moors with- 
out giro and bribes^ I sent my broker to procure me some 
jewels fit to be presented to the king's sister and new panic 
mour, and to the new vizier and his s<»i« After receiving 
my gifU, they began on all sides to solicit my cause. 

Newis came to Agra, from certain Banyans at Diuf that 
three English ships were seen off that pla€e, and three days 
afterwards other intelligence was received that they were 
anchored at the bar of Surat. Upon these news, the visieir 
asked me if I had a prc^r gift for the king, on which I 
showed him a ruby ring, and he desired me to prepare for 
going to court along with him, when he would present my 
petition to the king, who» he said, was already won over to 
my interest* So^ onjce more coming before his migesty> and 
my petition being read, he presenuy granted the establish- 
ment of our factory, and tliat the English might come and 
trade in all freedom at Surat, commanding the vizier to 
make out my commission or licence to that effect with all 
expedition. The viaier made me a sign to come forwards 
and make my obeisance, which I did according to the cua* 
tom. But mark what followed. A nobleman of high rank^ 
and in great favour with the king, who was a most intimate 
friend both of the late vizier and of Mucrob Khan, having 
been brought up along with them from childhood as pages 
together to the king, made a speech to the king to the fol- 
lowing effect : ^^ That the granting of this Jicence would be 
the ruin of all his majesty's sea^ports and people, as his ma* 
Jesty had been already certified by several of his subjects : 
That it was not consistent with the king's honour to con- 
tradict what he had granted to the Portuguese, his ancient 
friends; And that whoever solicited in favour of the Eng- 
lish knew not what they were about $ or, if tliey knew, were 
not friends to lus majesty*" Upon Uiis q^ch my business 
was again quite overthrown, and all my time and presents 
thrown away, as the king now said be would not allow the 


<»AIP« %• SSCT. v: Et^kh Eaa India Company. S4S 

Englidi to trade at his sea-ports, owing to the inconveni- 
ences that had already arisen from their trading at Surat. 
But as for mjsel^ if I would remain in his service, he wbuM 
command that the allowance he had formerly granted mc 
should be given to my satisfection. I declined this, unless 
the English were allowed the freedom of trade according 
to hifr promise ; saying that my own sovereign would take 
care that I should not want. I then requested his majesty 
would be pleased to give me an answer to the letter I had 
brought turn from my sovereign ; but after consulting some 
time with Ms vieiers, this was refiised. 

I now took my leave, and departed from Agra the 2d of 
November, 1611, being in a thousand difficulties what course 
I had best take. 1 was in fear lest the Portoguese might 
poison me for the sake of my goods ; it was dangerous to 
travd through the Deccan to MasuUpatam on account of 
tiie wars ; 1 could not go by land to Europe by reason of 
the Turks ; and I was resolved not to remain amon^ these 
fiuthiess infidefe. I arrived at Cambaya the 31st Decem- 
ber, 1611, where I had certain news of our diips beii^ at 
^rat^ to which place I sent a foot-messenger with a letter^ 
saying that the firian at Cambaya asserted that four large 
diips, with certain gallies and frigates, w^re preparing at 
Ooa to attack our ships, and that the Portuguese were 
contriving treachery against Sir Henry Middletou ; all of 
which the fathers wished me to apprize him ol^ which I a& 
tenrards found was a political contrivance to put iSir Hen- 
ry in fear^ that he might depart 

As for me^ my ostensible object was to go home by means 
of the PortiE^^uese^ as I had promised my wife and her bro- 
ther, who was now with us, and to delude him and the 
friars till I could get away on board our ships, which 1 was 
sure to know by we return of my messenger. In the mean 
time I used every endeavour to get away my wife's brother, 
who departed two days afterwards for Agra, without once 
stii^Mctins that I meant to go in the Eng&h ships. Ni- 
cholas IMet now went from Cambaya to examine the 
foad ; and when two days journey from Cambaya, he met 
Captain William Sharpcy, Mr Fraiue, and Mr Hugh 
Greete, who were sent to me at Cambaya by Sir Henry to 
my no small joy. Wherefore^ making all the haste I could 
to prepare ifor my departure, I left Cambaya on the 18th 
ianoaty) 1612, and got to our ships on the 26th of the same 


Si4 Early Fcjfage$ of the taslt ii. book iih 

monihi when I was most kindly received and welcomed bj 
Sir Henry Middleton. ' 

We departed from Siirot on the 1 1th Fd^ruaty, and ar* 
rived at Dabul on the iGth^ where we took a Portugese 
ship and frigate, out of which we took 8<Mne quantity df 
^ooda. Leaving Dabul on the 5th March for the Red Se^^ 
with intention to revenue our wi^ngs both on the Turks 
iind Moguls, we arrivea there on the Sd April, where w% 
found three English ships, whose gaieral was Obtain John 
Saris. Having dispatched our bi^siness in the Red Seat ^^ 
sailed from thence the 16th August, 1612, aod arrived al 
Tecu in Sumatra the 19Jh October. Our Winess there 
being ended, we departed thence on the lught c^ the 19th 
Novi^mber, and struck that night, three leagues ofi^ or s 
bed of coral, in about three fathoms water^ but by the gfeal 
mercy of God escaped beiqg lost ; yet we were forced to pi^ 
back to Tecu to ^top our leake^ for which piirpose we had 
to unload our ship. The leaks being somewhat stoppedi 
and Qur goods reloaded, we departed again the Sth Decern^ 
ber, and arrived at Bantam the 21st of that month. ." 

As Sir Henry did not think his ship, the' Trades-*^ 
crease, in sufficient condition for going nome that seaaoQi 
he was forced to remain and have her careened. Ha^g 
irlosed accounts with Sir Henry to his satisfaction, I sbipji^ 
ped xny goods in the Solomon, which came for our voym^ 
for saving a greater freight, but could not be admittoQ ia 
her mvseli ; Captain Saris, however, accommodated w^m 
the Thomas, and it was agreed that the l^lomtw and w^ 
were to keep Qompany# We accordingly sailed from* Ban^ 
tarn on the SOth January, 1613^ and arrived at Saldaaha 
bay the 2l6t April, having much foul weather for near 200 
leagues from the Cape. We here found four ships of Hoi* 
land, which left Bantam a month before us. The HoUaJodr 
ers were yery kind to us all, and especially attentive to me, 
jas they had heard much of my favour and h^h estate at 
Agra, by an agent of theirs who resided at M^^ulipatanu 
JSome eight days afterwards the .Expedition came in/ aod 


' This uncommon expression b not easily explicable, as tlie ships u» 
4er Saris appear to have been in the employ or the same company. It 
probably retiers to the partial subscriptions -ibr particular voyages, m U8« 
^t the iirst et^tablishment of the Company.-^B. 

^ > l\m aUudes to the twelfth voyage fitted jout by the Epglish Basi Iflf> 
dia Company, under the Gommaira of Chiistopher Newport, Of wfaisib 
hereiifter. — fi. 

•i<Al». t/sBCT. V. English EaU India Cmtpany^ 143 

hrovLght me a letter from your worships, wbich was detiirer- 
ed two days after. The wind coming fair^ we departed 
from Saldanha the 2l8t May, 1613.* 

i4f. A hrirf Discourse of the Strength^ Wealthy and Go* 
temment of the Great Mogulf with some of his Customs.^ 

' I first begin with his princes, dukes, marquisses« earli^ 
thcounts barons, knights^ esquires, gentlemen, and yeo- 
inen ; for as ^e Christian sovereigns distinguish their no* 
bility by these titles, so do the Moguls distinguish theirs by 
die numbers df horse they are appointed to command ; nn-^ 
less it be those whom he most favours, whom he honoun 
^ith the title of Khan and Immirza ; none having the title 
i>f Sultan except hii( sons. Khan, in the- Persian language, 
isequivalent to duke with us in Europe. Immirza is tiie 
title given to the sons of the king's brother. These tttlesr 
or ranks are of 13,000 horse, of which there are only four, 
being the king himself^ his mother, his eldest son, Prince 
c^ £bllan Parvis, and one more named Khan Asam, who 
is of the blood-royal of the Usbecks. The next rank, equi-^ 
vftlent to our dukes, are leaders of 9000, horse, of whom 
Aere are three. Tlien of marquisses^ or commanders of 
5600, tiiere are eifi^teen. The others are from 2000 down 
lo 90^ of all which ranks there are 2950. Besides which 
tibere are 5000 men, called Haddies, who receive monthly 
pay, equal to from one to six horsemen* Of such officers 
as bdoDg to the court and camp there are S6,000, as por- 
ters^ gunners, watermen^ lackies, horse-keepers, elephant- 
keeper^ matchlock-men, frasses or tent-men, cooks, light- 
bearers, gardeners, keepers of wild beasts, &c. All these 
aire paid fi^m the royal treasury, their wi^es being from 


' Wt hate fi>nner]y seen, from a side-note of Pofchas, that Captain 
flAwkins fdkA'More reaching Bn^sEnd, and that his Armenimi wife aA 
terwardt married Mr Towerson, The journal here breaks off abruptly^ 
and Purchas remarks^ that he had omitted mamr advices of the au* 
Shar, reqpeckiDg forts, Indian factories^ &c. not fitting Jar every eye; 
•— E» i, 

« ^ This appears to have been written by Captain Hawkins, as appended 
to his narrative by Pordms. It is said iy mt aathor, that he had partly 
area these tbii|g% aad paitly learnt them by informatioir fom the ehidT 
fficers and av;erif era or the G(Mirt-*B« ^ 

9^ Early Voyages of the paiit ii. BOe» in. 

ten to tbree rupees.* All the captams under the king are 
obliged) on eight days warning, to inmisb the number of 
liorsemcn whidi belong to the rank they respectively holdf 
from 1 ^,000 down to 20, for all which they draw pay, and 
which they are obliged to maintain ; making a total of three 
laclUi or 300,000 horse. 

The entire compass of the dominions of the Great Mo- 
gul is two years travel for caravans ; reaching from Agra, 
which is in a manner in the heart of all his kingdoms, in 
various directions, to Candahar, to Soughtare^ in Bengal^ 
to Cabul, Peccan, Surat, and Tatta in Sinde. His empire 
is divided into five great kingdoms : Ptuijaby of which La- 
bore is the capital ; Bengal^ of which ^narghum^ is the 
<;hief place; Matwa^ of which Ugam [Oi^^ein] is the capi- 
tal ; Decean^ with its capital Bramport [Burfaanpoor] ; and 
Guzeraty having Jmadavar [Ahmedabadl as its capitaU 
Xitlhi is reckoned the chief or royal city of the great king- 
dom ot the Mogul in India, where all the ceremonials of hia 
coronation are performed. There are six principal fortress- 
es or castles, Agra, Gualiar, Nerwet^^ Ratamboor, Hamer^ 
and Rougktaz ; in which ca^s his treasures are secure^ 

In all this great empire there are three arch enemies, 
which all his power has been unable to subdue; these aret 
Ambeny Chapu in tl)e Deccan, Baaduvy the son of Muxa^ 
Jer^ who was formerly king of Guzerat, and liajah Ralmnu 
ki Maiwa. The present Great Mogul^ has five sons, Sul* 
tan Cussero, Sultan Parvis, Sultan Chorem, Sultan Sba- 
¥iar, and Sultan Bath* He has two young daughters, and 


^ , * The rupee, or rvpia^ as it is caBed in the original, is shited by Pun- 
' ebas, in a side-note, at iis. each ; wliile, he adds, some cell it 9f. Sfi. and 
others 2«. td. In fact, the rupee varies matenally in its value acoordiag 
to circumstances, which will be fully explained in the sequel. — ^£. 

3 This name is so completely corrupted as to be inexplicable. — ^£. 
: ^ This name is nearly in the siime predicaaoent with Boiugfatare, unless 
Chunarghur be meant, including Quae Allahabad and Bit&s in Bengat 

• ^ ^ The three last names are inexplicable^ unless Ruttampoor be sieaat 

for one of them. But this slight sketch of the Mogul empire is so ex« 

.eeedingly imperfect and unsatisfactory, as not to merit any commentary. 

^ ^ His name is np where given by Hawkins; but in the journal of Sir 
' Tb<9Qa& K«|9(^bQ went a few years aftecwarda aadNissador to the sarot 
king, hh ii (Called Jehiein-Guire,— rS. 

GSAF* X« SBCT. ¥» Efi^h EaH Indi^ Cmpany. %^1 

SOO wifes, feur of vhom» being tbe ohkfy aire rechoiid^ 
ijiseeoe; Padisha Bams, due daughter of, Kaime Khani 
Noiiir Mahal, tha daughter of Gaib Beg; the third it Ih^ 
daughter of Sein Khan ; and the fourth is the doughtier c^ 
Hakim Hamauh, who was brother to his own faUi^r ^f 
F^isha Akban? 

The dail V expenoaa of the Mogul for hia ovn psraon, and 
for feeding his caittle of all sorts, among which are some royal 
•lephanta» and all othor particular .expences^ as dress, viih 
ttt^ and other household charges,$Q,00(> rupees 
a-day^ and the daily e3^)enGes of hia women amount X9 
SCHOOO vupees. 

. . The c^stinn of the Mo^l i% to take poaaetaion of all tbo^ 
tijeasure belonging to his nc^Ies when diey die, giving 
among thexhildren what he please? ; but he usually treatf 
them kindly, dividing their fefliers land am^ag them, and 
giving great respect to the eklest son,, who is generally pro^ 
naoted in time to the full rank of his father^ In my Xiam 
Biyah Gaginat, a great lord or prinjee among the iddatefSi 
dieci^ when his effieiets being seisEad to the king's use^ besides 
jewels^ Mlver, and other valuaUes, his treaaure in gold 
only amounted to 60 maynh every fwim being %6 poun4a 

The king has SQO royal elephants on which ba himself 
rides ; and when broi^t before hUn they appear in great 
f^tata, having tbirty*two men ^ing befone oie^ with stream* 
ors. The Imusings or coverings of these elepiiants are vinry 
rich, bdn^ either icbth of gold or rich velvet; each royal 
dej^iant is followed by his female and his cab or auhsb 
usually luiving four or five young ones as pages, $oma sai* 
ven, eight, or nine. These royal elephants, which are the 
largest and handsomest, eat every day to the value of ten 
rupees, in sugar, buttier^ grain, and sugar canes* Tb^ are 
90 tame and well managed^ that I one day saw the king or* 
der one of his sons, named Shariar, a child of seven yeam 
old, to go to tbe dephant and be taken up by his trunks 
which was so done, the elephant delivering him to hi* 
keeper, who rules him with a hooked iron* When any of 


7 We have here omitted a long acoouot of the Mpgnl treasures in goU, 
silver, and jewels, and an immense store of rich ornaments in gold^siivef, 
and jewellery, together with the enumeration of horses, elephants, camels, 
oxen, mules, deer, dogs, Iions> ounces, hawks, pigeons, sod singing binkr 
•xtremely tedious aad uninterestipg.-— S. 

its J^fy ^oyaga rfiHe Tsmt ir. book m* 

th^e elcpliaiitii are brou^lit lean before the kin^, thoie h»- 
irifii^ diaTf[;e of tbem are disiifraced unless they hare all thv 
better excase; so that erery one strives to bring his is 
mod order, eren though he may have to spend of his owo 

When the Mogul goes oat to hunt, hfs camp h about 
ssmnchfiin compass as the city of London, or even more; 
and I n?ay even say that at least 200,000 people iblloir him 
on this occasion, every thing being provided as for the use 
of « large city. The elephant is ofall beasts the most saga* 
dous, of whtich I shall give one instance, which was report* 
ed to me as a certainty. An elephant upon a hard jouiv 
nesrliaving been ill-used by his keeper, and finding the fel- 
low asleep (Hie day near him, but out of his reach, audi ha* 
ving green canes brought him as food, he took hoM of m 
eane py one end with his trunk, and reached the other end 
to the keeper's head, which was bare, his turban havin|r 
fidlen off, and twisting the cane among his long hair, drevr 
llie felk>w towards him, and' then slew him* 

The king has many dromedaries, which are very swifts 
and are u^ for coming with grmt ^peed to assault any 
dty, as was once done by this king^s father, who assaulted 
Ahmedabad in Ouzerat, when he was supposed to be at 
Agra; going there with 12,000 men in nine days upon 
dromedaries, striking such terror into the Guzerats by hia 
sudden arrival, that they were easiiv reduced* This king 
has much reduced the numbers of the Rajaput captains, 
who were idolaters, and has* |u*eferred Mahometans^ wh# 
are weak-spirited men, void of resolution ; so that this king 
is beginning to lose those parts of the Deccan which were 
eonquered by his father. He has afew good- ciq^taiiis yet 
remaining, whom his fisither highly valued ; but Ihey are 
out of his favour, as they refiised'to.joinihim in his unna- 
tural rebellion against his owv father. For this purpose^ 
being in Jttaba9iei^i}^e r^al seat of a. kingdom called Po- 
ruh^^ he rose in rebellion with 80,000 horse, intending t# 
have taken Agra and got possession of his^fatfaer's treasttre^^ 
who was l^en engaged in conquering, the Deccan«. . 


* Probably an error for the royarcity of tfie kingdom of Ponis^ in the 
time of Alexander tlie Great ; in wbicb case Attabasse may be what is 
now called Attock Henarest on tb^ mamateeain of tbe-f odus, in tire Pcoi< 
jab, or tlie eastern frontier of Lahore. — & 

CHAF.ric BBCT. T. ' EttgUsh Ett9t IHui CSmpaHy* 149 

Before .the former emperor . Akhar departed for- tlie «af» 
in the Deccaii^ he i^ave orders to his son 8elim, whp it now 
emperor, to ^ with the forces he commanded against Raja 
Rahana, the great rebel in Malwa, who coming to a par-* 
ley with Selim, told him he would get nothing; in vrarring 
against him but bard blows ; and he had liiuch better, du- 
ring bis fathers abs(»ice in the Deccan, ga against Agra^ 
and possess himself of his father's treasure and make binw 
self king, as there was no one able to resist him* 8elim fid* 
lowed this advice; but his father getting timely notice^ 
came in all haste to Agra to prevent him» and sent immedi- 
mtely a message to his son, that he might either come and foil 
at his foet for merqr, or try the chance of a battle. Con* 
aidcring his fisither's valour, he thought it best to submit tov 
bis father, who committed him. to prison, but soon released 
him at the intercession of his mother and sisters. In^ con* 

auttice of this rebellion Selim was disinherited, land hi«( 
sstson Cussero was proclaimed heir-apparent ;r all the 
younger sons of Akbwr having died in the Decoan cnr ii» 

QuzeiTftt^ . ' • " 

Akbar died shortly after, having restored Seltm to hia^ 
inheritance while on his death-bed. But Cussero raised 
troops against his father, and being defeated and taken 
prisoner^ still remains confined in the palace, but blinded^ 
according to report. Since that time he has caused all the 
adherents of his son to be put to cruel deaths, and haa 
reigned since in quiet ; but is ill beloved by the greatest 
part of his subjects, who are in great fear of him. While 
I was at his court, I have seen him do many cruel deeds* 
j^ive times a week he orders some of his bravest elephants 
to fight in his presence, durii^ which men are often killed 
or grievously wounded by the elephants. If any one be 
sore hurt, though he might very well chance to recover, he 
Cftoees hkn to be thrown into the river, saying ^< Dispatch 
him, for as long as he lives he will continually curse me>' 
wherefore it is better that he die presently.'^ He delights 
t9 see .men executed and torn in pieces by elephants. 

In my time^ a: Patan of good stature came to one of the- 
king's son% called Sultan Farvis, and petitioned to have 
some place or pension bestowed on him. Demanding whe- 
ther he would serve him, the Patan said no, for the prmqe. 
would not fftve him such wages as he would ask. The- 
prince ariccd him how much would satisfy him^ on which 

8 he 

%S&^ Marfy Voyagti of the ^art n* book m. 

lie said that he ^sroiild neither «erre his fiither nor him nn- 
less be had 1000 rupees a-day, eqnal to 1^6100 sterling* On 
the prince asking wnat were his Qualifications that he rated 
his services so highly, he desired to be tried at all kind of 
weapons, either on ibot or on horseback, and if any one 
was finind to surpass him, he was willing to forfeit his Ufew 
The prince having to attend his father, ordered the Patau 
to be in the way. At night, the king's custom being to 
drink, the prince told him of the Patan, whom the king 
commanded to be brought before him. Just al this time« 
kurge and very fierce Kon was brought in, strongly chained^ 
tod led by a dozen men. After questioning the Patan, aa 
to whence he came^ his parentage, and what was his valour» 
that he demanded such wages, the Patan desired the kiM 
to put him to a trial : Tlien, said the king, go and wrestm 
wiui that lion. The Patan replied. That this was a wild 
beast, and it would be no trial of his manhood to make him 
go against the lion without a weq)on. Hie king however 
insisted upon it, and the poor fellow was torn in {neeei» 
Not yet satisfied, but desirous to see more sport, the kiiup 
aent fer ten of his horsemen who were that night on goar^ 
whom he commanded,^ one after the other, to buflet widi 
the lion. Thej were all grievously wounded^ and three of 
them lost their lives. The king continued three montha 
in this cruel humour ; in which time, merely for his plea- 
sure, many men lost their lives, and many were grievously 
Wounded. Afterwards, and till I came away, twelve or m* 
teen young lions were made tame, and used to play with 
each other in the king^s presence^ fi'iiiking about among 
people's legs, yet doing no harm in a long time. 

His custom is every year to be two months out hunting; 
and when he means to begin his journey, if he comes from 
his palace on horseback, it is a sign he goes to war ; but if 
on an elephant or in a palanquin, bis expedition will only 
be for hunting. 

' He cannot abide that any one should have predoua 
stones of value without offering them to him for sale^ and 
it is death for any one to possess such without immediately 
giving him the refiisal. A Banyan, named Herrtmand^ who 
was his jeweller,' had bought a diamond of three meticahr 
Weight, for which he paid 100,000 rupees, yet had not done 
it so covertly but news of it was brought to the king ; and 
some firiend of H^rrenand presently acquainted him that it 


^u^^ %, 8x;cT. Y» Englbli East India Ompany. 95 i 

had come to the king's knolvledge. Upon this the jewdler 
waited on the king^ saying that his majesty had often pro- 
mised to come to his house, ttnd that now wa» the proper, 
time^ as he had a fine present to make him, having bought 
» diamond of great weights The king smiled, and 5aid> 
<^^ Thy luck has been good/' By these and siioh means the 
king has engrossed all the finest diamonds, aa no one dare 
purchase one from five carats upwards without his leave* 
>^U the lands of the whde monarchy belong to the king> 
wijio givethiapd taketh at his pleasure. If any one^ for in* 
stance, has lands at Lahore, and is sent to the wars in the 
I)eccan, his lands at Lahore are given to another, and he 
receives new lands in or near the Deccan. Those lands 
which are let pay to the king two-thirds of the produce ; and 
t)io6e vAnch are givoi away in fee pay him one-third. The 
poor notSi ot husbandmen who cultivate the land, are very 
hardly dealt by, and complain much of injustice but little 
is given them. At his first coming to the thrMe be wiui 
more severe than noiw, so that the couiitry is now so full of 
outlaws and thieves^ that one can hardly stir out of doom 
in any pari of hb dominions without a guard, as almost the 
whole people are in rebdlion. 

. There is one great Ragant^ between Agra and Ahroeda* 
badt who commands an extent of country eijual to a good 
kingdom, maintaining iSO,000 horse and 50^000 foot ; and 
«s his country is strong and mountainous, all dbe force of 
the king has never been able to reduce him. There are 
imany of those rebels all through his dominions^ but this is 
one of the greatest. Many have risen in Candahar, Ca« 
bul, Mooltan, Sindy, and the kingdom of Botoch*^^ Ben« 
gal^ Guzerat, and the Deccan are likewise full of rebels, so 
that no one can travel in safety for outlaws ; all occasioned 
by the barbarity of the government, and the cruel exac- 
<tiens made upon the husbandmen, which drive them to re* 
r In 

^ HawluDS gbUs rebels, as the Moguls did, all those that refused sub* 
j/6CtJoa ; though some of them were perhaps originally independent ktnes, 
as this Ragane or Ranna, supposed to have been the true successor of ro- 
his, who was conquered by Alexander. He is now reduced, or rather, 
as they say, peaceably induced to acknowledge the Mogul^'and to [Ay 
tribute.— Pttrc^ » \ ** * 

'° Probably meaaiDg the Ballogees, a people on the soutbrside^f ^e 
, Wuin mountains, bordering to the southward on CandaHai*. — ^E. 

i52 Early Foyajga of ih$ TAVtritiMbtinU 

In the mominff , at break of day, the king is at hh bead^ 
praying, on his Knees, upon a Persian lambskin, hfrvtng 
some eight rosaries, or strmgs of beads, each coiitaiil^^ 
400. The beads are of rich pearl, bailace rubies, dia-» 
monds, rabies, emeralds, aloes wood, fshefih and cofid* At- 
the upper end of a large black stone on which fi^- ktieds^' 
there are figures graven in stone of the Virgin and CSiri^^ 
so, turning his face to the west, he repeats S^OO words, a6* 
cbrding to the number of his beads. After this he shews^ 
himself to the people,' receiving their salams or good-ntor-^ 
rows ; a vast multitude resorting every momitig to the pa** 
lace for that purpose. After this he takes two hours'sleep, 
tSkeu dines, and passes his time among his womta titi noon. 
From that time till three o'clock he shews himself agieiin't^ 
die pebple, looking at sports and pastimes made hy meh,^ 
or at fights of various animals. At three o'ck>ck, all the 
nobles then in Agra, who are in health, resoM: to coilrti 
when the king comes forth to open audience, sitting in hiiP 
fbyal seat, and all the nobles standing before him, eadi ao^ 
<K>rding to his degree. The^hieft of the nobles standings 
within the red rati, and all the rest without, all being pfroK 
perly placed by the lieutenant-general. The spate v^ithht 
the red rail is three isteps higher dmn where the restistandy 
Had within this red rail I was {daoed ainong the diSefdit oF 
the land. All the re^ are placed in their ordei* by ofRc^rs^^ 
and they likewise are placed within another rail inf a spaci-^ 
6us place ; and without the rail istand all kinds bf horses 
ihen and foot-soldiers belonging to his captains, and ' aft 
cfth&^tomers. At these raits there are many^oofs kept by 
a grett number of porters, who have white rods to keep 
irerjr one in order. 

In the ihiddle of the place, right before the king, stafMW 
one 'of the king^s sheri£6 or judges^ togedier with the ehSef 
eiecuttbner, wno is attended by forty executiimers, distin>^ 
guished iVom all others by a peculiar kind of quilted eap# 
on {heir heads, some with hatchets on their shoulders, and 
elJiiers f^h all sorts of whips, ready to execute the^king'^ 
cdmman^;'^ Th^ king hears ril mantiet 6( tMs^ ihtnit 
place, staying about two hours every day for that purpos^^ 
for the kings in India sit in, judgment every day, and thek 
sentences are put in execution every Tuesday. 

After this he retires to his private chamber for prayer, 
when four or five kinds of finely-dressed ro»it meats are set 


iCfiAV* x.-ascr. w. Hn^lkk ^aU India Company. SJS 

before hiflfH- of which he eats till his stomach is satisfied^ 
drinkiag aA^r this meal one cup of strong drink. He then 
goes into a private room, into which no one enters but such 
as are named by himself, where for two years I was one of 
his attendants;, and here he drinks other five cups of 
strcmg liqoor, being the quantity allowed by his physicians. 
This dpnCf he chews ^ium, and .being intoxicated, he goes 
to sleep, and every one departs to his home. He is awa- 
kened after two hours to get his supper, at which time he 
la unable to feed himsdf, but has it thrust into his mouth 
by others, which is about one o'clock in the morning ; a& 
tar which be sleeps the rest of the night. 

During the time that he drinks his six cups of strong 
liquor, he says and does many idle things ; yet whatsoevec 
he does or says, whether drunk or sober, there are writers 
who atteiHi him in rotation, who set every thing down in 
writing;,; so that not a single incident of his life but is re- 
^rded, «vcn his going to the necessary, and when he lies 
with his wives. The purpose of all this is, that when he 
4ies all his actions and speeches that are wortliiy of being 
Recorded may be inserted ii;i the chronicle of his reign» 
One of the,> kincfs sons, Saltan Sfaariar, a boy of seven, 
years ok), was.coSed by.himone day when I was.there^ and' 
asked if be chose :tot accompany him to some place wher^ 
he was going for amusement. The boy answe]:ed he woul4 
either go or stay, as it pleased his majesty to comnuuid# 
Because he. had not said, that he would. go with all his 
heart alon^. with his majesty, he was sore beaten by the! 
kio(^ yet did not cry. The king therefore asked him, w)^r 
be cried not ? Because^ he said, his nurse had told ,hinir 
that it was the greatest possible shame for a prince to crj^ 
Ij^jx beaten ; and that ever since he had never crie^, and 
would not though beaten to death. On this his fathes 
struck him again, and taking a bodkin, thrust it through 
l^s cheek ; yet would he not cry, though he bled much. It 
was much wondered at by all that the king should so treat 
\fl& own child, and that the l>by was so stout-hearted as no); 
tp cry. There is great hopes that this child will exceed al 
fte rest. 


254 Soify yojf^o ^ihe fart it. BOom tit. 

Section VI. 

Observations of William Finely Merckani^ who arcompanied 
Captain itavokins to Surat, and returned overland to En^ 


This article is said by Purchas to have been abbreviated 
mit of the larger joartiai kept by Finch during his voyage 
to India and residence there, and seems a most useful sup- 
plement to the preceding section. Ming in many circam- 
fttanccs more full and satisfactory than the relation of Haw^ 
kins. In the Pilgrims of Purchas it does not fdlow the 
former relation, but that was owing to its not reaching hini 
in time, as is stated in the following note^ which is both cha^ 
ractcristic of that early collector ot voyages and travels, and 
of the observations of William Finch. 

^ This should 'hav« followed next after Master Hawking 
with whom William Finch went into the MogoUs country; 
if I then had had it. But better a good dish, though not 
in duest place of service, than not at all : Neither is he al« 
together born oiit of due time, which comes in due places 
while we are yet in India, and in time alflO» before the 
Mogoit afbtrS' received any latter access or better maturl* 
ty : And for that eircum^ance failing, you shall find it sop*^ 
plied in substance, with more accurate obscurations of men^ 
beasts, plants, cities, deseits, epistles, buildings, regions, re-^ 
Mgions, than almost any other; as sdso of ways, wares, and 
wars.**— JPtm:A«5. 


f U Remembrances retpetting Sierra Leonay in August 1607^ 
the Bay^ Govmtry, InhaManth Bites^ iy-trits, and Com-- 

The island, which we fell in with some ten leagues south 
from the bay of Sierra Leona, in lat. 8^ N. has no i^abitants;^ 


> Purcb. Pilg. I. 414. 

CHAiu X* 8KGT. Ti. Eff^sh Eo^ India Company. 159 

neithw ^id I loam its namc« It has some plantains, and^ 
by report, good watering and wooding for ships ; hot about 
a league from the shore there is a dangerous ledge of rock, 
acarcdy visible at high water. The bay of Sierra Leona is 
about three leagues broad) being high land on the south 
side^ full of trees to the very edge of the water, and having 
several coves, in which we caught plenty and variety oi 
fish. On the farther side of the fourth cove is the water-* 
ing place, having excellent water continually running. 
Here on the rocks we found the names of various English- 
men who had been there. Amtxig these was Sir Francis 
Drake, who had been there twenty^seven years betbre; 
Thomas Candish, Captain Lister, and others. About the 
middle of the bay, right out from the third cove^ lieth a 
sand, near about which there are not above two or three 
&thoms, but in most other parts eight or ten close in shore. 
The tide flows E.S.B. the highest water beuig six or eidit 
feet, and the tide is very strong. The latitude is 8* S(HN« 
The king of Sierra Leona resides at the bottom of the 
bay, and is called by tlie Moors Borea, or C^tain Caramy 
caran, varanj having other petty kings or chiefs under him ; 
one of whooH calwd Captain Pinto^ a wretched old man, 
dwells at a town within the second cove ; and on the other 
side of the bay is Captain Boloone. The dominions oi B^> 
rea stretch 40 leagues inland, from which he receives a tri-* 
bute in cottou-clotfa, elephants teeth, and gold; and. has 
the power of selling his people as slaves, some of whom be 
offered to us. Some of them have been converted to Chris^' 
tianity by the Portuguese priests and Jesuits, who have a 
chapel, in which is a table inscribed with the days that are 
to be observed as holy. The king and a few of his princi- 
pal attendants are decently clothed in jackets and breeches ; 
but the common people have only a slight cotton-cloth 
round th^r waists, while the women have a kind of short 
petticoat or apron down to their knees ; all the rest of their* 
bodies^ both men and women, being quite naked ; the young» 
people of both sexes having no dress whatever. All the> 
people^ both men and women, have all parte of their bodies 
very curiously and ingeniously traced and pinked £tatooed], 
and have their teeth med very sharp. They pull off all the 
hair from their eye-^lids. The men have their beards short» 
black, and cropped^ and the hair on their heads strangdy cut • 
iato crisped paths or cross alleys; while others wear tneirs 

356 Earfy Foyaga (ffthe fabt n. book in. 

in strati^ jagnfed tufts, or other fooikh forms ; the women's 
heads bein^ all close shaved. 

Their town contains not more than thirty or forty 
houses, aU irregularly clustered together, all thatched with 
reeds ; yet each has a kind of yard inclosed with mud walls, 
like our hovels or hog-styes in England. Instead of a lock* 
ed and bolted door, the entrance is only closed by a mat, 
having nothing to be stolen ; and for bedsteads they bare 
only a few billets covered by a mat ; yet some have hang- 
ings of mats, especially about their beds. Their furniture 
consists of two or three earthen pots to hold water, and to 
boil such provisions as they can get ; a gourd or two for 
palm-wine; half a gourd to serve as a drinking-cup; a few 
earthen ditches for their lohlolly or pottage ; a basket or two 
for the ntaria [wife], to gather cockles ; and a knapsack for 
the man, made of bark, to carry his provisions, with his 

Eipe and tobacco* When a negro man goes from home, 
e has always his knapsack on his back, in which he has his 
provittons and tobacco, his pipe being seldom from his 
mouth ; besides which, he has alwavs his do^little sword by 
his side, made by themselves of such iron as they get from 
the Europeans ; his bow also, and quiver full of poisoned 
arrows, pointed with iron like a snakeVtongue, or else a 
case of javelins or darts, having iron heads of good breadth 
and made sharp, sometimes both. 

The men of this country are large and well-made, strong 
and courageous, and of civilized manners for heathens; as 
they keep most faithfully to their wives, of whom they are 
not a little jealous. I could not learn their i«ligion ; for 
diough they have some idols, they seem to know that there 
is a God in heaven, as, when we asked them about their 
wooden puppets, they used to lift up their hands to heaven. 
All their children are circumcised, but I could not learn 
the reason why. They are verv just and true in their deal- 
ings, and theft is punished with instant death. When any 
one dies, a small thatched roof is erected over his bier, un- 
der which are set earthen pots kept always full of water, 
and some earthen plates with different kinds of food, a few 
bones being stuck up around the body. To the south of 
this bay, some thirty or forty leagues into the interior coun- 
try, there are very fierce people, who we cantbab, and 
sometimes infest the natives of Sierra Leona. 




258 Early Voyages of the - tam n. BooR'iif. 

full of liquor on his arm. Among their fruits are many 
kinds of plumbs'; one like a wheaten plumb is wholesome 
and savoury ; likewise a black one, as large as a horse plumbs \ 
which is much esteemed, and, has an aromatic flavour. A 
kind called 'mansamHIias^ resembling a wheaten pliimb, is 
very dangerous, as is likewise the sap of the boughs, which 
is perilous for the sight, if it should chance to get into the 
eyes.^ Among their fruits is one called beninganion^ about 
the size of a lemon, with a reddish rind, and very whole- 
some ; also another called Ae^f/i//, as large as an apple, with 
a rough knotty skin, which is pared off, when the pulp be- 
low eats like a strawberry, which likewise it resembles ia 
colour and grain^ and of which we eat many. There are 
abundance of wild grapes in the woods, but having a woody 
and bitterish taste. The nuts of the paknito are eaten roast- 
ed, lliey use but little pepper and grains^ the one in sur- 
gery and the other in cooking. There is a singular fruit. 
Sowing six or eight together in a bunch, each as .long and 
ick as one's finger, the skin being of a brovmish yellow 
colour, and somewhat downy, and within the rind is a pulp 
of a pleasant taste ; but I know not if it be whdesome. 

I observed in the woods certain trees like beeches, bear- 
ing fruit resembling beans, of \vhich I noticed three kinds. 
One of these was a great tall tree, bearing cods Kke those 
of beans, in each of which was four or five squarish beans^ 
resembling tamarind seeds, having hard shells, within 
which is a yellow kernel, which is a virulent poison, em- 
ployed by tne negroes to envenom their arrows. This they 
call Ogon. The second is smaller, having a crooked' pod 
with a thick rind, • six or seven inches long, and half that 
breadth, containing each five large beans an inch long. 
The third, called quenda^ has short leaves like the former, 
and much bigger fruit, growing on a strong thick woody 
stalk, indentea on the sides, nine inches long and five 
broad, within which are five long beans, whicn are also 
said to be danserous. I likewise saw trees resembling wil- 
lows, bearing miit like pease-cods. 

There is a fruit called Gola^ which grows in the interior. 
This fruit, which is inclosed in a shell, is hard, reddish, bit- 
ter, and about the size of a walnut, with many angles and 


^ Probably the Manchenteh'^^, 

citAi^« X. $KCT. Ti. Ei^^sh East India Con^afof. 259 

comers. The negroes are much .given' to chew this fruit 
aloi^ with the bwc'of a certain tree. After one person has 
chewed it a while^ he gives it to his neighbour, and so from 
one to another^ chewing it Icmg before they cast it away ; 
but swallowii^ none of its substance* They attribute great 
virtues to this for the teeth and gums; and indeed the no* 
groea have usually excellent teem. This fruit passes also 
among them for money.^ Higher within the land they cul- 
tiv^e cotton, which they call innumma^ and of which they 
spin very good yam with spindles, and afterwards very in* 
geniously weave into cloths, three quarters of a yard broad^ 
to make theijr girdles ar clouts formerly mentioned ; and. 
•when sewed together it is made into jackets and breeches 
for their great men. By means of a wood called camber 
they dye thdr purses and mats. of a red colour. 

The tree on which the plantaim grow is of considerable 
height^ its body being about the thidciiess of a man's thigh* 
It seems to be an annual plant, and, in my opinion, ought 
rather to be reckoned among reeds than trees ; forth^ stem 
is not of a woody substance, but is compacted of many 
leaves wrapped close upon each other, adorned with leaves 
from the very ground instead of boughs, which are.mostly 
two yards long and a yard broad, having a very large rib 
in the middle. The fruit is a bunch of ten or twelve pkuif- 
tains, each a span long, and as thick as a man's wrists 
somewhat crooked or bending inwards. These grow on a 
leafy stalk on the middle of the plant, being at first greeo> 
but grow yellbw and tender as. they ripen. Wh»i the rind 
is stripped off, the inner pulp is also yellowish and pleasant 
to the taste. Beneath the fruit hangs down, from the same 
stalk, a leafy sharp^pointed tuft, which seems to have been 
the flower. This fruit they call bannana^ which they have 
in reasonable abundance. They are. ripe in September and 
October. We carried some with us green, to sea, which 
were six weeks in ripening. Guinea pepper grows wild in 
the woods on a smaU plant like j>nW, having small slender 
leaves, the fruit being like our barberry in form and colour. 
It ia green at first, turning red as it ripens. It does not 
grow in bunches like our barberry^ but here and there two 
or three together about the stalk. They call it bangue^ 


Jq a $ide*Dote. Furchas calU this the fruit of the cardb tree* — £• , 

860 EMffy Fqjfogm ^ikH Buur ii« bqoc xxtp 

ThepeHif of which their famd n made, grovt oa a wmU 
tender herb reeembUog grttssy the stalk bring ai fall of small 
seeds, not mclosed in any husk. I tbiok it is the same which 
the Turks call cumcus, and the X\>rtiigiiese j^^mdc* 

The paimiio tree is high and straight^ ils bark .bdng 
knotty, and the wood of a soft substance KaTiagno boittha 
except at the top^ and these also seem rather feeds tbsn( 
boughs, being dl pith within, inclosed faj a bard rindL 
The leaf is long and slender, like that of a sword lilly, or 
^ag. Tlie boughs stand out firom the top of the tree on aB 
sides, rather more than a yard long, beset on both sid^ 
with strong sharp prickles, like saw-teeth> but k>nger» It 
bears a fruit like a small ooeoarnut,. the size of a chesnut, 
inclosed in a hard shell, streaked with thseads on .the out* 
side^ and containing a kernel of a. hard hortQr substance^ 
quite tasteless ; yet they are eaten roasted. Tho t£ee is 
called iobdU, and ihe fruit belt. For procuring the psJnoitO 
wine^ they cut off one of the branches within a span of the 
iiead, to which they fastai a gourd shell by the nioutl% 
whidi in twenty*<four hours is filled by a dear whitiA sap^ 
of a good and strong relish, with which the natives get 
drunk. The oysters formerly mentioned grow on trees re- 
sembling willows in fortn« but having bromler leaves,; which 
are thick hke leather, and bearing smdi knobs like tboae of 
the cypress. From these trees lumg down many branches 
into the water, each about the thickness of a walking^tii^ 
nmootb, limber, and pithy within, which are overflowed by 
every tide, and hang as thick as th^ oan stick of oysters, 
beinff the only fruit of this tree. 

' Tney have many kinds of ordinary fishes, and some 
nAiich seemed to us extraordinary ; as mullets, rays, thorn- 
badcs, old-wives with prominent brows, fishes Uke pikes, 
•gar-fish, c$t9Mi<» like mackerel^ sword-fishes, haiviag snouts 
a yard long, toothed on eadi side like a saw, sharks, dc^ 
flsn, diarkerSf resembling sharks^ but having a broad fiat 
snout like a shovel, shoe^makers, having peodeafts at each 
side of their mouths like Imrbels^ and whidi grunt like hogs, 
with many others. We once caught in an Imir .6000 fishes 
like bleaks. Of birds, there are pelicans as hurffe as swans, 
of a white colour, with long and large bills*. iSerons, cur- 
lews, boobiesj ox-eyes, and various other kinds of water- 
fowl. On land, great numbers of grey parrots, and abun- 
dance of pintados or Guinea fowls, whidi are very hurtful 


CHAP. %M : EngUA East India Company. 961, 

t0 Ibetr rioe i&rop^. There are soaby other kii^ds of strange 
hird^ in the woocb, of which I knew tkot the iiatnes ; and I 
saw ainc>Qg the Hegraes many porcupine quills. There are 
also great Qumbeirs of monkeys leafNiig about the trees^ and 
on me aaountai^^ there are lions, tigers^ and ounces« 
There are but few eI^)hantS) of which we only saw threes 
but they abound farther inland. The negroes told us of a 
strange beast, which our interpreter caUed a carbuuGlei 
which is said to be often seen, but only in the n%ht. Thi$ 
animal is said to carr^ a slone in his forehead, wonderfully 
ln]Binou9» giving him light by which to feed id the night ; 
and on hearing the slightest noise he presently concews ii 
with a skin or film naturally provided for the purposis* 
The commodities here are few, more being got farther to 
the eastwaras. At certain times of the year, the PortU)* 
guese get gold and elephants teeth in exchange for rice^ 
sall^ beads, bells, ffarlick, French bottles, copper kettksi 
k>w«>prioed knives, bats, linen like barber's aprons, latten 
basins, edge-took, bars of iron, and sundry kinds of speci* 
MS trinkets ; but they will not give gold for toys, oaly ei^* 
changing victuals for sudi things. 

<< This diligent observer hath taken like pains touching 
Saldanha bay : Bnt as we touch there often, and have al- 
ready giv^i many notioes of that place, we shall now double 
the Cape> and lake a view ak>n^ with him of Cape St Aur 

'ioicar, and 

I 2. Observatiom fnade, at St jhigusttMe in Madagi 

at the J$iand ^ Socotora. 

St Augustine, in the great island of St Lawrence or Mar 
dagascar, is rather a bay than a cape or point, as it has no 
)and much beaming out beyond the rest of the coast* It is 
in 2S*^ 30' & latitude, the variation here being \5^ 40, and 
may be easily founds as it has breaches ' on eiwer side some 
leagues off to the W.S. W. Bight from the bay to sea- 
Ward the water is very deq> ; but within the bay the ground 
Is so very shelvy, tihat you may have one anchor to the 


^ Probably tneaiuDgbre2^efs.-—E. 

262 Early Vc^ga of the TAWt n. BoiOK in, 

north in 22 fathoms, and your other anchor in more than 
60 ; ivhile in some places nearer shore you will not have 
two feet at low water, and deep water still &rther in ; the 
whole ground a soft obze. Within a mile or two of the 
bay the land is high^ barren, and full of rocks and stones, 
with many small woods. Two rivers run into the bottom 
of the bay, the land flbout them being low, sandy, and over« 
flowed ; and these rivers pour in so much water into the 
bay that their currents are never stemmed by the tide^ 
which yet rises two fathoms, by which the water in the bay 
is very thick and muddy. Great quantities of canes are 
brought down by these rivers, insomuch that we have seen 
abundance of them twenty or thirty leagues but at sea. 
This bay is open to a north-west wind, yet the force of the 
sea is broken by means of a ledge of rocks. We caught 
here smelts of a foot long, and shrimps ten inches : Ine 
best fishing is near the sandy shore off the low land, where 
the natives catch many with strong nets. Within the woods 
we found infinite numbers of water-melons growing on the 
low lands, which yielded us good refreshment. But w& had 
nothing from the rivers, except that one of our men was 
hurt by an alligator. The water also was none of the best ; 
but wiB got wood in plenty. 

This place did not seem populous, as we never saw above 
twenty natives at any one time. The men were comely, 
i^out, tall, and well-made, of a tawny colour, wearing no 
doathing excepting a girdle or short apron made of rind 
of trees. Their beards were black and reasonably long ; 
and the hair of their heads likewise black and long, plaited 
and frizzled veiy curiously ; neither had their bodies any 
bad smell. They carry many trinkets fastened to their 
girdles, adorned with alligators teeth, some of them being 
hollow, in which they carry tallow to ke^p their darts 
bright, which are their chief weapons, and of which each 
man carries a small bundle, together with a fair lance, ar^ 
tificially headed with iron, and kept as bright as silver* 
Their darts are of a very formidable and dangerous shape, 
barbed on both sides ; and each man carries a dagger like 
a butcher's knife, very well made. They therefore showed 
no regard for iron, and would not barter their commodities 
for any thing but silver, in which we paid twelve-pence for 
a sheep, and 3s. 6d. for a cow. They asked beads into the 
t)arga3n, for wl^Jch alone they would giv^ nothing except ^ 

CHAP. X* SECT. vZi EttgUsh Ea$i India Company. 26S 

lilde rnilk^ which tib.«7 brought down very sweet and good 
in gourds. 

Their cattle have great bunches on tlieir (ore-shoulders^ 
in size and shape like sugar-loaves, which are of a gristly 
substance and excellent eating. Their beef is not loose and 
flabby h'ke that at Saldhana, but firm and good, little dif- 
fering fjcom that of England. Their mutton also is excel- 
lent, their sheep having tails weighing 28 pounds es^ch, 
which therefore are mostly cut off. from the ewes, not to ob- 
struct propagation. In the woods near the river there are 
great numbers of monkeys of an ash-colour witi) a small 
head, having a long tail like a fox, ringed or barred with 
black and white, the fur being very fine.' We shot some 
of these, not being able to take any of them alive. There 
are bats also, as large almost in the bodies as rabbits, head- 
^ like a fox, having a close fur, and in other respects re- 
sembling bats, having a loud shrill cry. We kUled one 
whose wings extended a full yard* There are plepty of 
iherons, white^ black, .blue, and .divers mixed colours ; with 
insmy bastard hawks, and other birds of an infinite variety 
of kipds and colours, most having crests on their heads like 
|]^acocks» Thpre are great: store of lizards and camelions 
also, which agree in the description given by Pliny, pnly it 
is not true' that they live on air without other food ; for ha- 
ving kept one on board for only a day, we could perceive 
him to catch flies in a very strange manner. On perceiving 
a fly sitting, he suddenly darts out something from his 
mouth, perhaps his tongue, very loathsome to behold, and 
almost like a bird-bolt, with which he catches and eats the 
flies with such speed, even in the twinkling of an eye^ that 
one can hardly discern the action. In the hills there are 
many spiders on the trees, which spin webs from ti^ee to 
tree of very strong and excellent silk of a yellow colour, as 
if dyed by art. I found also hanging on the trees, great 
worms hke our grubs with many legs, inclosed within a 
double cod of white silk. 

There grows here great store of the herb producing 
aloes, and also tamarind trees by the water sjde. Here also 
is great abundance of a strange plant which 1 deem a wild 
species of coco|i-nut, seldom growing to the height of a 


f Called the beautiful beast in Kceling's voyage, — Turch* 

864 Eurbji f^oifOges oftke.\ mbt n. book itK 

lt«e» bat of a fthriibby natbr^ ^lith many kmg prieUy etafloi 
some two yards long. At the end of each fooMtalk ia i^ 
leaf about the size of a great cabbage-lc«^ snipt half found 
like a swotd^-grass. From the tops of ^s plant, amon^ the 
4eaves» there roring out many wooc^ branches, as thick set 
'^h ftiiit as^tbey can stand) sometimes forty of them chii^ 
tering together on one branch. These arb abcmt the sise 
of a great katharme pear ; at the first greenish^ and thape^ 
Inmost like a sheep's bell, with a smiooth rind flat at top ^ 
within which rind is a hard substance ahnost like a ^owO^ 
tent shellf and withui that is a white round hollow kernel of ^ 
gristly consistence^ yet eatable^ and in the central hoUow 
Hbont a spoonful of cool sweet liquor, like eocoa^nut milk. 
There is another tree^ as big as a pear-tree, thidc set witii 
boughs and leaves resembling those of the bay, betoing si 
lafge globular (Vutt like a ^eat foot-ball, hangfaig by a 
strong 8talk< The rind is divided by seams into tour quar^ 
tei% and being cut green, yields a damm}^ stdistance i^ 
terpentine. The rind is very thick, consisting of ditrorlii 
layers d a brotrn substance uke agario^ btit hikrder, mA 
^contains thirteen cells, in each of which is contained a. 
large kernel of a dirty white colour, hard^ bitter, and il^ 

In Soopidra^ the natives of Gru2erat and the EngliA 
%tiiid Uuemselves slight stone^houses, with pieces of wood 
laid across and covered with reeds and branches of the date 
palm, merely to keep out the sun, as th^ fear no rain dn-. 
Ting the season of residing here. The stones are easUy 
procured for this purpose, as the iitrhole island so^ns almost 
^othkig but stones ; yet about the head of the river, and a 
mile farther inland, there is a pleasant valley replenished 
<with date trees. On the east side of this vale is a smaU 
town called JDi&n^e, very fittle inhabited except in the dato 
baj^Vest. In the months of June and July the wind blows 
•in this valley with astonishing violence ; yet only a short 
gun-shot off towards the town of DetiduL^ OVer against the 
road where the ships ride, there is hardly diere a oreath of 
-wind. About 100 year^ ago [1500] this island w«is con- 

^' In his abbreviation of Finch's observations^ Purchas has not dearlj 
(listiDguished where those respecting Madagascar end, and those made 
at Socotora begins— E. 

CttikF. X* 8ECrr« Tii^ En^HA Batt India CQ)inpam/. %6i 

^pi^i^ by the King^ of OnreMf or Oiudi0iii» da the Arabi 
pl^obimee it, a BOlwrelgn of no great foro^^ as his army 
doe* not ekoeed two or thr^ moiisatid scddier^. Besidei 
Sdeecora, dih kiw has likewise th& two Irmdnas and ^6M 
4lW C^rtd. The M^manoi, or Two Brethnen, ate small un« 
IfibabitlMi stony and barren isles^ having notbisg bat turtles* 
jlbbaiekl Curia is lai^, having ^reat abilnda^uce of goat% 
imd tom^ fresh watisr, but not above three qr finir inhabit^ 
^m% w^ we were ttf id. Amer Benzaid, sdn to^ the King of 
Iflitifmi, reMm «t Soootora^. whitah he rujee nhder hie fa^ 
dtt^f. He trades to Ae Cooiora islands and to Melinda^ for 
y^MA he has two good frigatee^^ in which riee and frteUo 
CttoUet] 4akire broaght froiti the maia> beii^ 'dieir chief 

• ^ASl the Alrabs in this iidand are. soldiers, a maa'- 
^r staves to the inakee ot prince^ whom diey attend and 
10bey ftU hto odmoiftiidc^ sbmB few of them having fire-^annSb 
^Vefy ime of tfaian wean a crooked dagger at his left side^ 
19tea wood-outtet^^ knifed withoot which they must not be 
Men abrMd. They have also thin broad targets, painted. 
-The dagMr4iiUid}es aBd sheaths of thebetter sort are on^ 
loatnenteo with sSiwr, and those.of the ordinary peojdo with 
copper or red latten.' These Arabs are tavmy, indiistrion% 
nbd dvil, of gobd statilre^ atid. well^prc^rtioned in their 
littibs^ having their hair long, and covered with turbans like 
thl$ TurifiS, and a doth round their waist hanging to thehr 
ioiees ; having seldom any other apparel, except sometinles 
aioidais on tneir fiiet &stened with thongs. They either 
•^arry their sword BMked on theix shoulder, or hanging si 
ttieir side in a sheath. They ane fbnd of tobacco, yet are 
fmwiUikig Uvgive any thing for it. Some of them wear a 
doth of painted calico, or some odier kind, over their 
shoulders, after the fashion of an Irish mantle or plaid ; 
^hile ddi^s have shirts and siBtpHces, or wide sowns, of 
-irhite calico, and a f<9w hare linen breeches like me Quae* 
Mts. Sotne of l^eir women are tolerably &ir and hand«- 
BOitoe, like our snn4>umt countfy girls in England ; and 


' ^ It btt been ibf merly. no^eed» thst/r%a^ef , in these earlj navignton, 
"were/Qnly small burks* in of^Mwition to tall ships, gaileoos, and caraks : 
•These frigates, and those frequently mentioned as belonging to the Por- 
tuguese and Moors m India at this time, ctiuld only be grabs, or open 
'sewed^'vessdsi dineadyfreqnently mentioned in the course of this eoUee- 
tiea.— £• 

9,66 Early Voyages of the paet ti. book £9* 

they are all dressed in long wide smocks dowii 'to the 
ground, made of red, blue, or black calico, having a 'ek)dL 
over their heads, with whidi they usually hide their fac^s^ 
being very dainty to let themselves be seen^yet are scarcely 
honest. Though the men be very poor, and have hardly 
enough to serve their needs, yet their women, of whom 
some men have four, five, or sia, are much laden with sil* 
ver ornaments, and some with gold. I have seen one, not 
of the best, who had in each ear at least a dozen gr^ sil* 
▼er rings, ahnostlike curtain rings, with as maoy of a small- 
er kind ; two carkanets or chains of silrer about, her peck, 
and one of gold bosses; ten or twrive silver mamllias or 
bracelets on each arm, each as thick. as a }ittle-&iger, but 
hollow; almost every finger covered with rings, and the 
small of her legs covered with silver rings Hke, horseif^tters* 
In all these ornaments they jingle like morrice-dancers ob 
ihe slightest motion. They are, however, seldom sd^n, be** 
ing kept very close by their je^ous husbands^ They de- 
light in beads of amber, crystal, and coral; but, having 
little wherewith: to buy them, they either beg them, or deiu 
for them privately. The children, except those of the bet- 
ter sort, usually go entirely naked till of some age. . They 
are married at ten or twelve years old. 

They call themselves nuissu/merif that is, truei believers in 
the faith of Mahomet; and they allcdge this reason tor 
themselves, that all the world are of their religion, and only 
a handfiil of ours. They eat their meat on mats, spread on 
the ground, using their hands in a very unmannerly &shiont 
having neither spoons, knives, nor forks. Their usual drink 
is water, yet do they drink wine in private when they can 
get it; and they make at the proper season some wine of 
dates, which is strong and pleasant. 

So much for the Arab conquerors of Socotora. They 
call the native inhabitants, whom they have conquerec^ 
cqfrSf or misbelievers, or heretics, if you will, who are sub- 
jected to slavery, except some who live in the mountains in 
a kind of savage liberty like wild beasts; those who live ua^ 
der subjection to the Arabs not being allowed to carry wea- 
pons of any kind. These are well-shaped, but much dark- 
er than the Arabs, wearing nothing on their heads but their 
long hair, which seems to be never cut, and staring all round 
as if frightened. They have a coarse cloth of goats hair 
.woven by themselves about their middles, and slight sau- 


GBOiV. X.' SECT. vr. English East India Company. 267 

dais on their feet^ The ivx)men are all dressed in smocks 
of coloured calico or other coarse stuff, hanging to their 
feet, having seldom any thing on their heads ; but, in imi- 
tation of the Arab women, they have maniliias of iron or 
painted earthen ware about their legs and arms, and strings 
of beads instead: of carkanets about their necks, painting 
their 'faees with yeUow and black spots in a frightful man* 
ner.. According to the report of the Arabs, they are all 
I9ere heathens^ observing no marriage rites, but have their 
women in conimon. ' Their native language is quite differ- 
ent from Arabic^* which however most of them understand; 
They live very miserably,, many of them being famished 
with hunger. They are not permitted to kill any fiedi, so 
that liiey are forced to live on such Bsh «3 they can catch 
in the sea^^ and: what dates diey may procure, having no 
mearis* to purchajsc rice, eitcept by means of their women 
prostituting themselves to the Ouzerats when they reside 
here. Such as aire employed to keep the cattle belonging 
to the Arabs maintain themselves on milk. 
' I CQuM not learn of any merchandize produced in this 
island, exqept aloes and dragon's blood ; and some black 
<amber^ris is said to be got on the shores of jibba del Cu" 
ria. They could make, in my opinion^ more aloes dian could 
l>e used in all Christendom, as the plant from which it is 
procured grows every where in great abundance, being no 
other than the semper vivum of Dioscorides, with whose de- 
scription it agrees in seed, stalk, &c. It is ail of the red 
priddy sort, much chamferred : in the leaves, and so full of 
Tesinous juice as to be. ready to burst. The chief time of 
preparing the aloes is in September, when the north .winds 
rblow, after the fall of some rain. Being gathered, it is cut 
in small pieces, and cast into a pit in the ground, which is 
paved and cleaned from all filth. It lies here to ferment in 
•the heat of the sun, which causes the juice to flow out ; 
which is put into skins that are hung up in the wind to dry 
and grow hard. They sold it to us for twenty rykls the 
quintal, or 103 pounds £ngUsh ; but we were told after* 
5wards that they sold it to others for twelve, which may very 
9¥ell be, considering its abundance, and the ease with which 
it is made. The date tree produces ripe fruit twice a-year, 
ione harvest being in July while we were there. Dates are 
a principal part of their sustenance, being very pleasant in 
|:aste.' When thoroughly ripe, the dates are laid in a heap 


26B Marfy foyaga of the part ii. book iii« 

•n a sloping skin» whence runs a liquor into eJEurthea pots 
aet in the earth to reoeive it This is their date winei wi& 
"which they sometimes get drunk* When thus drained, the 
atones are taken ottt» and the dates are padced up very hard 
in duns, in which they will keep a long time. They somcf 
times gather them be&re they are completely ripe, and dry 
ihem after taking out the stones. These are the best of all^^ 
and eat as if they were candied. They will not keep whole* 
In ^very valley where dates ffrow, the king has a deputy dtt« 
ring the harvest, who sees w gathered and brought to aa 
appointed places no ope daring to touch i^ dito on pain of 
death without order^ or other severe punishment After alf 
are gathered, the deputy divides the produce in three equal 
parts; one fot the king, one for the Arabs, and one for the 
Cifrs ; which are distributed, but not alike to each. 

Soootora has abundance of dvet cats,' which are taken 
in traps in the mountains by the cafrs, who sell them for 
twelve-pence each. Flesh is dear in this island ; a oow 
costing ten dollars, and one goat or two ^heep a dollar^ 
Their cattle have good firm and fat beef, like those in Eng- 
land. The goatsiare large^ and have good flesh; and the 
sheep are small with coai'se wool. The goats and she^ 
are very abundant They make very good butter, but it is 
always soft like cream, and is sold for four«-pence or six-^nce 
a pound. Goat's milk may be bought for three-pence the 
quart. Plenty of hens may be had, at the rate of five for 
a dollar, or about twelve-pence each. In the whole island 
there are not above two or three small horses of the Arab 
breeds and a few camels. At DelUha they take great quan«> 
titifss of lobsters and other good fish. A few cotton plants 
are found growing on the strand; where likewise th^re 
grows among the stones a shrubby plant, having lar^ thick 
round green leaves, as bi^ as a shilling, with a fruit like ca*^ 
pers^ of which it is a kind, called escbac, and is eaten in sal*^ 
lads. Oranges are scarce and dear. There is venr fine 
sweet bazil. On the shore, many fine shells are mundt 
mixed with cuttle-fish bones^ and vast quantities of pearl-- 
oyster shells, which the people say are driven thither by the 


^ The Civet, or Vierra Civetta of natiiiBliBts, is an animal someirhat 
allied to the weazel ; but the genus is peculiarly distinguished foy an^ ori- 
fice or folicle beneath the anus, containing an unctuous odorant matter^ 
highly fetid in most of the species *, but in this and the ^ibet the produce 
is a rich perftune, much esteemed in the east-^-E* 

€9rAr« X* axcT* YXft EnglUh Ea$t India Company. 96S 

windfif and waves, as no pearl-oysters are to be found h^re^ 
about The people are very poor, and rank beggars, who 
buy what thejr are aUle and beg all they can g^U yet are 
honest and give civil usage* Tqejr best entertainment is a 
qhina di$h ofaoho, a black bitterish drink, niade of a bei:'7y 
like that of the bay tree^ whi^b is broudbt from -Mecca* 
This drink is sipped hot, and is good lox the bead and 

At our first landing ki So<^ora, tba peofrfe all fled from 
VB for fear into the mountaii^s, having formerly rec^ved in^ 
jurious treatment from the Portuguese^ who they said bad 
carried off some of them forcibly* Their town which they 
)eft, is all built of stone covered with spars and palm bran«- 
ches, widi wooden door^, and very ingenioun wooden locksr 
!Near the sea-side stands their church, enclosed by a vaJl 
like that <^ a church-yard, having within a couple of crosrai^ 
and an altar, on which laj firimkincense, with 9weet wood 
and gums. When we first got speech of them, they pft«> 
tended this was Abba del Cutia^ and not l^ocotc^ which 
we afterwards found to b^ &l9e. We walked up two w 
three miles into the country, not seeing a single pile of 
green gras9» but many di^te treesi We saw one ^tx very 
atrange tree or plant, something more than the height of a 
man, very thick at the root, and tapering upwards almost 
to a point* The trunk was very smooth and without bark^ 
0nd near the top some long branches without leaves^ beaxv 
ing reddish flowers, which change afterwards to a firuit not 
'limike the date in form and siae, which is at fijnst green. It 
contains many small whitish kernels, which as well as tbe 
branches are very bitter, and full of a resinous substance* 
We also saw another church having a cross on its top.^ 

§ 3. Oc^urrence$ in India^ rtspectim the EnglUh, Dufchj 

Poriuguese, and Mogub. 

. Tlie 28th August, 1608, CapUin Hawkins, with the mer- 
chants and some others landed at Surat. He was received 
into a coach and carried before the daxvne^ [or dewan.] We 


' This Coho of Finch is evidently ooflfee.*— £. 

^ Of this chnrch and the whole iskmd, see the voyage of Joan da Cas- 
tra For, in times past^ tbe natives were Christians ; whioh» as all others 
not of Cbdr faith, the Mahometans caU tttfrs. Being nuie and brutisli, 
the/ were the easier prey to the Arab& — PurcL 

27Q Earlg Voyages of ike PAvr if. bcm» itg^ 

had very poor lodgings allotted to ns, being only the porter?^ 
lodge of the custom-house; where nelct morning the cos* 
tomers came and tumbled about oar tronks to oar great 
displeasurci though we had only brought our necessaries 
on shore. We were invited to dinner by a merchant, who 
gave us good chear, but we had sour saqce to our banquet^ 
for he was the person who had sustained almost the miole 
loss in the ship taken by Sir Edward Michelburlie. The 
captain also of that ship dined with us. When diat affiur 
was told us, our captain said he had never heard of anj 
such matter, and supposed it must have been done by a. 
Hollander ; but they affirmed it was to their certain know* 
ledge an English ship, and deplored their hard fortaoes, 
affirming there were thieves of all nations, yet they were 
not disposed to impute that fault to honest merchants. This 
liberal sentiment somewhat revived us ; and we were invi- 
ted the day after to supper by Mede Colee, the captain of 
that ship. 

The t^d October we embarked our goods and provisions, 
gave a present to Schekh Jbdel-rehdme, and got a dispatch 
for our departure ; but the customers refused a licence tiU 
they should search our ship, yet meeting with some fiigates 
in their own river, which they suppose to be MalabarS) 
they durst not venture down to our ship. These fr^tes 
[grabs] were Portuguese, who desired that no one should 
come to talk with them ; yet Mr Buck rashly went on board 
and was detained. ' 

At this time I was ill of the bloody flux, of which Mr 
Dorchester died, but I was cured under God by an Eng- 
lishman, named Careless.* From him I learnt many thii^ 
respecting India ; and particularly of the great spoil done 
by the Hollanders to the Portugals at Malacca the last 
year. The Hollanders were lying before Malacca with six- 
teen ships, besieging that place by sea and land, in conjunc- 
tion with several native kings, when news were sent to ihe 
Portuguese viceroy, then before Acheai with all the gallants 
of India, having with him a very great fleet of ships, gal»- 


' At this place is given a confused relation of several incidents at Su- 
rat, obviously garbled and abbreviated by Purchais, so as to be difficultly 
intelbgibte/ As these are already contained in the journal of Hawkins^ 
they are here otnitted. — E. 

^ He seems to have been resident in Surat ; but the particulacs are 
emitted by PurcliaSt—Ev 

€BAi^« X. sscfT. Ti. English Ea$t India Company. £71 

fies, and' frigateS) with 4000 soldiers, having been com- 
manded to conquer Acheen and to build a casUe there, and 
afterwards to plunder Johor, and to chastise the Mohiccas 
for 'trading with the Hollanders. Upon notice from An- 
drea Hurtado, who then commanded at Malacca, of the dis- 
tress to which that place was reduced, the viceroy set sail 
from Acheen to attack the Hollanders. The Dutch gene- 
ral got timely notice of his motions^ and having re-embark- 
ed h^ men and artillery, went forth to meet the viceroy. 
After a long and bloody fi^ht, the Diitch had to draw oiF 
to stop the leaks of their admiral ; on which the Portuguese 
let slip the opportunity, and fell to rioting and merriment, 
with great boasts of their victory, not looking any more for 
the HoHanders. But they, having stopped their leaks and 
refitted at Johor, came unexpectedly on the Portuguese, 
most of whom were feasting ashore, and sunk and burnt alt 
their ships ; insomuch, if the viceroy had not previously 
detached six ships on some other service, the Portuguese lia- 
Tal power in India had been all utterly destroyied. After this^ 
the Portuguese in Malacca were infected by a heavy sick- 
ness, in which most of them died, among whom was the 
viceroy, smd the governor of Manilla, who had brought a 
reinforcement of 2000 Spanish troops, so that their power 
was laid in the dust. 

This year a new viceroy was expected from Portugal with 
a strong fleet, to drive the Hollanders out of India. This 
£eet consisted of nine ships of war, and six others fortrade ; 
which wer6 all separated in the gulf of Guinea, and never 
met again afterwards. Two of them came to Mosambique, 
where they were fired by the Hollanders, who likewise much 
distressed the castle^ but could not take it ; and the season 
requiring their departure, they set sail for Goa, being fif- 
teen ships and a pinnace, where they rode at the bar, de- 
fying the great Captain Hurtado, who durst not meet them. 
Another of the Portuguese commercial ships, having advice 
that the Dutch lay ofi Goa, went to the northwards, where 
they landed their money and goods, and set their ship on 
fire, and the soldiers fell together by the ears for sharing 
the money. The Dutch fleet, leaving Goa, sailed all along 
the Malabar coast, plundering and burning every thing 
they could meet, and it was reported they had leave from 
the Samorin to build a castle at Chaul.^ 


^ This must be an error, as the country of the Samorin, at Calicut, is 

HiQ 1st of Pebni9iy» 1609^ iiiir t9ifkm% Mr. Hnwkjwy 

departed from Sur^ti with an etoovtof fi^peemandiMMM 
Iiorse. About this time there was a groftt ^tir riaw^ th# 
queeQ mother's ship, whiqh was to be Iftd^n for Mooha,^ 
The Portuguese fleet of twealy-two iVigates.tbw rode off 
the bar of Suratf ^id demmdodi 00,000 mamudleB io^ bar 
pass, and at last agreed to tal^e somewhat osipnei than lOOQ 
dollars, with suudry presents, which the Moguls weite forced 
to give them. At this time Mucrob Khan gava me &if 
words, but the devil was in his heart, fer he minded mt 
thing le^s than payment of bis debts, striking off i 7,000 
from 41,000 to which our ^counts extended* Jkl last jie 
ipive rm his cheet for a part, though with great abftlemfliol% 
which I w^ glad to get, asteeming it b^ter tp seeure some 
iban lose all. In the beginning of April \ was sei^ wteb 
1^ burning fev^r, of which I recovered by Joatng s great deal 
pf blood» ^d ten days fasting, And pa the fever MTing me 
I was tormented vith misemble stitches. KeiLt meotk sdsa 
) had another severe fever. 

The 12th May, news came that Makk .Ambfir^ King of 
the Deccan, had besi^cd AurdanagUr^ ynill^ Sg^OOOJhpraef 
which place bad been tbo metropoUs of the Deecan» for*^ 
pierhr <?onquerad by Akbar ; and that, after several asMiItsi 
the Moguls had offered to surrender the eftj^ ^i ccNoditiea 
lliat he would withdri^w his axmy &ur iir five cou^ from the 
city, that they might reniQve with bag and ba^Bwce in soif 
curity. This being done» tbey issued out with aU tneir&r^ 
ces, and making an unejcpadbd assatik ceo the m^ovided 
enemy) gave them a total defeat with great slaughter^ Aa 
it was &£^'ed that Malek Amber might revenue tbia defeat 
upon the pther p^rts of the eonntry, lie Khan-Khana mised 
numerous . forees, and d^nanded 800,000 mamudics^ tc^ 

. wards 

in the poutb of lifo]abar» anil Chaul is far to the noftfa in tiie 
— E. 

^ Mecca is probably h^re meant; tbi^ sbip being deslbied to p^rrgf tb^ 
Mogul pilgrivs. The queen mother of tbe Moguli, mother to |he re^gnr* 
ing emperor. — B. 

^ Prabsbly a oarraptbn (of Aunii^9abad.*-4L .- - 

^ In this snd other esHy vpypges, tbe (wt is aluefv papisd mtnt^ U 
Is rated by Pun;b«is st a mile au<i a half Kag^isH, Tber^ arf two pt m mf 
the HindooBtsnee, and the Riyeput, tbe foimer beifijg 44£ to a d^gree^ 
and the latter 38. The Hindoostaneeis equal to 1.56/ and the Rajeput 
coss to 2.18 English miles. — £. 

^ This demand is inexplicable^ as it is no where stated of whom it was 

OlAAt X* fiQcr. Ti^' Engtish East Iv^a Cdmpany. ^^S 

WBidft tlbe charges, sendtng ofao an experienced Deccati 
letder to govern the city. 

Tke £Olh Julys Shah Selim, the great Mogul, command** 
cd bb generally Khan*Khana and Hajafa Manning, two 
gnat oomfluiBders, to inrade and conquer all the kingdoma 
of theaonth to Cape Comorki, for which purpose a prodi« 
gioiis army was afsembled. In order to resist this inva<» 
sion^ the tliree great kings of the south combined their 
troops, making head near Bramporif [Burhampoor or Booivi 
hanpoory] on the Mogul frontiers, where both armies were 
in camp^ waiting the end of winter. These three kings^ 
Malek Amber, Kii^ of the Deocui, whose chief cit^ ia 
Gtu^tBi^ the King of Viaiapour) and the King of 6ol^ 
eoncB^ whose dbief ci^ is Bragtmadar»^ 

In August^ I received a flyii^ report of an Englii^ pin* 
naeebeing on the coast at Ganaofoe*^ [GitndaveeJ which 
on departing from thence, was forced in again by three Por-^ 
taguese frigates. I si^iposed this might bdong to some of 
our ahipping, which, standing for Sqcotora, had not been 
able to fetch t^at plaoe^ and had been forced to this coasts 
This was actually the case, as the pinnace belonged to the 
Ascension, manned by the master, John Elmer, with five 
roai and two boys, and was in want of wood and water. 
Ilie master and four of his company came to Sucat on the 
S8th of August ; but I had much ado to get leave to bring 
them into the town, as the people pretended we were merely 
allowed to trade. The truth was, they stood in fear of the 
Portuguese, and detained tkese m^i till they should send 
for instructions to the nabob, who was at the distance of 
four coss. What was still worsen five Portuguese frigates 
or grabs went into the Gundavee river and captured our 
pinnace, weighing up its two fidcons," which bad been 
thrown overboarcL We received worse news on the 5th 
September, the Ascension having been cast away ; and next 

voi«. VIII. s day 

demanded ; Besides, the sum, only ^15,000, is quite inadequate for thft 
naintenanoe of numerous forces.->£. 

< This aaroe is so inexplicably €orrupt as not even to admit of cot^je^ 
tiiral ome|M|niwt->*-£. 

^ This name 49 in the same unintelligible predicament with Genefro. 

*^ Gundavee» a small river about 20 miles south of the Taptee, or ri- 
ver of Snrat«— £. 

'' Smallcsonoaofabout two libs, ball— & 


274 Early Voyages of the part ii. book tm 

day about serenty of her company who i?€re saved Came to 
Surat, whom the people of the town obliged to remain oot^ 
side of the walls among tlie trees and tombs. I was not 
even able to procure leave for the general himself to enter 
the city, though he brought letters of recommendatioairom 
Mocha, besides letters for the great Moffid from the King 
di England. Such '%&s tfadr fear of the Portugueses in 
whose names two jeftttiCS'threatcsiedfure^ iisiggotSy and- utter 
desolation^ if any more English were reoeived. AU I could 
do for them was sending them necessary provisions, and 
carrying them to the iank^ where diey were more conrvoii* 
ently lodged, yet still among the tombs; At leDgtk the go- 
vernor appointed them better lodgii^, at a msidi'alditt two 
coss from Surat ; and with much difficulty I obtainedJesve 
for Mr Riveti Mr Jordan^ and the surgeon to come to Su« 
l^t, to provide necessaries fer the rest* I had other troa^ 
ble, occasioned by the disorderiy and riotous conduct of 
some of the Ascension's people; mx^re especially owing to 
one William Tucker, who when in lupior killed a calf, a 
crime held worse than murdering a man among the Ba^** 
ans. I was therefore glad of their departure for. Agra, ex- 
cept fifteen who were sick and unwilling to go so &r, and 
some who returned again; 

' The 6th of October, came letters ftma' Mr Hawkins, in- 
forming us that he had married an Armenian woman ; and 
other leiters at the end of next month, deriring me to go up 
to Agra. In December we were in much fear of Bodur, a 
descendant of the Kings of Cambaya, who lay within two 
days march of Surat, with 600 horse and many foot. 
Owing to this, the governor cessed all the inhabitants ac- 
cording to their abilities, with the lodgement and enter- 
tainment <^ soldiers, radng me at ten men. I went imme- 
diately to wait upon him, and told him that I had twenty 
English at his service^ for which he tanked me^ and freed 
me of all farther charges. The Banians were forced to la^ 
bour hard to t)arricade all the streets of the city, great 
guards were stationed at the gates, apd some cannon were 
drawn from the caistle. A reinibrcement of fifty horse wa^ 
sent from the garrison of Carode^^* which had been very in- 
sufficient to protect the tpwn ; but the governor of Aome- 
dabad sent 1000 horse and £000 loot 'to our succour, on. 


'* Currode is a small place about 12 miles S SJB. from Surat.— £. 

fttAT; Xa 6EGT, vi- Ef^isk East India Company. 21 B 

whidi Bador ^tfadremr to his strong-holds* Two years be- 
tote durarrivai, thi* chief had sadced Cambay, of which his 
grandfather bad be^ king.: The iSth January, 1610, I 
went from Sarat on< my way to Agra ; but it is proper I 
should give here some account of Surat. 
' This city starids about twenty miies £pom the sea, on the 
bank of a fair river, [the Tapieey'] of considerable 
8106^ with many good hoaseabelo^giiig toroerchaots. About 
three' miles from tbe^ mouth of .the river, where on the south 
side is a small low island overflowed in .the rainy season, is 
the bar where ships load and uuloadt having three &thoms. 
water at spring tides; '^ and above this is a fair channel all 
thewfcjr totheeity, capable of xecoving loaded vessels of 
t^y tons. This river entenda upwards tobeypnd Brant'- 
port, [Boorhaapoor ;] and from thence^ as some say, all the 
way to Mtasel Patenu*^ In ccMaaing tip tlie river, the castle 
of Sttrat is on the right hand or south side of the river, be«^ 
ing moderately larger handsome, well walled, and surround- 
ed by a ditch. The ramparts are provided with many good 
cannons, some of which are of vast siee. . It has one gate on 
the inland side with a draw^'bridge, and a small postern to 
the riven The captain of this castle has a ^rrison of 200 
horse. In front of the castle is the Medon^ [Meidan, or. es- 
planade,] being a pleasant green, havine a may-pole in the 
middle, on. which wey hang a light and other decorations 
on great festivals. On this side, the city of Surat is open 
4o the green, but is fenced on all other sides by a ditch and 
ttuck hedges, having three gates, one of which leads to Va^ 
fiaw, a small village at the ford of the Taptee leading to 
Gambay. Near this village on the left hand is a small 
aidea, pleasantly situated on the bank of the river, where is 
a* great pi^^a much resorted to by the Indians. A second 
gate le»ds to Boorhanpoor; and a third to Nomari/^'^^ a 
town ten coss from Surat, where much calico is manufao* 
Hured, standing hear a fiiie stream or small river. About 
ton coss.ferther in the same direciion is Gondorte, i^Gunda- 
voe^] and a little further Belsaca^ [Bulsaur,] the frontier, 
town towards Damaun. * Just without Nunsaty gate is a 


'' This depth probably refers to the anchora^^e below the bar.<^£. 

'^ Masulipataoiy or, more correctly, Mutshelipatoam, is at the mouth of 
the Kistna, on the opposite coast of India. — £. 

" Nunsary is a small river, with a town of the same name, 16 or 18 
miles south of the Taptee.— £. 

976 Earfy Voyaga f^tlic pjirt u..boox nu 

handsoine tank (^ sixto^ aides, turroonded on all aides bjr 
atone atepa, tliree quartera of an English mile in circoit, md 
haying a mail bouse in the middle. On the fiuther «de 
of ^ tank ore several fine tombs vith a haodaome paved 
court, behind which is a small groye of Mangp treeSf to 
irfiich the eitiaens resort to baa^iet. About half a coss be- 
yond this, it a great tree much venerated by the Banians; 
who oliec^fe that it is nndes tho protection of a dew, or guar* 
dian spirit, and that akhoiigh often cut down and grwb«d 
up from the roots by order of the Moors, it has yet oon* 
stantly sprung up again. 

Near the oastk of Surat is the AJfhandica, where am 
stairs down to the river for landii^ and shipping goodie* 
and within the alphandica are store-nx)ins for keeping 
goods till they are cleared ; the customs being two wd a 
half per centum for goods^ three for provisions, and two for 
money. Without the gate of the alphandica is the greal^ 
Gondoret or £«sar, being the marketrplace for all kinds of 
merchandize. Rig^t before this gate is a tree widi an aiv 
hour, where ^efokeers, £faouiers,] or Indian holy men, mt 
in state. Between this and tJie castle, at the entrance of die 

freen, or aimeida», is the market for horses and cattln. A 
ttle lower^ and on the opposite side of the river, is a plea** 
sant small town named Ratudey inhabited by a people ceiled 
Naii€$f who speak a dififerent language, and are mostly sea^ 
men* The streets of this town are narrow, with good 
booses^ each of which has a high flight of stet)$ to its doorw 
The people are very friendly to the Lngli&fa, and have many 
pleasant gardens, which attract many to pass much of their 
time there. On the trees round this village there are an 
infinite number of those great bats we saw at St Augustine 
in Madi^ascar, which hang by their claws from the boughs, 
and make a shrill BiOise. This bird is said by tiie people 
to engender by the ear» and to give suck to tlieir ycmng. 

The winter begins here about the 1st of June, and con«- 
tinues till the 20th September^ but not with ccmtinual raina 
as at 6oa ; having only heavy rain for six or seven days- 
every full and change of the moon, with much wind, thun*. 
der and lightning. At the breaking up of the winter, there 
is always a cruel storm, called tuffoon, fearful even to men 
on land. This is not equally severe every year, but once 
in two or three years at the most. The monsoons, or per 
riodical winds, serve here for going to the south in April 


CAaP. X. s£Ct. yi. English EaM Lidid Ctmpany. f 7T 

dtid September^ and foi" Md^fasi in P^^uftly liiid Miirch. 
From the south, ships come h^re ih IXedembe^^ Jai>uar|r, 
and Febniaff, and from Mocha ab^ynt th(e 5tb g^teniber^ 
after the raiitis* Frbm Ormui^ they ^bM fef the toflst ctf Id^ 
dia in Noveofiber : But lioti^ dare pass. withcMit a Ucene^ 
&f the PortugiK^se, for trhlcb the^ ^xoct whdt€f^er they think 
propier, erecting, by thdf bwii acfthority, a^ ettBtofn-bouse 
on the seasy confiscating both i^hip ahd goodil ta the txiker, 
if they do iidt prdduce a regtdar pifid^. 

§ 4. Joumei/ to Agra, end Ob^eti)atioM [^ the Way ; with 

some rfbtices i^ tki' DelccaH Wan* 


The 18th January, 16 lO',' I departed from Contuatiaw, 
ot Cumraie, a smau village d cost from Sarat, to Mutta^ a 
great cddea^ 7 coss. The 2l6t to Cardde,^ codil, alarge oimn- 
try town, having the Sutat river oi^ the tibrth. This place 
has a tskiej with a garrison of ^00 Pdt<m hdrse, who are 
good soldiers. The ^d to Cufkoi 12 c. a gireat village 
with a rivei* on its south side. In the way between Carodc 
and Curka, ot Kirkwah, is Becos or Behara, acadtle with a 
great tank and a pieasant groi^. $Sd tp N^amparei a large 
town under the Pec^op^att^^ 10 c. In this way begiiis a 
great ridge of mountains on the tight hand,* reaching to^ 
Wards Ahmedilbad, among which Badur occupies several 
strong-holds, which all the force of the king of the Moguls 
has not been able to reduce. Th^s^ mountains ^ctend to 
Boorhanpoor, and on them breed many wild elephants. 
The 24th to Dayta, 8 c. a great town, having to pass in the 
midway a troublesome stony rivulet. Tliis town has a 
castle, and is almost encompassed by a river, being situated 
in a fertile soil. The 25th to Badur, 10 c. a filthy town 
full of thieves, where is made a kind of wine of a sweet 
fitiit called mewa, but I found it unwholesome except it be^ 


* In this journal, conjectural emendations of names from Arrowsmith*s 
excellent map of India, are given in the text as synonima, to avoid per- 
petual notes ; ami the distances a^e always to be understood as eosses, gi^ 
ven, exactly as in the original, without correction. It must, however, be 
noticed that the names in the text are often so corrupt, or different from 
those now in use, that it is often impossible to trace the route. — E. 
4 * .The Vindhaya mountains are obviously here meant ; but they are on 
the left han4 of the route between Surat and Boorhanpoor. — £. 

278 Early Voyages of the part ii. book hi. 

This is the last town of note in the land of Pectopsfktw^ 
who. is a small king or. rigah of the Gaitiles, keeping on the 
tops of inaccessible mountains, which begin at Curkat and 
extend to many cosses distance. He holds possession of 
•two fair cities, Salere and Mutieret where die mamud^s are 
coined. Each of these towns has two mighty* castles, the 
•roads to which only admit of two men abreast> or an ele* 
phant at most ; baring also on the way eighty small for« 
tresses disptTsed among the mountains to guard the pas* 
sage. On the tops of these mountains there is good pas- 
jtiire «nd abundance of grain, with numerous fountain$ or 
streams, which run thence into the plains. Akbar besieged 
him for seven years, and was in iith end obliged to com- 
pound with him,'^ving him Narampore Dayta and Badur, 
with s^er^ <>ther aUeas^ for safely conducting his mer** 
chapts along this plain $ so liiat he is now in peace with 
the king, to whom he sends presents yearly, and leaves one 
of his sons in Boorhanpoor as a pledge of his fealty. He 
is said to have, always in readiness 4000 mares of an excel* 
•lent breed, and 100 elephants. 

Leaving Badur on the 26th, I went 7 coss to NonderbaVf 
Or Nundabar, a city, short of which are many tombs and 
houses of pleasure, with a castle and a fair tank. The 27th 
to Lingulff 10 c. a beafstly town, with thievish inhabitants, 
a dirty castle, and a deep sandy road near the town. 28th 
. 10 c. to Sindkerty^ or Sindkera, a great dirty town. On the 
way, the governor of Lingull, with others as honest as him* 
^elf, would have borrowed some money of me; but finding 
J would only give him powder and shot, he desisted, and 
allowed our carts to pass without farther trouble. Beyond 
Sindkera runs a small river of brackish water, by drinking 
of which I got the .bloody fiux, which continued with m^ 
all the way to Boorhanpoor. The 29th 10 c. to Taulneere^ 
or Talnere, a thievish road, but a fair town with a castle 
and river, which is not passable in the rains without a 
boat.^ The SOth 15 c. to C/iupray or Choprah, a great town. 
I rested here two days on account of the rains ; in which 
time came the governor of Nundabar with 400 horse, with- 
out whose company I could not have continued my jour- 
ney without danger, as Khan-Khana had been defeated 


^ The author seems not to have been aware that this was the Tapteej 
or river of Surat. — E. 

GVAK X. sEcrr. Yi; English East India Company* 279 

aad obliged to .retire to Bborhanpoof^ after losing the 
itroflg and rich town of Joulnapore^ or Jalnapoor, on which 
the Eieccaners became so insolent, that they milde inroads 
a» the Taptee, plundering many of the passengers. ' 
• The 2d February we went 6f c. to Raimel, or Arawul, a 
coualry villaffO} where unseasonable thunder^ wind, and rain, 
oamhining with my disease, had nearly made an end of mie^' 
so that we made mukomj or halted, on the 3d and 4th. The 
5th. I went to Beawl^.ot Beawull, 10 c a large town with 
a goad castle. Next day we were again stopt by bad wea-- 
ther« The 7th, 16 c. tp Ravere^e^ great town ; and the 8th^> 
10 c^.io Boorhanpoorv where I pitched my tent in a yard 
belonging to the Armenians, not being able to get a house 
jGwr money, the city being, so iiill of soldiers. About 2 c* 
short of Boorhanpoor is ^abuderpoor, a fair city $ and be- 
t9ineen the two the army of Khan-Khana was encamped on 
th^ north side of the road, consistmg of about 1 5,000 horsey 
200 elephants, and 100 cannon of different sizes, the en^* 
campment extending two coss in length* Within twenty or 
thirty coss to the south. Amber chapon, isn ^bashed^^ vfho 
was general of the arnvj?^^ of the king of Deccan, lay encamp- 
ed at the head of 10,000 of his own cast, all brave soldiers, 
and about 4*0,000 Deccaners; so that the Moguls had cer- 
tainly lost the city of Boorhanpoor, had not the prince Sul- 
tan Parvis with Rajah Mausing come down with great 
forces ; as Amber chapon had sent to demand the surrender 
of BoiH'hanpoor, deeming that Khan-Khana was unable to 
hold it against him. 

Boorbaiipoor is a very large but beastly city, situated in 
a low damp place, and consequently very unhealthy^ which 
is farther augmented by the water being bad. The castle* 
is on the N.E« of the city, on the banks of the river >which 
runs by Surat. In the river beside the castle, there is an 
image of an elephant in stone, so naturally made, that an 
ele|Miant one day, coming to the river to drink, ran against 
it with all his force, and broke both his teeth* The fore- 
head of this image is painted red, and many simple Indi- 
ans worship it^ About two coss from thc^ castle is a g0^r- 
^n belonging to Kban-Khana, called the Loll baug^ all the 
way between being pleasantly shaded by rows of trees. The 
garden has matiy fine walks, with a beautiful small tank 


•4 < • • • 

^ Assuredly meaning an Abyssinian.— £. 

2Sd lEatbf Vof/agen of the pabt il* book ixi« 

fih^cied by trees : and at the entrance is a fine k% banquet^ 
in^*-bouse, likewise among trees. 

. 1 r^Ced till the 12th under my tent, ibr the recovery of 
xny heahh^ which God was pleased to grant Two days 
after my llrrival, news came that Ravere and other neigh- 
bouring places bad been sacked by 1500 Deocan horse, so- 
that we were thankful to God for our safe arriTsI^ as the 
way was not now passable for 1000 horse* I was here in* 
formed, by letters from an Armenian, of a prodigioas di^ 
aster sustained by the Portuguese armada on the Malabar 
(;oast, consisting of fifty frigates or grabs, and two galiies^ 
^bich beitig dispersed oy a storm, was suddenly assailed by 
the Malabar pirates issuing from many creeks^ who took 
many of tbeir Seet, and burnt roost of the rest. On the 
12th I rode out to risit the prince, and on the Idth I made 
him a present. He received me very courteously^ and pro- 
mised me e?ery thing I asked. The prince was attended 
by 2(^000 horse and SOO elephants ; having along with him. 
Asaph Khan with about 8000^ and Emersee Rastei% late 
King of Candahar,, with some thousand veterans* While 
I remained in the caofip^ Rajah Mansing joined with 10,000 
horse, all Rajaputs, and near 1000 elephants; so that all 
the plaids for a vast distance were coveml with t^its, mm* 
king a most splendid iqipearance. Along with the. army 
were many large boat% for tran^orting the troops acroor 
large rivers* On the prince removing, 1 returned to Boor* 
banpoor; and as he advanced thi^ee coss towards the ene- 
my, I went on the 26th to take my leave, when news were 
brought of the defeat ct sonde of Rajah Mansing's troops^ 

The 1st of March I departed for Agra along with the 
governor of Boorhanpoor . and that day we travelled 12 c 
to Barre, a great village, having passed by a very steep and 
atony road across the great ridge of mountains, [CaUygong' 
hills,] which come from Ahmedabad.^ On this way, and 
about four coss from BocH*hanpoor, we passeil the strong 
and invincible castle of Hasser, seated on the top of a higb 
mountain, and said to be large enough to contain forty or 
fifty thousand horse. On the top are many tanks and fine 


* This is aa em)r of Finch. The Viadhaya nKHuitains, ivhich run 
from Guzerat eastwards, are on the north of the Nerbuddah river; 
iVhereas the mountain ridse in the text divides tiie valley of the Ner<* 
budduh from that of the laptee, and joins the western Gauts near Sur&t. 


i^iUF. X. SECT* Ti. English Eaii India Cokipany. Sdl 

pfistnne grounds. In die time of its former dotereign, fia** 
dur Shah, it is said to have been defended by 600 pieces ol 
cannon* Akbar besieged it for a long Ume, snrroimditig' 
it on ail sideS) and at length took it by> composition. Foi* 
it is said there bred such innumc^'able quantities of smalt 
worms in the waters of the fort^ that the people swelled and 
bursty by which mortality the king was, farced to submit 
and surrender, the place being impregnable by any btiman 
force. The 3d we came to Camlahy^ven c. a small aided, 
the road being stony and very troublesome. The 4th to 
Magergom, four c- a large aldea, and by a very bad tioad. 
The 5th ten c. to Kergom, or Kargaw^ a large village and 
a steep road. The 6th thirteen c. to Bircodf a small vil- 
lage. The 7th eight a to Tdxap&re^ or Tarrapooir^ si sntsA 
town, within two coss of which we passed a fine river called 
Nervor, [Nerbuddah,] whidi runs into the se» at Bi^oa^h.. 
On the bank ot this river is a pretty town with a good eaA^ 
tie, immediately under which is the forry. About a eoss- 
lower down is an overfall where the water is not above thre^ 
feet deep, but a mile in breadth, by which camels usually 
pass. The 8th five c. to Mandow^ three coss of whidi the 
road goes up a steep mountain, having no ziKxre than bmadth 
for a coach. 

This ridge of mountains^ [the VindfaayaJ extends K and 
W:<^ On the top, and at the very edge of the table land^ 
stands the gate of the city, over which is built a handsome 
fort and pfeasure-house. The walls extend all along the 
aide of the mountain for many cosses. On the left hand of 
the entrance, at two or three miles distance from> the gate» 
is a strong fort on the top of a pointed mountain, and sonse 
ten or twelve more dispersed in other places. For cwo cosil 
or better within the outer gate, this city is all ruinedj ex^ 
cept many tombs and mos(]ues which yet remtun, inter- 
spersed among the tottering walls of many large houses.r 
The old city of Mandow is four coss from the S. to the N. 
gate, and measures ten or twelve coss from east to west, be^ 
yond which to the east are good pasture grounds for many 
ODsses. On the top of the mountain are some Afte^ or 
sixteen tanks, dispersed about the city. What still remiaiiis 


^ The original sajs N.E. and S.Wi but in our best and latest map of 
Hindoostan, the direction is nearly fi. atnd W. or perhaps E. by N.aod W. 
brS.-E, V I ^ 

382 Earl^ Voyages of the . fart lu booil jxu 

of this city is. very well built, but small in com pa r Uwi ii iwidk' 
its foro^er greatnessi yet has many goodly buildings^ aUioC 
stQiiey and very lofty eates, the like of which, I believe^ vs. 
not to .be seen in Christendom. At the entrance on the 
90Uth» widun the gate of the city now inhabited, as you pas* 
along, there stands a goodly mosque on the left hand, and* 
over against it a splendid sepulchre, in which are interred' 
the bodies, of four kings, in exceediagiy rich tombs. By the 
side of which stands a high tower of 170 steps in height, 
built, i^und with windows and galleries to each room, witk 
many fine arches aiinl piUar% the walls being all inlaid in a 
mo^ beautiful manner with green marble or some other 
rich stone. : On the north side, where we came forth from 
this cjly^ there lay a cannon, the bore of which was eigh-^ 
teen inches diameter* The gate is very strong having six 
others.within, all very strong, with large walira courts of 
guard between gate and gate. All along the side of the 
mountains runs a istrong wall, with turrets or flankers at in-^ 
tervals^ although the hill is so steep in itself that it is hardly 
possible for a man to creep upon all fours in any part of il^ 
so that it appears absolutely impregnable; yet was takes, 
par% :by. Jbrce and partly by treason, by Humaion, grand- 
lather of the present Great Mogul, from Sheic Shah SeUm,. 
whose ancestors conquered it from the Indians about 4fOO 
years ago, .This Siab Selim was a powerful King of Delhi/ 
who once forced Humaion to flee into Persia for aid; and^. 
returning from Persia, put Selim to the worst, yet was. un- 
able to conquer him. He even held out during the whole 
rjdlga of Akbar, keeping upon the mountains. Beyond tha 
wafi% the sjiburbs formerly extended four coss to the north, 
but are now all in ruins, except a few tombs, mosques, imd 
goodly waiSi'm wJiich no persons now dwell* 
. The 9tb we.w^nt four coss by a very bad stony road to 
Luneheira* Between this and the ruins, at three c from 
Mandow,. is a fine, tank inclosed with stone, having a ban** 
queti,ngrhouse in the middle, and a fair house on the south 
side, now in ruins, from which to the banqueting-house is 
an arched bridge. The 1 0th to Dupaiporef fourteen c. a 
smalltown and the road good. The 1 1th twelve long cossea 
to OugltiCf or Oojain, a fair city, in the country called Mal- 
wah, a fertile soil abounding with opium. In this country 
the coss is two English miles. We halted the 12th. The 
13th to Conosda eleven c. 14th, eight c to SunenarrCy or 


iBBAPk X. SECT. Ti. English East India Company. S$S 

Sannarea, by a bad stdny way, among a tliierisU ][>eo^lei 
called graciae, iofaabiting the hills oh our left haxid» who of- 
ten plunder the cqffilds, or caravans, and a hundred of them, 
liad done so now to a cajravan, if we had not pr^yent&d 
them by our arrival* This is a small town, short of which'' 
we passed a great tank filU of wild'fbwl. ' The I5th ten c. 
•to Pimelgoniy a shabby aldea. jLt the end of the fourth coss 
we passed Sarampore, or Sarangpoor^ a great tX)Wii with a 
casde on its south side, and a handsome town-hoUse. Here 
are manufactured much good' cotton doth and hlmdsome 
turbans. Short of this town we met Miaii Jefaati^ a grent 
fevourite of the king, with 10,000 horse, many elephants^ 
and a number of boats, going to jmn the army at Boorhan- 
poor. On the way ako we met many of R^Jadli' Mansitig'« 
.Rajapoots, he having in all about 20,000, so that it wa« 
thought the army would amount to 100,000 horse When all 
assembled. ' 

• From the 1 6th to the '26th of March, we travelled 74 
coss to QualereSf or Colarass, a small pretty town, encom- 
passed with tam^ind and mango trees.^ The 27th to Cijh 
fy, or Shepoory, seten Surat cosses of a mile and a half 
■each, by a desert road. Two nights before, simie sixty or 
seventy thieves assailed in the dark a parQr of 150 Patan 
soldiers, mistaking them for a caffila that had just gone be^ 
fore, by whom ten of them were slain and as many taken, 
the rest escaping in the dark. The ^8th to Natwar twelve 
c. through a rascally desert full of thieves; In the wbodi 
we saw many chuckees, stationed there to prevent robbery; 
but they alledge that the fox is oft times set to herd the 
geese. This town stands at the foot of a steep stony moun- 
tain, and on the top is a castle having a steep ascent ra- 
ther more than a mile, which is intersected by three strong 
gates. The fourth gate is ot the top of the ascent, where 
nO' one is allowed to enter without an order from the king. 
Within, the town is large and handsome, being situated in 
a curious valley on the top of the mountain. This fortified 
summit is said to be five or six coss in circuit, wailed all 
round, and having towers and flankers every here and there, 


* 7 ft has been thought better to omit the minute enumeration of stages 
in the sequel, wiiere no other information occurs ; more especially as 
their nam^s can seldom be referred to those in modern maps of India. 

28i Earfy Fopagarfthe vabt n, book in. 

fo tbaft it U impregnable unless bv treachery. This was for- 
merly the gate or barrier of the kingdom of Mandow» and 
ba» been very beautiful* and secur-ed by means of strong 
Works with abundance of caooony but is now much gone t^ 

. The 29th we went seven c to Palachoj or Pelaiche; 
50th» twelve c. to Jntro, or Anter; Slst, six c» to Gua^ 
iior, a pleasant city with a castle $ and on the top of a pyrai<> 
midal hiU* is a rumed building in which several great men 
haive been inter#ed» The castle of Gualior is on the west 
jude of the town, on a steep ^sragoy cliffy six coss in cirt- 
P9kc$ or, as some sayi ekveui wh^.is all enclosed with a 
strotig walL On.gding up to the castle from the city, the 
en^y is by a strong gate into a handsome court enclosed 
with strong walls, where a numerous giiard is always kept, 
Jlo petson being allowed, to enter without a public order. 
From thence a narrow stone causeway leads to the top, with 
wftUs on both sides, having thr^ gates at iotervals on the 
ascent, all strongly fortified^ with counts of guard at each^ 
At the top of all is ao€»ther strong gate, at whieh is a curi«> 
0ikA colossal ^gure of an el^hant in stone. This gate is 
highly ornamented, and has a stately house adjoining, the 
w^ of which are curiously adorned with green and blue 
st€mes» and the roc^ with sundry gilded turrets* This is 
the house of the governor, in whicn is a place for the cou'- 
fidement cyf nobles who have &Uen under the displeasure of 
the King of the Mogols. He is said to have two. other 
castles devoted as prisons for the nobles. Raidiporti or 
Bantaropoor, is one pf these, forty, c. to the W. to which 
are sent such nobles as are intended to be put. to death,^ 
which is generally done two months after their arrival; 
when the governor brings them to the top of the wall, and 
giving them a bowl of milk, causes them to be thrown over 
the tocks. . The other is. Rotas, in Bengal, to which are 
sent those nobles who are condemned to perpetual impri- 
sonment, aud from whence veiy few return. On the top 
of the mountain of Gualior is a considerable extent of very 
good. ground, with many fair bnildings, and three or four 
good tanks or reservoirs of water. Below, on the same side 
with the town, there are many houses cut out of the solid 
rock, serving both as habitations, and as shopa and ware* 
houses ; and at the foot of the hUl on the north-west side^ 
is a spacious park inck>sed with a stone wall, within which 


CHAP. X. SBcr. VI. ^gti^ BA9i India Cmpany. 285 

•xe several fine gRffdena ttjid phmiire^faDjues, and which is 
also useful for securing horses in time of w^r from marau*' 
tiers. This cattle of GualiNr was die main frcmtier of the 
kingdom of Delhi towards Mandofv^ and tho ascent froot 
ihe petah, or toim^ to the top of the foeh, is near a mile. 

Leaving Gualior on the Ut ApriJ, 1610, we arrived at 
Doolpaor on the ^d, being nineteen c. Within < ti^o c* be^ 
fore reaching that place, we passed a fine river^ oalled the 
Ccmbmy or Chtuinbulij as broad as the Thatntee,. a little 
ehort of which we wehttbroi^ a narrow and dangerows 
{mss between two hills. The castle of Doolpoor is vetj 
strong, having four waHswitUn each otbei', with steqi as^ 
tents to each, the outermost having a deep, and Inroad ditdi; 
This castle is three quarters of a mile 'through^ and has si- 
pular walls and gates to be passed on going' oat* itsinha^ 
bitants are mostly Gentiles. The dd April we went to JuA^ 
jans nine c. and next day other nine ey to jt^a. In the a& 
ternoon the captain carried me before* the king^ where >I 
found Mr Thomas Boys, three Preneh soldiers, a Dutch 
engineer, and a Venetian nierohaiity with his son and ^mt^ 
vant, all newly come by hmd iiom Ghristendonu ^ 

In May and part of Jnne, the city pf Agra was mueh dis<> 
tressed with frequent fires by dafy aiid night, some part w 
other of the dty beihg"ahnoBt ever buvning, by wlii^h aftany 
thousand houses were cdnsnmed^ with great nvmbens of 
men, wom^i, diildren, and cattle, so that we fbarad tW 
judgment of Sodom and Gomorrah'had gone forth against 
the place. I was long and dangerously ill of a &var, atld 
in June the heat was so exoemve that we thought to have 
been broiled alive. The 2Bth June arrived PadrB-FeMim,' 
an arch knave^ a Jesuit I should say, who brou^t letters 
from the Portugttege viceroy with many rick presets, tend- 
ing entirely to thwart our affiurs. In this time Mocrob 
|(£an8 was complained against to the king by our capt^n, 
Mr Hawkins, when Abdal Hassan, the grand vkier, wsa 
ordered to see that we had justice : But birds of a ifcathier 
flock together, and Mucrob Khan, partly by misstatonents 
and partly by turning us over to a bankrupt banyan, would 
only pay us with 11,000 mamudies instead of 52,501 1 


* Finch uRifonnly calls this person Mo, Sowcan^ bat we have substi* 
tuted the name previously given him by HawkinB.-^£. 

286 Early Voyages if the part it. book hi* 

which he was du^ and eren that was not paid for a long 

' In JoW news came of the bad fortune of the king^s anny 
in the Deccan; which) when within four days march of 
Aumedns^for^ hoping td-rtfise the siege of that place^ was 
obliged by fiimine aiM^drooght to retreat to Boorhanpoor^ 
on which, the garrison was forced to surrender, after endu- 
ring moch miseiyi .The royal army in the Deccan con<* 
aistedof at least 1 00^000 horse, with an infinite niunber of 
di^diantsandcamds; so that, including servants, people 
bekonging. tq the baggage, 4ind camp followers of all kind% 
there could. not be less than half-B million, or 600,000 per<» 
aonSiin the field. The water in the country where thc^ 
were, became quite insufficient for. the consumption ^ of so 
qraat a nultitoue, with, all their horses, elephants, camels, 
nod .draught cattle, insomuch that a mussock of water was 
spld in icamp for a rupee, and all kinds of victuals were sold 
eiumsiiely dear.. The army of the King of Deccan spoiled 
the whole. country around, and getting* between the Mo- 
guls jand their supplies, from Guzerat and Boorhanpoor^ 
prevented the arrival of any provisions at the camp, daily 
vexing them with perpetual and successful skirmishes, and 
by cutting loff all foraging parties and detachments ; so that 
the. whole army was in imminent danger, and was only ex- 
tricated* by. a speedy retreat to Boorhanpoor; at their re- 
turn, to which they <hd not muster above 30,000 horse, har- 
ving iost an inimite number of elephants, caanels, and 
other cattle^ that had died tor want of forage and water. 
. This, month- also, news came of the sacking of a great city 
called. Puteittf in the Purrop^^ and the surprisal of its cafr- 
tle^ where a considerable treasure belonging to the king was 
dq)Osited, the.citiaens having fled without making any re- 
Kistaoce. But the successful msurgent was almost immedi*- 
^lely besieged and taken, in the castle by a neighbouring 
great, omrah ; and on .the return of the fugitive citizens, he 
sent twelve of their chiefs to the king, who caused them to 
be fiihaven,. and to be carried on asses through the streets of 


^ This name and province are difficultly ascertainable. The Purrop 
has possibly a reference to the kingdom ofPorub^ the Indian name of Po« 
rus» so celebrated in the invasion of India by Alexander. If this conjec- 
ture be right, the Potana of the text was Pattan or Puttan, in the noi^th 
of Guzerat, the ancient Naherwalch.-*£. 

CHA|». X. SECT. vl. EngKsh East India Company. 287 

Agra in the garb of women, and it is said that next ddy they 
were beheaded. 

Likewise thb same month, the 'Idsig niade a great stir 
about Christianity, *affirming'brfere hid nobles that it was 
the true reUgion, while that of Mahoxnet M^as tiU lies and 6^ 
Mes. He had ordered all thethree sons of 'bis d^ceasbd^bro^ 
therto be instructed by the Jesuits, and 'christian- apparel 
to be given them, to the great w(xidermenl?<df the- whole 
'city; and finalfy these pHnces'were baptized- solemnly, b^ 
ing conducted to the< church by all thle Christians in the 
citTy to the niiiid[)er of about sixty horse, CaptatnHawkins 
bemg at their head, with St George's ensign 'OaiYled^before 
tem, in honour ^^Eiigland^ displaying' theih in thie court in 
the presence of die king.^ Tile eldest was named 'DcmPfai-^ 
lippo, the second Den Carlo, and the third DM^Hel!lrico4 
Qn the 3d September following, another yottng>p(rtnce was 
christened by the name of Don Duarte, bdng^grandson to 
a brother of the Emperor Akban i This king gaTe-fciqneht 
charges to the &thers to instruet'aH these- prince in the 
Christian religion; yet all this has since oleasiy a{^ieai^ to 
have been mere dissimulation/^ ' • 

< § 5. DiNcriptwfKff'Futiipoofi Biandyi^c*; vfNiU^^'or 

Indigo; and of other Matters. ' 

■ < »» 

The 1st of November I was sent to Biana to bny fiill,- or 
indigo* I lodged the first night at Mefdkapoor^ a gre^ se^ 
rai or public inn, seven c. from Agra^ near whidi the queen- 
mother has a garden, and ilioAotf, or saaaimer-house, 
very curiously conirived. . The 2d I bsdted 2it Kanowa^ or 
Kanua, deven c. At every coss from Agra to Ajmeer, 180 
ooss, there is erected a stone pillar, owing to the folk>wing 
circumstance. At Ajmeer is the tomb of a celebrated Ma-^ 
hometan saint, called Haji Mondees and as Akbar had no 
children, he made a pilgrimage on* foot to that famous 
^hrine, ordering a stone pillar to be erected at every coss, 
and a MohoU, with lodgings for sixteen of his principal 
women, at the end of every eight coss; and after his return 
)ie had three sons* 



It 18 possible that Selim, unwilling to put to death such near rela- 
tronsy fell upon this device to render them ineligible among the Moguls 
to the succession, by which to secure the throne to himself and his sons* 

S88 jBM^ Vh/itges of the baat it. book im 

At twelve diss fram Agrsy on dns road, is diD femoalt 
city of Futtipooff built by Akbar, and inclosed by a frar 
stime waH, still quite fresh, having four great gates, some 
three. English miles between each. Within the walH the 
whole extent of the city lies waste like a desert and uninha* 
bited, being very dangerous to pass through in tlie night 
time* Much of the ground is now oocopied as gardens, 
and muefa of it is sown with ftttf, or diflferent kinds of min,* 
so that ant could hardly suppose ho were in the middle of 
what was so lately a great and populous city* Before the 
gate towards Agra, in a stony ascent near a ooss in lengthy 
are the ruins of an extensive suburb. At the 8. W. gate^ 
for two EngUsh miles from the city, there are mint of 
many fine buildings; and on tiic left are many fine wi^iled 
gardens, to the distance of three miles irom die ciQr, At 
3ie entrance of the N.& gate is n goodly bazar, or market^ 
all of stone, being a spacious 6tra]gnt*lined and paved street, 
with handsome nouses on both side^, half a mile iong« 
Close within the gate is the king's serai, consisting of ex* 
tensivis stoiie buildings, but much ruined. At the head of 
this street stands the king's house, or Moholl, with much 
curious building ; beyond which, on an ascent, is the good- 
liest mosque in ail the east. It has a flight pf some twen- 
ty-four or thirty steps to the gate, which is, in my opinion, 
one of the loftiest and handsomest in the world, having a 
great number of clustering p3rramids on the top» Very curi- 
ously disposed* The top of this gate may be distinctly seen 
from the distance of ei^ht or ten miles. Within the gate^ 
IS ft Bpaoions court curiously paved with stone, about six 
times the size of the exchange of London, with a fine co* 
vered walk along the sides, more than twice aa broad and 
double the heiglu; of those in our London exchange^ sup»> 
ported by numerous pillars all of one stone ; and M round 
about are entrances into numerous rooms, very ingeniously 
oofitrived. Opposite the grand gate stands a fair and sumpi^ 
tuotts tomb^ most artificially inlaid with mother«of-pearl, 
and ]nck>sed by a stone ballustrade curiously carved, the 
ceiling being curiously plastered and painted. In this tomb 
is deposited the body of a calender^ or Mahometan devotee, 
at whose cost the whole of this splendid mosque was built. 
Under the court-yard is a goodly tank of excellent water ; 
none other being to be had in the whole extent of the city, 
except brackish and corroding, by the use of which so great 

a moF- 

CHAP, ^ SECT, vx* Er^lish East India Company. 2S9 

a mortality was occasioned among the inhabitants of this 
qtty, that Akbar left. it before it was quite finished, and re- 
moved his seat of empire (o Agra, so that this splendid city 
was built and ruined in the spa^^e of fifty or sixty years^ ^ 
' The name of this place at first was Sykar^ signifying 
seeing or hunting : But on h^s return from his pilgrimage 
to Ajjneer, and the subseqiient birth of his son Senm, t|ie 
present emperor, A.kbar, changed its name to Fuitipoorj or 
the. city of content, or htarfs (ieart obtained. Without the 
walls, on. the N«N« W. sid^ of the city, there is ^ goodly lak^ 
of two or three coss in length, abounding with excellent fis^i 
dnd wild-fowl ; aU, over ^^ch grows the herb producing 
the ksTJnodactyley and another bearing a fruit like a goblet^ 
called camolachacheri/y both very oopling fruits* The herb 
which produces the hermodactyU^ is a weed abounding i^ 
most tgnks near Agra, which spreads over the whole sur- 
face of the water. I did not observe its leaf; but the fruit 
is enclos^ in a three-cornered hard woody shdl, having at 
each angle a sharp prickle, and is a little indented on the 
flat fiid^, like two posterns or little doors. The fruit while 
green is soft and tender, and of a mealy taste, and is muc]^ 
eaten in India ; but, in my ppinion, it is exceediqgly cold^c stomach,, as I always after eating it was inclined to 
take spirits. It is called Singarra, The camolachachery, 
or ojtber fruit resembling a goblet, is on the top, of a 
soft greenish substance, within which, a little eminent, stand 
six or eight fruits like acorns, divided from each other, an^ 
enclosed in a whitish film, at first of a russet green, having 
the taste of nuts or acorns, and in the midst is a small green 
sprig, not fit to be eaten. 

Canua . is a small country town, eighteen c. from Agra, 
W. by S. around which very good indigo is made, owing 
to the strength of the soil and brackishness of the water. It 
makes yearly about 500 M.' Ouchenf three c. distant, 
makes very good indigo ; besides which no town but Biana 
is comparable to Canua. The cowitry which produpei^ the ex;- 
cellent indigo, which takes its name from Biana, is not mor^ 
thf^n twenty or thirty coss long. The herb »i/4 from whicji 
indigo is made, grows in form not much unlike chives or 
chicK-pease, having a small le^f ii)ke that of senna, bqt 

VOL. viii, . T shorter 

* The meaning of this quantity is qm'tc umntelligi()le; but knay poe- 
nibly mean 500 maunds* — £,. 

290 Early Voyagtn of the faut !!• book nu 

shorter and broader, set on very short foot*8talks. The 
tjranches are hard and woody, like those of broom. The 
%rhole plant sddom exceeds a yard high, and its stem, at 
the biggest in the third year, does not much exceed the 
si^e Ota man's thumb. The seed is enclosed in a sinall pod 
about an inch long, and resembles fenugreek, only that it is 
blunter at both ends, as if cut off with a knife. The flower 
is small, and like hearts-ease. The seed is ripe in Noyem- 
ber, and is then gathered. When sown, the herb continues 
three years on the ground, and is cut every year in August 
or September, after the rains. The herb of the first year 
is tender, and from it is made notee^ which is a heavy i^- 
dish indigo, which sinks in water, not being come to pei^ 
fection. That made from the plant of the second year, 
trailed cyree^ is rich, very light, of a perfect vicrfet colour, 
and swims in water. In the third year the herb is decli- 
ning, and the indigo it then produces, called catteld, is 
blackish and heavy, being the worst of the three. When 
the herb is cut, it is thrown into a long cistern, where it is 
pressed down by many stones, and the water is Uien let in 
so a» to cover it all over. It remains thus certain days, till 
all the substance of the herb is dissolved in the water. The 
water is then run off into another cistern which is round, 
having another small cistern in the centre. It is here la- 
boured or beaten with great staves, like batter or winte 
starch, when it is allowed to settle, and the clear water on 
the top is scummed off. It is then beaten again, and again 
allowed to settle, drawing off the dear water ; and these al*- 
ternate beatings, settlings, and drawing off the clear water, 
are repeated, till nothing remain but a thick substance. 
This is taken out and spread on cloths in the sun, till it 
hardens to some consistence, when it is made up by band 
into small balls, laid to dry on the sand, as any other thing 
would drink up the colour, and which is the cause of every 
ball having a sandy foot. Should rain fall while in this si* 
tuation, the indigo loses its colour and gloss, and is called 
aliad. Some deceitfully mix the crops of all the three years, 
steeping them together, which fraud is hard to be discover- 
ed, but is very knavish. Four things are required in good 
indigo ; a pure grain, a violet colour, a gloss in the sun, 
and that it be light and dry, so that either swimming in 
water or burning in the fire it casts forth a pure light violet 
vapour, leaving few ashes. 


eacAF* x« sxcT. TI4 IkigHA Ea9i India Cmpany. 891 

Tlie king's manner of himling is thus. About tke be^ 
ginmng of Novemhec^ be goes from Agm aecompanied 
by many thousands, add honta all tbe country for thirty 
oar forty cnss round about, and so continues till the aud of 
Mafchy when the great heats drive htm home again. He' 
causes a tract of vood or desert to be encompassed about 
by chosen ro^s, who contract themselves to a near compass, 
and whatever is taken in this enclosure, is calk*d the king's 
Mf^katy or game, whether mm ! or beasts, and who ever lets 
aught escape loses his iife^ unless pardoned bv the king. 
All the beasts thus taken, if man's meat, are sold, and the 
tnoney given to the poor : If men, they b^ome the king^s 
i^ves, and are sent yearly to Cabul, to be bartered for horses 
and dbgs v these l)eing poor miserable and thievish people^ 
idio live in the woods and deserts, difiering little from beasts* 
One day while the king was hunting, about the 6th Janu«» 
ary, 16 1 1, he was assaulted by a lion * whidi he had wound* 
fid with his iDatchk>ck. The ferocious auimal came upon 
him with such sudden violence, that he had in all probability 
been destroyed, had not a Rajapat ci^itain interposed, just 
as the enraged animal had ramped against the king, thnl8C^ 
intt his arm into the lion's mooth. £1 this struggle, Sultaa 
CSorcm, Rajah Ranidas, and of^rs, came up and slew the 
lion, die Rajaput captain, who was tutor to the lately 
baptised princes, having first received tliirty-two wounds in 
defence of the king ; who took him into his own palanquii^ 
and with his own hands wiped away iXnt blood and bound 
4ip his wounds, making him nan omndi of 5000 horsey in r&- 
ccwipence of his valorous loyalty* 

This month of January 1611, the king was providing 
mmre forces for the Deocan war, althoi^h the king of that 
4X>untry offered to restore all his conquests as the price of 
peace. Azam Khan was appointed general, who went off 
at the head of 20,000 horse ; with whom went Mohabet 
Khan, another great captain, together with a vast treasure. 
With these forces went John Fienchman and Charles 
Oharke,^ engaged in the king's service for these wars. 

The 9th January, 1611, 1 departed from Agra for La- 
hore^ to recover some debts, and carried with me twelve 


^ The lion of these early tiavellers ia India was almost certainly the 
tyger.— -E. 

^ This Charles Cbarke I have spoken with since in Loodou, after ha- 
ving served several years in India. — Purely 

292 Early Voyages of the fart ii. book ni. 

carts laden with indigo^ in hopes of a good price. ^ In se- 
ven days journey, I arrived at Delhi, eighty<-one coss froin 
Agra. On the left hand is seen the ruins of old Delhi,' 
called the Seven Castles and Fifty-two Gates, now only in- 
'habited by GogarSj or cattle herds. A short way from Delhi 
is a stone bridge of eleven arches, over a branch of the 
Jumna, whence a broad way, shaded on each side with great 
trees, leads to the tomb of Humaion, grandfather of the 
present king. In a large room spread with rich carpets, 
this tomb is covered by a pure white sheet, and has over it 
a rich semiane, or canopy. In front are certain hooks on 
small tressels, beside which stand his sword, turban, and 
shoes ; and at the entrance are the tombs of his wives and 
daughters. Beyond this, under a similar shaded road^ you 
come to the king's house and mohoU, now ruinous. The 
city is two coss in extent, between gate and gate^ being sur- 
rounded by a wall which has been strong, but is now ruin-p 
0Uf>, as are many goodly houses. Within and around the 
city, are the tombs of twenty Patan kings, all very fair and 
sUitely. All the kings of India are here crowned^ otherwise 
they are held usurpers. Delhi is situated in a fine plain ; 
and about two coss from thence are the ruins of a hunting 
seat, or molej built by StUtan Bemsa^ a great Indian sove- 
reign. It still contains much curious stone-work ; and above 
all the rest is seen a stone pillar, which, after passing through 
three several stories, rises twenty-four feet above them all, 
having on the top a globe, surmounted by a crescent. It 
is said that this stone stands as much below in the earth as 
it rises above, and is placed below in water, being all one 
stone. Some say Naserdengady, a Patan king, wanted to 
take it up, but was prevented by a multitude of scorpions. 


^ It has not been deemed necessary to retain the itinerary of th^ 
journey, consisting of a long enumeration of the several stages and dis- 
tances, the names of which are often unintelligible. Any circumiiBtances 
bf importance are however retained. — E. 

^ There are said to be four Delhis within five coss. The olde$t was 
built by Rase ; who, by advice of his magicians, tried the ground by 
driving an iron stake, which came up bloody, having wounded a snake. 
This the ponde or magician said was a fortunate sign. The last of this 
race was Rase Pethory ; who, after seven times taking a Patan king, 
was at last by him taken and slain. He began the Patan kingdom of 
Delhi. The Patans came from the mountains between Candahar and 
Cabul. The second Delhi was built by Togali Shah, a Patan king. The 
third was of little note. The fourth by Sher-shah<selim, and in it is tlie 
tomb of Humaion. — Purc/ius. 

«HAP. X. SECT. YX. English EaU India Company. 295 

It has inscriptions.^ In divers parts of India the h*ke are 
to be seen. 

It is remarkable^ that the quarries of India, an^l especi- 
ally those near Futtipoor, are of such a nature that the rock 
may be clefl like logs, and sawn like planks of great length 
and breadth) so as to form the ceilings of rooms and the 
roo& of houses. From this monument, which i% two coss 
from Delhi^ there is said to be a subterraneous passage all 
the way to Delhi castle. This place is now all in ruins, and 
abounds in deer. From Delhi, in nine stages, I reached 
Sirinam, or Sirhind, where is a fair tank with a pleasure- 
house in the middle, to which leads a stone bridge of 
fifteen arches. From thence is a canal to a royal garden, 
at the distance of a coss, with a paved road forty feet broad, 
x>ver$haded by trees on both sides. This garden is square, 
each side a coss or more in length, enclosed with a brick 
wall, richly planted with all kinds of fruits and flowers, and 
was rented, as I was told, at 40,000 rupees, 'it is crossed 
by two main walks forty feet broad, raised on mounds eight 
feet high, having water in the middle in stone channels, 
and thickly planted on both sides with cj'press trees. At 
the crossii^of these walks is an octagon mohoU, with eight 
chambers &r women, and a fair tank in the middle, over 
whidi are other eight rooms, with fair galleries all round. 
The whole of this building is of stone, curiously wrought, 
with much fine paintings rich carving, and stucco work, 
and splendid gilding. On two sides are two other fine 
tanks, in the midst of a fair stone chovnier i planted round 
with cypress trees ; and at a little distance is another mo- 
Jioll, but not so curious. 

From Sirhind, in five stages, making forty-eight coss, I 
came to a serai called Fetipoor, built by the present king 
Shah Selim, in memory of the overthrow of his eldest son. 
Sultan Cussero, on the following occasion. On some dis- 
gust. Shah Selim took up arms in the life of his father Ak- 
bar, and fled into Purrapf where he kept the strong castle 
oi Alobasse^'' but came in and submitted about three months 
before his father's death. Akbar had disinherited Selim tor 



^ Purchas alleges that these inscriptions are in Greek and Hebrew ; 
and that some affirm it was erected by Alexander the Great. — £. * 

^ Purrop, or Forub, has been formerly supposed the ancient kingdom 
of Porus in the Punjab, and Attobass, here called Alobaese^ to have been 
Attock Benares. — ^E. 

894 Earfy Foyages of ike part n. book in. 

his rebellion, giving the kingdom to Suttui Co8S»t>j Selim's 
eldest son. But after the death of Akbar, Selim, by meaiiB 
of his friends, got possession of the castle and treasure* 
Cussero fled to Lahore, where he raised about 1S,000 
horsey all good Mogul soldiers, and getting possession of 
the suburbs, was then proclaimed king, while his &therwii8 
proclaimed in Ae castle. After twelve days came Melek 
All the Cntwall t^ainst him, beatfaig the kiag^s drums, 
though Selim was some twenty coss in the rear ; and giving 
a brave assauh, shouting God save King SeHm^ the prince's 
soldiers lost heart and fled, leaving only five attendants widi 
the prince, who fled and got thirty coss b^ond Laliore, in 
his way to Cabal. But having to pass a river, and ofleiv 
ing gold mohors in payment of his passage^ the boatman 
grew suspicious, leapt overboard in the middle of the riveiv 
and swam on shore, where be gave notice to the governor 
•of a neigMx>iiring town. Taking fifty horse vifiih mta^ the 
governor came to the river side, where the boat still float- 
ed in the stream ; and taking another boaft, went and sahi- 
ted Cussero by ^e title of King, dissemblingly oflkring hk 
aid and inviting him to his house, where he made him pri- 
soner, and st^nt immediate notice to the king, who sent to 
fetch him fettered on an elephant. From thence Seion 
•proceeded to Cabul, puni^ing such as had joined in the 
revolt ; and on his return with his son a prisoner, at this 
place, Fttipoor^ where the battle was feug^t, as some say, he 
caused the eyes of Cussero to be burnt out with a glassy 
while others say be only caused him to be blindfolded widi 
n napkin, tied behind and seated with his owti seal, which 
yet remains, and carried him prisoner to thecastieof Agra. 
Ak>ng all the way from Agra to Cabul, tlie king ovdered 
trees to be planted on both sides ; and in remembvance of 
the exploit at this place, he caused it to be named Fetipoor^ 
or Hearth Content y as die dty formerly mentioned bad been 
named by Akbar in memory of his birth.* 

From hence I went to Lahore, twenty-nine coss, in three 
stages, arriving there on the 4th of Febniarjs 1611. The 
'28th there arrived here a Persian ambassador from Sfai& 
Abbas, by whom I learnt that the way to Candahar was 


* There are several places in India of this name, but that in the text 
at this place is not now to be fouad in our maps, on the road betweea 
Delhi and Lahore. — ^£. 

CBAP* X* 6£Or, ¥1. Ea^Ush Ea$i Ifldm Company. 295 

9Mr «kar9 baviag been impai^sable in consequence of the 
war oecmoned by Gelole^ a Turk, who had tied to Persia 
wilh 10,000 Turluit wheo, havuiggot a jagheer on thefron* 
tiers, he endeavoured to make himself indepeadeiM:, but was 
overthrown, and lost his head. 

§ 6. JOescrypiiiom of Idihore, with other Observations. 

* r 

Lahore i% one of the greatest cities of the east, being near 
twenty^ur cossIa circuit, round which a great ditch is now 
digging, the kiqg having comoaanded the whole city to be 
SHTiOttnded by a strong wall. In the time of the Patau em- 
pire of Delhi, Lahore was only a vill^e, Moohan being 
tbeil a flourishing city, till Humaion thought proper to en« 
large LalxcHre, which now, including its suburbs, is about 
six cos$ in extent. The castle or royal town is surround- 
^ by a brick wall, which is entered by twelve handsome 
gates, three of which open to the banks of tlie river, and 
me oth^r nine tpwards the land. The streets are well paved^ 
and the in)iabitants are mostly Banyan handicrafts, all white 
in^p of aoy iiote living in the suburbs, The buildings are 
&U* and high of bric^ with much curious carvings about 
the jdpors and windows; and most dT the Gentiles have their 
hotts§ doors raised six or seven steps from the street, and 
of tPPublesome ascent, partly for greater security, and to 
prevent passengers from seeing into their bouses. The cas- 
tle is built on the S. E. bank of the Rauveej a river that 
flows into the Indus, and down which many barges of sixty 
tons, and upwards navigate to Tatta in Sindy, after the 
falling of the rain% beii^ a voyage of about forty days, 
passijo^g by Mooltan, Sidpoor, Backar, 8cc. 

The river Rauyee comes from the N> E. and passing the 
north side of the city, ruus W. S. W. to join the Indus, 
Within the castle is the king's palace, which is on the side 
towards the river, and is entered by the middle gate on that 
aide^ a£ter enteriiig which, you go into the palace by a 
strong gate on the left han^ and a musket^shot farther by 
a smaller gate, into a larg^ square court, surrounded by 
atescannaf in which the king's guard keeps watch. Beyond 
this, and turning again to the left, you enter by another 
gate into an inner courts in which the king holds his dur-^ 


296 Early Voyaget of the taut ii. book hi. 

bar^ or court, all round which are ateicannasj* in which the 
great men keep watch^ and in the middle of the court is a 
high pole on which to hang a light. From thence you go 
up to a fair stone jounter^ or small court, in the middle of 
which stands a fair devimcan^^ with two or three retiring 
rooms, in which the king usually spends the early part of 
the nighti from eight to eleven o'clock. On the walls is the 
king's picture, sitting cross-legged on a chair of state, on 
his right hand Sultan Parvis, Sultan Chorem, and Sultan 
Timor, his sons ; next whom are Shah Morat and Don 
Shah, his brothers, the three princes who were baptized 
being sons of this last. Next to them is the picture of £e- 
mersee Sherifi^ eldest brother to Khan Azam, with those of 
][nany of the principal people of the court. It is worthy 
likewise of notice, that in this hall are conspicuously placed' 
the pictures of our Saviour and the Virgin Mary. 

From this devoncan, or hall of audience, which is plea- 
santly situated, overlooking the river, passing a small gate 
to the west, you enter another small court, where is anouier 
open stone chounter to sit in, covered wiUi rich semianOy or 
Canopies. From hence you enter a gallery, at the end of 
which next the river is a small window, from which the 
king looks forth at his dersanecy to behold the fights of wiki 
beasts on a meadow beside the riven On the walls of this 
gallery are the pictures of the late Emperor Akbar, the 
present sovereign, and all bis sons. At the end is a small 
devoncartj where the king usually sits, and behind it is his 
bed-chamber, and before it an open paved court, along the 
right-hand side of which is a small moholt of two stories, each 
containing eight fair chambers for several women, with 
galleries and windows looking both to the river and the 
court. All the doors of these diambers are made to be fast- 
ened on the outside, and not within.' In the gallery, where 
the king usually sits^ there are many pictures of angels, in- 
termixed with those of banian dewSf or devils rather, being 
of most ugly shapes, with long horns, staring eyes, shaggy 
fadr, great paws and fangs, long tails, and other circum- 
stances of horrible deformity, that I wonder the poor wo- 
men are not frightened at them. 


' This unexplained word probably signifies a corrldore, or covered gal- 
^ Perhaps a divan, or audience hall. — £• 

CHAP. X. SECT. VI.' English East India Company. 297 

Returning to the former court, where the adees^ oi'guards, 
keep watch, you enter by another gate into the new durbar, 
beyond which are several apartments, and a great Si|uare 
moholl, sufficient to lodge two hundred women in state, al| 
having several apartments. From the same court of guard, 
passing Tight on, you enter another small paved court, and 
dbence into another mohoU, the stateliest of all, containing 
sixteen separate suites of large apartments, each having a 
devoncan^ or hail, and several chambers^ each lady having 
her tank, and enjoying a little separate world of pleasures 
and state to herself, all pleasantly situated, overlooking the 
river. Before the moholl appropriated to the mother of 
Sultan Cussero^ is a high pole for carrying a light, as be- 
fore the king) as she brought forth the emperor's first son 
and heir. 

- Before this gadlery is a fair paved court, with stone gra* 
tings and windows along the water; beneath which is a 
pleasure garden ; and b^ind are the king's principal lod- 
gings, most sumptuously decorated, all the walls and ceil- 
ings being laid over with pure gold, and along the sides» 
aboutman'shdgfat, agreat number of Venetian mirrors, al)out 
three foet asunder, and in threes over each other; and be* 
low are many, pictures of the king's ancestors, as Akbar his 
father, Hiiihaion his grand&ther, Babur his great-grand- 
father, the first of the race who set foot on Inma, together 
with thirty of his nobles, all clad as calenders or fakiers. In 
that disguise Babur and his thirty nobles came to Delhi to 
the court of Secunder, then reigning, where Babur was dis- 
covered, yet dismissed under an oath not to attempt any 
hostilities during the life of Secunder^ which he feithfully 
performed. On the death of Secunder, Babur sent his son 
Humaion against his successor Abram, from whom he con- 
quered the whole kingdom. There afterwards arose a great 
captain, of the displaced royal family in Bengal, who fought 
a great battle against Humaion near the Ganges, and ha- 
ving ddeated him, continued the pursuit till he took refuge 
in Uie dominions of Persia; where he procured new forces, 
under the command of Byram, father to the Khan Khana, 
and reconquered all, living afterwards in security. On the 
death of Humaion, Akbar was very young, and Byram 
Khan was left protector of the realm. When Akbar grew 
up, and assumed the reins of government, he cast off By ram, 
and is said to have made away with him, when on a roomert/f 


S9S Earfy Fognges (fihe nuRT ii. book iu« 

•r pilgrimage to Mecca. The son of BynmH Khanrkhanay 
or khan of the khans, in coni unction with his friends and 
alliesi is ajgreat curb on Shah Selim» being able to brii^ 
into the field upwards of 100^000 horse. Shah Selifli affirms 
himself to be the ninth in lineal male descent from Tamer-^ 
hne, or Timur the Great, emperor of the Moguls.' 

lYie 17th of May came news that the Patan thieves had 
sacked the city of Cabul» having come suddenfy against it 
from their mountains with 11,000 foot and 1000 hone, 
while the governor was absent on other ai&irs at Jalalabad, 
and the garrison so weak that it was only able to def^id 
the castle. In six hours they plundered the d^, and xe* 
tired with their booty. For the better keeping these re* 
bels in order, the king has esti^lished twenly-rthree omrafas 
between Lahore and Cabul, yet all will not do, aa they o£> 
tta sally from their mountains, robbing caravans and plun- 
dering towns. The 18th of August, there arrived a gi«at 
caravan from Persia, by idiom we had news of the French 
king's death, from an Armenian who had be«i in the ser* 
vice of Mr Boys. 

On the west side of the castle of Lahore is the ferry fi>r 
a!Y)ssing over the Rauvee an the way to Cabul, which is 271 
eosses, and thence to Tartary and Cashgar* Cabitl is a 
large and &ir city, the first seat of the present king's great* 
grand-father Babur. At forty eosses beyond is Goreiondp 
or Oourbund, a great city bordering cm Usbeok Tavtary ; 
and 150 coss from Cabul is Taid Coioi, a city in Bmldsakap 
or Badakshan of Bucharia. From Cabul to Cashgar, widi 
the caravan, it is two or three months journey, Cashgar be^ 
ing a great kingdom under the Tartars. A chief ci^ of 
trade in that country is Yarcan^ whence comes much silk^ 
porcelain, musk, and rhubarb, with other commodities ; all 
or most of which come from China, the gate or entranoa 
into which is some two or three months iarthor. Whea 
the caravan comes to this entrance^ it must remain under 
teaats, sending by licence some ten or fifteen merchants at 
once to transact their business, on whose return as manj 
more may be sent; but on no account can the whole cara* 
van be permitted to enter at once. 

From Lahore to, Cashmere, the road goes first, part of 


3 We have here left out a farther description of die pakce and other 
buildlDgs at Lahore, which in fact convey littie or no information.— £. 

4mAP« 3L English Eosi India Company. £99 

the way to Oabu), to a town called Gnjrat, forty-four coss ; 
whence it turnis north and somewhat easterly seventy cosfi^ 
when it ascends a high mountain called ffast-cannk-fraut ^ on 
4iie top of which is a fine plain, afier wkich is twelve coss 
diroDgh a goirxlly country to Cashmere, which is a strong 
city era the rtner Bebut, otherwise called tlie Ihyiuna, or 
O^mnma. The country of Cashmere is a ridi mid fertile 
filain amoa^ the mountains, some 150 coss in length, aad 
50 broad, abounding in fruits, grain, and saffron, and ha»- 
Hni^ beaotiful fair women. This country is cold, and sub* 
jected to great frosts and heary &lls of snow, being near to 
Cashgar,' yet separated by such prodigious mountains that 
there is no passage for caravans. Much silk and other 
^oods are bowiever often brought this way by meat without 
ihe aid of animals, and the goods have in many places to 
be drawn up or let dowB over precipices by means of ropes* 
Da these mountains dwells a small king called Tibbet,^ who 
kuleiy sent one of his daughtei:^ to Shah Selifii, by way of 
making affinity. 

Nicholas Uphet^ [or Ufflet] went from Agra to Surat by 
a di^rent way from that by which I came, going bytM 
nioiiBtaiasiof Narwar, which extend to near Ahmedabad in 
Guzerat. Upon these mountains stands die impr^nd>le 
castle of Gur Chit to, or Chitore, the chief seat of the ManMOf 
a very powerful rajah, whom neither the Patans, nor A1&- 
bar himself was ever able to subdue. Owing to aU India 
having been ferraeriy belonging to the Gentues, and this 
priooe having always been, and is still, esteemed in equal 
revereiure as the pope is by the catholics, those rajahs who 
have been ses^ against him have always made some excuses 
ibr not being aUe to do much injury to his territories, which 
extend towards Ahmednagur ISO great cosaes, and in 
breadth 200 oosses towards Oogain, mostly composed (^ 
«r inclosed by inaccessible mountains, well fortified by art 
in many pkices. This rajah is able on occasion to raise 
12,000 good horse, and holds many fair towns and goodly 

Ajmecr, the capital of a kingdom or province of that 
name, west from Agra, stands on (he top of an inaccessible 
nonutaiO, thr«e ooss in ascent, being quite impregnable* 
Hie city at the foot of the hill is not great, but is wSl built 


^ Little Thibet, a country hardly known in geography, is on the north- 
west of Cashmere, beyond the northern chain of the Vindhia moun- 
tains.— £. 

« paved 7ifcrt£".k «Ji W^S^ «•* CS^ "l^iS 
r ^°^d Ajmeer t .u ** Peaces exf*^ 

-p -:s?F-^^^^^^^^^ r^-. a. " '^ 

«"*»«l Sis.'' -""W of »S l'"" «d rfS,"*"»- 

' """^toft of Gidnlv^i *""'* by 


CHAP. X. SECT. vr. English Easi India Company^ SOI 

were Gentiles. He tamed Mahometan, and deprived his 
dder brother of this castle by the following stratag^n : Ha^ 
ving invited him and his women to a banquet, which his 
brother requited by a similar entertainment, he substitu- 
ted chosen soldiers well armed instead of women, send- 
ing them two and two in a dowk^ who^ fl^timff in by this 
device^ gained possession of the gates, and beld tne place for 
the Great Mofful, to whom it now appertainis, being one of 
the strongest situated forts in the world. 

About naif a coss within the gate is a goodly square tank^ 
cut out of the solid rock, said to be fifty fathoms deep, and 
full of excellent water. A little farther on is a goodly plain, 
shaded with many fine trees, beyond which, on a small co- 
nical hill, is the sepulchre of King Uasswardj who was a 
great soldier in his life, and has been since venerated as a 
great saint by the people in these parts. Near this place is 
said to be kept a huge snake, twenty-five feet long, and as 
thick as the body of a man, which tne people wiH not hurt. 
This castle, which is eight coss in circuit, is considered as 
the gate or frontier of Guzerat. Beyond it is Beelmahl^ 
the ancient wall of which is sdil to be seen^ near twenty- 
four coss in circuit, containing many fine tanks going to 
ruin. From thence to Ahmedabad or Amadaver, by Khar 
dunpoor, is a deep sandy country. 

Ahmadabad is a goodly city on ff fme river, the Mohin- 
dry, inclosed with strong wails and fair gates, with many 
beautiful towers. The cas»tle is large and stroE^ in which 
resides the son of Azam Khan, who is viceroy in these 
parts. The streets are large and well paved, and the build- 
ings are comparable to those of any town in Asia. It has 
great trade; for almost every ten days there go from hence 
200 coaches^ richly laden with merchandize for Cambay. 
The merchants here are rich, and the artizans very expert 
in carvings, paintings, inlaid works, and embroidery in gold 
and silver. At an hour's warning this place has 6000 horse 
in readiness : The gates are continually and strictly guard- 
icd, no person being allowed to enter without a licence^ or 
to depart without a pass. These precautions are owing to 
ihe neighbourhood of Badur^ whose strong-hold is onfy 


' A dowle, dowlv, or dooly, is a chair or cage, in which their women 
are carried on men s 8houlder8.-^PurcA. 

^ Pertiaps camels ought to be substituted for coaches ; or at least carH 
ixwin by bullocks. — ^£. 

802 Earfy Voyages tfthe part il book in. 

fifty ooss to the east, where oatare, widi some aid irora arf^ 
has fortified him against ail the power of the Moguls, and 
whence some &ar yeara ago, proclaiming liberty and laws 
of good fellowship,' he sacked Cambaya by a sudden as» 
aaiut of 100,000 men, drawn together by the hope of plon^ 
der, and with whom he retained possession tor fourteen 

Between Ahmedabad and Trage, there is a rajah In th^ 
mountains, who is able to bring 17,000 horse and foot into 
the field, his people, called Collets or Quui/ees, inhabiting a 
desert wilderness, which preserves him from being con^* 
.quered. On the right hand is another rajah, able to raise 
10^000 horse, who holds an impregnable castle in a desert 
plain. His country was subject to the government of Gid* 
ney Khan, but ho has stood on his defence for seven years^ 
refusing to pay tribute. This rajah is reported to have a 
race ofhorses superior to all others in the east, and said to 
be swifter than Uiose of Arabia^ and able to continue at 
reasonable speed a whole day without once stopping; of 
which he is said to have a stud of 100 mares. Vrom Ja-> 
lore to the city of Ahmedabad, the whole way is through h 
sandy and woody country, full of thievish beastljr men, and 
savage beasts, as lions, tygers, &c. About thirty coss round 
Ahmedabad, indigo is made, called cickelt, from a town of 
that name four coss from Ahmedabad, but this is not so good 
as that of Biana. . 

Cambaya is thirty-eight coss from Ahmedabsd, by a road 
through sands and woods, much infested by thieves. Cam- 
bay is on the coast of a gulf of the same name^ encompass- 
ed by a strong brick wall, having high and faandscmie 
houses, forming straight paved streets, each of which has a 
gate at cither end. it has an excellent bazar, abounding 
in cloth of all kinds, and valuable drugs, and is so inuch 
freqnented by the Portuguese, that there are oAen fiOO fri- 
gates or ffraoB riding there. The gulf or bay is eight coss 
over, and is exceedingly dangerous to navigate on account 
of the great boref which drowns many, so that it requires 
skilfiil pilots well acquainted with the tides. At ne^ tides 
is the least danger. Thieves also^ when you are over the 
channel, are not a little dangerous, forcing merchants, if 


^ This is very singular, to find Uberti/ and equality in the mouths of 
Indian despots and slaves, — £• 

<HAF. 3t* stiTt. n. EngliA East India Company* S05 

not the better provide, to qttit their goods^ or by long dis* 
pate betrsyiiig them to the niry of the tide^ which comes 
with sach swiftness that it is t^n to one if any escape. Cam<^ 
bay is infested with an infinite nnmber of monkies, which 
are continoaUy leaping from house to house, doing much 
mischief and untiling we houses, so that people in the streets 
are in danger of being felled by the fallifig stones. 

FiTe coss from Cambay is Jtembosier, now much ruined, 
and th^Qce ei^teen coss to Broach, a woody and danger^ 
ous journey, m which are many peacocks. Within four 
coss of Broach is a great mine of agates. Broach is a fair 
castle, seated on a river twice as broad as the Thames, call* 
ed the Nerbuddahf the mouth of which is twelve coss from 
thencd. Here are made rich baffatas, much surpassing 
Holland cloth in fineness, which cost fifty rupees the hook^ 
each of fourteen English yards, not three quarters broad. 
Hence to Fariaw^ twenty coss, is a goodly country, fertile^ 
and full of villafies, abounding in wild date trees, which are 
usually plentiftiTby the sea-side in most places, from which 
they draw a liquor called Tarrie, Sure, or Toddic, as also 
fix>m a wild cocoa-tree called Tarrie. Hence to Surat is 
three coss^ being the <dose of the itinerary of Nicolas U£> 

The city of Agra has not been in repute above 50 yeiu*s,^ 
having only been a village till the reign of Akbar, who re^ 
moved his residence to tnis place from Futtipoor, as already 
mentioned, for want of good water. It is now a lat|;e city, 
and populous beyond measure, so that it is very difficult to 
pass through the streets, which are mostly narrow and dir- 
ty, save only the great Bazar and a few others, which are 
large and handsome. The city is somewhat in the form of 
a crescent, on the convexity of a bend of the Jumna, being 
about five coss in length on the land side, and as much 
along the banks of the river, on which are many goodly 
houses of the nobles, overlooking the Jumna, which runs 
with a swift current from N. W. to S.E. to join the Ganges. 
On the banks of the river stands the castle, one of the fair- 
est and most admirable buildings in all the Ecist, some three 


' This of course is to be understood as referring back from 1611, when 
Finch was there. We have here omitted a long uninteresting and con« 
fiised account of many parts of India, which could only have swelled our 
pages, without conveying any useful information. — E» 

904 Earfy F.oynges ffthe ?art ii* book uu 

or four miles in circuit, inclosed by a fine and strong wall 

of squared stones, around which is a fair ditch with draw- 
bridges. The walls are built with bulwarks or towers some- 
what defensible, havinfjr a counterscarp without, some fif- 
teen yards broad. WitbijQ are two other strong walls with 

There are four gales to the castle. One to the north, 
leading to a rampart having many large cannon. Aupther 
westwards, leading to the bazar, called the CicAery g^t 
within which is the judgment-seat of the ca$i, or chief judge 
in all mattera of law; and beside this gate are two or three 
murderers,, or very large pieces of brass cannon, one of which 
is fifteen feet long ana three feet diameter in the bore. Over 
against the judgmentnseat of the casi, is the Cichery, or court 
of rolls, where the grand vizier sits about three hours every 
morning, through whose hands pass all matters respecting 
rents, grants, lands, firmans, debts, &c. Beyond these two 
gates, you pass a third leading into a fair street, with houses 
and munition along both sides; and at the end of this street, 
being a quarter ot a mile long, you come to the third gate, 
whi(^ leads to the king's durbar. This gate is always chain- 
ed, uU men alighting here except the. king and his children. 
This gate is called Akbar drowage ; close within which many 
liundred danciug girls and singers attend day and night, to 
be ever ready when the king or any of his women please to 
send tor tliem, to sing and dance in the moholls, all of them 
having stipends from ihe king according to their respective 
unworthy worth. 

The fourth gate is to the river, called the Denanef leadii^ 
to a fair court extending alung the river, where the king 
looks out every morning at sun*rising, which he salutes, 
and then his nobles resort to their tessilam. Right under 
the place where he looks out, is a kind of scafibld on whicl^ 
the nobles stand, but the addees and others wait in the court 
below. Here likewise the king comes every day at noon to 
see the tama&han^ or fighting with elephants, lions, and bui^ 
faloes, and killing of deer by leopards. This is the custom 
every day of the week except Sunday,' on which there is no 
fighting. Tuesdays are peculiarly the days of blood both 
for fi^img beasts and killing men \ as on that day the 


' ^ Probably Friday is here meant, being the Sabbath of the Mahomet- 
ans. — E. 

OHAP. X. 6E€T. vi« English East India Company. 305 

king (sits in jjiidgment^ and sees it put in execution. With- 
in me third gate, formerly mentioned, you enter a spacious 
pourt, with atescannas all arched round, like shops or open 
stalls, in which the king's captains, according to their seve- 
ral degrees, keep their seventh day chackees^^ A little far^ 
ther on you enter throiiigh a rail into an inner court, into 
which none are admitted except the kuig's adtkes^ and men 
of some quality, under pain of a hearty thwacking from the 
porter's cudgels, which they lay on load without respect of 

, Being entered^ you approach the king's durbar, or royal 
seat, before which is a small court inclosed with rails^ and 
covered over head with rich semiane^ or awnings, to keep 
away the sun. Here aloft in a gallery sits the king in his 
(Chair of state, accompanied by his sons and chief vizier, who 
go up by a short ladder from the court, none other being 
allowed to go up unless called, e:{cc^pt two punkaws to fan 
inm, and Dight before him is a third piinkaw on a scaiFold, 
who makes navock of the poor flies with a horse's tail. On 
the wall behind the king, on his right hand^ is a picture of 
.our Saviour, and on his left, of the Virgin, On the farther 
side of the court of presence hang golden bells, by ringing 
which^ if any one be oppressed, and is refused justice by the 
king's officers, he is called in and the matter discussea be- 
fore the king. But let them be sure their cause is good, lest 
they be punished for presuming to trouble the king. The king 
comes to his durbar every day between three and four 
o'clock, when thousands resort to shew their duty, every 
one taking. place according to his rank. He remains here 
till the evening, hearing various matters, receiving news or 
letters, which are read by his viziers, granting suits, and so 
forth: All which time the royal drum continually beats, 
.und many instruments of music are sounded from a gallery 
on the opposite building. His elephants and horses in the 
mean time are. led past, in brave order, doing their tessi- 
lamj or obeisance, and are examined by proper officers to 
see that they are properly cared for, and in a thriving con- 
VOL. VIII. u Some 

'<^ Mr Finch perpetually forgets that his readers in England were not 
acquainted with the language of India, and leaves these eastern terms un- 
explained ; in which he has been inconveniently copied by most subse- 
quent travellers in the East. Chockees in the test, probably means turns 
9f daty on guard.— £. 

306 Early Voyages of the part ii. book in. 

Some add'* that Agra has no walls, and is only surround* 
cd by a dry ditch, beyond which are extensive suburbs, the 
city and suburbs being seven miles long and three broad. 
The houses of the nobility and mercharits are built of brick 
and stone, with flat roofs, but those of the common people 
have only mud walls and thatched roofs, owing to which 
there arc often terrible fires. The city has six gates. The 
river Jumna is broader than the Thames at London, and 
has many boats and barges, some of them of 10(> tons l>ur- 
den ; but these cannot return against the stream. From 
Agra to Lahore, a distance of 600 miles, the road is set on 
both sides with mulberry trees. 

The tomb of the late emperor Akbar is three coss from 
Agra, on the road to Lahore, in the middle of a large and 
beautiful garden, surrounded with brick walls, near two 
miles in circuit. It is to have four gates, only one of which 
is yet in hand, each of which, if answerable to their foun- 
dations^ will be able to receive a great prince with a rea- 
sonable train. On the way-side is a spacious mohoH, in- 
tended by the king for his father s women to remain and 
end their days, deploring for their deceased lord, each en- 
' joying the lands they formerly held, the chief having the 
' pay or rents of 5000 horse. In the centre ot this garden is 
• the tomb, a square of about three quarters of a mile in cir- 
cuit. The fir^t inclosure is a curious rail, to which you as- 
cend by six steps into a small square garden, divided into 
quarters, having fine tanks ; the whole garden behig plant- 
ed with a variety of sweet-smelling flowers and shrubs. Ad- 
joining to this is the tomb, likewise square, all of hewn 
stone, with spacious galleries on each side, having a small 
beautiful turret at each corner, arched over head, and co- 
vered with fine n)arble. Between corner and corner are 
four other turrets at equal distances. Here, within a gol- 
den cofiin, reposes the body of the late monarch, who some- 
times thought the world too small for him. It is nothing 
near finished, aiter ten years labour, although there are 
continually employed on the mausoleum and other build- 
ings, as the moholl and gates, more than 3000 men^ The 
stone is brought from an excellent quarry near Futtipoor, 


" At this piece, Ptirchas remarks, *' that this addition is from a written 
bick, tiititltd, A Dibcourse of Agra ard the Four principal Ways to it. 
I know not ty what author^ unless it be Nicholas Ufflet'' — Furch. 

CHAP. X. SECT. vxi. English East India Company^ 807 

fiMrmerly mentioned^ and may be cut like timber by means 
fif saw!?9 so that planks for ceilings are made from it,. almost 
of any size. 

Section VII. 

Foyage of Captain David Middleton, in 1607, to Bantam 

and (he Moluccas.^ 

• * 


Captain David Middleton in the Consent, appears to 
liave been intended to accompany the fleet under Captain 
Keeling. But, setting out on the 12th March, 1607, from 
Tilbury Hope, while Captain Keeling did not reach the 
Downs till the 1st April, Middletpn either missed the other 
ships at the appointed rendezvous, or purposely went ou 
•done. The latter is more probable, as Piirchas observes 
that the Consent kept no concent with her consorts. By the 
title in Purchas, we learn that the Consent was a vessel of 
115 tons burden. This short narrative appears ,to have 
been written by some person on board, but his name is not 
mentioned. It has evidently suffered the pruning knife of 
Purchas, as it commences abruptly at Saldanha bay, and 
breaks off in a similar mann^ at Bantam. Yet, in the pre- 
sent version, it has been a little farther curtailed, by omit- 
ting several uninteresting circumstances of weather and 
other log-book notices. — ^£. 

We anchored in Saldanha roads on the 16th July, 1607, 
with all our men in good health ; only that Peter Lrambert 
fell from the top-mast head the day before, of which he 
died. The 21st, the captain and master went to Penguin 
island, three leagues from the road. This island does not 
exceed three miles long by two in breadth ; yet, in my opi- 
nion, no island in the world is more frequented by seals and 
fowls than this, which abounds with penguins, wild-geese, 
ducks, pelicans, and various other fowls. You may drive 
500 penguins together in a flock, and the seals are in thou- 

' Porch. Pilgr. L 226. Astl. 1. 332. 

dOS Earfy Vojfages of the pabt ii. book in. 

sands ti^etfaer on the shore. Having well refreshed our 
men, and bought some cattle, we weighed anchor about 
four in the morning of the 29th July, and came oat of the 
roads with very little wind, all our men in perfect healthy 
yet loth to depart without the company of our other two 
ships. But all our business being ended, and being quite 
uncertain as to their arrival,* we made no farther stay, and 
directed our course for the island of St Lawrence or Ma- 

The 30th was cahn all day, till three in the afternoon, 
when we had a fresh gale at S. W. with which we passed 
the Cape of Good Hope by ten at night. The 1st August 
we were off Cape Aguil)as; and on the 27th we saw the 
ji^land of M^iu^car, some six leagues off. In the after- 
noon of the SOm we anchored in the bay of St Augustine, 
in six and a half fathoms on coarse gravel. In consequence 
of a great ledge of rocks off tli^ mouth of the bay, we fell 
to rooni'tmrds, [leeward,] of the roiid, and had to get in up- 
on a tack, having seven, six and a half, and five fathoms all 
the way, and on coming to anchor had the ledge and two 
islands to windward of us. 

The 31st, our captdin and Mr Davis went in the long- 
'boat to. view the islands, and I myself as we went sotinded 
close by the ledge, and had six ftithoms. One of the islands 
is very small, as it were a mere bank of sand with nothing 
on it. The other is about a mile long, and half a mile 
broad, and has nothing upon it but some^mall store of 
^ood. The 1st September, we weighed from our first an- 
chorage, the ground beins foul, so that our cable broke^ and 
we lost an anchor in weigning, find came within two miles . 
of the mouth of the river, where we anchored in five and a 
half fathoms fast ground, about three leagues from* our for- 
mer anchorage. We got here plenty of sheep and beeves 
for little money, and having taik^n'in wood and water, we 
weighed anchor on the 7th, taking to sea with us foiir goats, 
three sheep, and a heifer. We had an observation three 
miles from the isknd, before the bay of St Augustiile, wl^idi 
we made to be in lat. 23'' 48' S.^ 


^ The other two ships Under Kedlog (Ed not arrive at'Saldsnha haj 
till the I7th December, five months afterwards. — £• 

^ The tropic of Capricorn runs through the bay of St Augustine, being 
23^ SO' S. rather nearer the south point of the bay; so that the latitude 
in the text must err at least 16' in excess.— ^£. 

CHAP. X. SECT. Tiii EugUsh Ea9t In^ Company. 309 

The IStli November in the morning we saw an island, 
which we found to be EmanOi or the Isle of Deceit, and. 
came to its north side. This island is about five leagues in 
length, trending E. by S. and W. by N. the easter end is 
the highest, and the wester is full of trees. It is in lat 5^ 
S(y S. and the variation is 4^ IS'. Having the wind at 
W.N. W. we steered away for the main of Sumatra E. by 
S. and E.S.E. with a pleasant gale but much rain, and next 
day had sight of Sumatra about four leagues from us. We 
anchored on the 14th in Bantam roads about four p. m* 
when we found all the merchants in good health, and all 
things in good order. Next day our captain went on shore 
to speak with Mr Towerson, respecting the business of the 
ship, and it was agreed to send ashore the lead and iron we 
brought with us. This being effected, and having fitted our 
ship in gbod order, and taken in onr merchants and goods 
for the Moluccas, we took leave of the &ctory, and set sail 
for these islands on the 6th December. 

^f In the b^inning of January^ 1608, they arrived at th^ 
Moluccas. The rest cf that month and the wbple of February, 
was spent in compliments beti^reen them and the Spania^as 
and the Moluccan princes: the Spaniards not daring tp 
allow them to trade without leave Irom their camp-master ; 
and as he was embroiled with the Hollanders, he refused, 
unless they would aid him, or at least accompany their 
ships for shew of service against the Hollanders; which 
Captain Middleton refused, as contrary to bis cpmmi^sioii 
and instructions. In the mean time, they traded privately 
with the natives by night, and were jovial with the Spi^ 
niards by day, who both gave and received hearty welcome, 
in the beginning of March they had leave to trade, but this 
licence was revoked again in a few days, and they were 
commanded to be gone. Thup they spept tbi^ir time till 
the 14th March, when they weighed anchor and set ^ail, 
having some little trade by the way. This part qf the jour- 
nal is long, and I have omitted it, as also in some othqr 
parts where I thought it might be tedious."^ 

The 2Sd March, .we entered the Straits of Bangaya^^ 


^ This paragraph is by Piirchas, by whom it is placed as here in the 
text— E. 

' From circumstances in thb sequel, these Straits of Bangaya appear to 
have been between the island of Booton, in about lat. 5^ S. dnd long. 1 ss^ 
2o' £., and the south-east leg or peninsula of the island of Celebes.— £. 

310 Early Voyages of the part ir. book hi. 

where the captain proposed to seek for water. While un- 
certain where to seek it, there came off a praw from the 
island, by which we learnt that good water might be had 
on the east shore, where we anchored in 60 &thoms in a 
most cruel current. Our long-boat was then sent for water, 
conducted by the Indian who came in the praw, from whom 
our people procured some fresh fish at a cheap rate in ex- 
change for china dishes. In the morning ofthe 24th we went 
for another boat-load of water ; and this morning by day- 
break the natives came off to us in above 100 praws, carrying 
men, women, and children, and brought us great quantities 
of fish, both dried and fresh, which they sold very cheap. 
They brought us also hogs, both great and small, with 
plenty of poultry, which they sold very reasonably for coarse 
white cloth and china dishes ; likewise plantains, cassathoe 
roots, and various kinds of fruit. The natives remained on 
board the whole day in such numbers, that we could some* 
times hardly get from one part of the deck to another for 
them. In the afternoon the King of Bottone, or Boo- 
ton, sent some plantains to our captain, and a kind of liquor 
for drinking called Irea-pote^ in return for which the cap- 
tain sent back ia rich painted calico. About ten at night 
we weighed anchor, in doing which we broke the flukes of 
both our starboard anchors, for which reason we had to 
man our long-boat, and tow the ship all night against the 
current, which otherwise would have carried us farther to 
leewards than we could have made up again in three days. 
Unless we had got a fresh gale of wind, so strong is the cur- 
rent at this place. 

The 19th April the King of Booton sent one of his bro- 
thers' again on board,^ to know if he might come to see the 
ship, of which he was very desirous, having often heard of 
Englishmen, but had never seen any ; on whicli our captain 
sent him word that he should think himself much honoured 
by a visit. The king came immediately off in his cara^ 
tol, rowed by at least an hundred oars or paddles, having 
in her besides about 400 armed men, and six pieces of 
brass cannon ; being attended by five other caracols, which 
had at the least 1000 armed men in them. On coming up, 
our captain sent our surgeon, Francis Kelly, as an hostage 


^ Something has probably been here omitted by Purcfaas, as we bear 
nothing of their transactioni between the 24tb March and 1 s^th April.— -£. 

CHAP. X. SECT. VII. English East India Company. Sll 

jbr the king*s safety ; when he came on board, and was 
kindly welcomed by our captain, who invited him to par- 
take of a banquet of sweetmeats, which he readily accepted. 
Captain Midaleton then made enquiry as to what commo- 
dities the king had for sale in his dominions. He made 
. answer, that they had pearls, tortoise-shell, and some cloth 
€if their own manufacture, which we supposed might be of 
striped cotton. The king said farther, as we were unac- 
.quainted with the place, he would send a pilot to conduct 
ns. Captain Middleton then requested to see some of the 
pearls ; but he said he had not brought any with him, 
meaning only a jaunt of pleasure^ but if we would come to 
Booton, which was only a day and night's sail from thence, 
we sliould see great store of pearls, and such other things as 
he had for sale. The captain and factor, considering that 
this wa« very little out of the way to Bantam^ thought best 
.to agree to this offer^ and presented the king with a musket^ 
. II sword, ajid a pintado, thanking hini for his kindness. The 
king replied^ that he had not now any thing worth giving^ 
but prowsed to repay the^e civilities, before we left Booton, 
giving al the ^ame time two pieces of their country cloth. 

Abou^ ^ree p. m. the king took his leave, promising to 
send a pilot in all speed to carry us to the town of Booton^ 
and by the time we weighed anchor the pilot came on board. 
At nif^t the king sent one of his caracols to us, to see if 
we wanted any uiing, and to accompany us to Booton; 
sending at the s/une tiine a. goat to the captain. We stood 
for Booton with a small gale, which at night died away, so 
that w^ had to drop anchor in 22 fathoips, not willing to 
drift to leeward with the current ; . and next morning we 
again weighed and stood for Booton. 

The 22d, about ten a. m. our purser came pn board, 
having be^n sent on shore the night before, and brought 
with him som/e cojcks and hens. He told us that the Indi- 
ans had carried him to a king, who was glad to see him, ha- 
ving never before seen any Englishmen.7 At his first co- 
ming to the king's house, he was carousing and drinking 
with his nobles, all round where he sat being hung with hit- 
man heads, whom he ha^ recently slain in war. After some 
Jittle stay, the purser took his leaver and lay all night on 


' There is some strange obscurity in the text about this new kin^, 
called in the margin by Purchas the king of Cobina, — £. 

SIS Early Voyages of the pakt ir. book iiiV 

board the caracol. This night we anchored m 20 flithoiiM» 
in a strait or passage not half a mile ivide. The 23d, in the 
morning, we again weighed, and, having Tery Kttle wind, 
our long-boat toived us through Uie straits, and as the tide 
was with us wc went a-heaa a-nniin ; so that by efeveti 
o'clock a. m. we were in sight of the town of Booton, and 
canie to anchor in 25 fathoms, about a mile and a half from 
the towt), where we waited for the king to come on board, 
but he came not that night. We sent, however, our boat 
on bhore, and bought fresh fish for our company. 

The king came up under our stem about one p. m. of 
the 24tb, haTing with him some forty caraools, and rowed 
round us very gallantly, hoisting his colours and pendants ; 
after which they rowed back to the town, and our captain 
saluted them with a volley of small arms and all his great 
guns. He then caused man our long-boat, and went ashore 
to the town of Booton, accompanied by Mr Sddat and 
others. The king saluted our captain on landing, both with 
small arms and ordnance, saying that his heart was now 
contented, as he had seen the fk>glish nation, promising to 
shew our captain all the kindness in his power. The cap- 
tain humbly thanked him, and took his leave for the pre- 
sent, coming again on board. 

Next morning, the 25th April, we weighed anchor and 
stood farther into the road, anchoring again in 27 fathoms 
within half a mile of the shore. This morning there came 
on board a Javan nakhada^ or ship-master, who had a junk 
in the roads laden with cloves, which he had brought from 
Amboina, with whom Mr Siddal our factor talked, as the 
Javan offered to sell all his cloves to our captain. 

This day the king invited our captain to dine with him, 
begging him to excuse the homely fashion <^ their country. 
The meat was served up in great wooden chargers, closely 
covered up with cloths, and the king with our captain and 
Mr Siddal dined together, where we had great cheer, our 
drink being Irea^pote, which was sweet-tasted and very 
pleasant, the king oeing very merry. After dinner we had 
some talk about the cloves which we proposed to purchase; 
and the king promised to come next day on board himself, 
or to send some of his attendants, to examine our cloth. 
The captain then gave the king great thanks for his kind- 
ness, and went on board. 

The 26th, the king's uncle came off to see our ship> and 


CHAF. X. SECT. Tn. Et^Ksk Eotf IfuBa Compamf. 813 

mts Idndly entertained by the captain. The king^s brother 
came afterwards on board, and lemained to dinner with the 
eaptam, and after took leaxre. We expected the king, but 
be came not that day, sending his son and the pilot to view 
our ckyth, which they liked Tery well. The king and his 
son came on board on the 27th, and dined with the cap* 
tain, who gave them good cheer ; and the king being very 
merry, wished to see some of our people dance, which seve- 
ral of them dkl before him, when he was much pleased both 
with our dancing and music. At night the king's unde 
sent our captain tour fat hogs. 

The 28th, the king of another island near Booton came 
in his caracol, accompanied by his wife, to view our ship, 
but could not be prevailed on to come aboard. Our ship 
bdng now laden with cloves bought of the Javans, our cap- 
tain bought some slaves from the king; and while we were 
very busy this night, one of them stole out from the cabin 
and leapt into the sea to swim ashore, so that we never 
heard of him more. Next morning the captain sent Au- 
gustine Spalding, our Jurabas$aj to inform die king of the 
slave having made his escape, who presently gave him an- 

May 2d, we proceeded for Bantam, saluting the town of 
Booton at our departure with three guns. The 3d, we had 
sight of the Straits of Celebes, for which we made all sail, 
bat could not get into them that night. The 23d May, we 
anchored in the road of Bantam, where we did not find a 
single christian ship, and only four junks from China, ha- 
ving tafikties, damasks, sadns, and various other commodi*- 
ties. Having finished all our business here, the captain and 
merchants took leave on the 15th July, 1608, when we pre* 
sently made sail from the road of Bantam, bound home for 
our native England* 

Note. — At this place Purchas observes, << To avoid tiring 
the readers, the rest of this voyage homewards is omitted ; 
instead of which we have set down a table of the journal of 
this ship from the Lizard to Bantam, as set forth by John 
Davi^." — On this paragraph of Purchas, the editor of Ast- 
ley's Collection remarks, I. 335. c. *< But we meet with no 
such table in Purchas, neither is any reason assigned why 
it is omitted, so that many may believe these copies of Pur- 
chas imperfect. This Davis was probably the same who 


SH Early Koifoges of the vart if. book hi. 

-went with Sir Edward Michelbnme, and who published 
some nautical directions, as already observed.'^ 

It is singular that the editor of Astley's CoQection, with 
Purchas his Pilgrims befbie him, and perfectly aware 
of the Directions by John Davis <^ For ready sailing to the 
East Indies, digested into a plain Method, upon Experience 
of Five Voyages thither and Home again," should not have 
discovered or conjectured, that the promised table is acr 
tually published by Purchas in the first volume of his Pil- 
grims, p. 4?44! — 4}55. — £• 

Section VIII. 

Fourth Voyage of the English East India Compaty^ in 
1608, (»/ Captain Alexander Sharpey/ 


The relation of this fourth voyage fitted out by the Eng- 
lish East India Company, and of various circumstances 
arising out of it, as given by Purchas, consists of four dif- 
ferent narratives, to which the editor of Astley's CoUection 
adds a fifth, here adopted from him. The following are 
the remarks in Astley, respecting this voyage and its several 

" In this voyage there were employed two good ships ; 
the Ascension admiral, commanded by Captain Alexander 
Sharpey, general of the adventure ; and the Union vice*- 
.admiral^ under the command of Captain Richard Rowles, 
lieutenant-general. As these vessels separated at the Cape 
of Good Hope, and the Ascension was cast away in the 
bay of Cambaya, they may be considered as separate voy- 
ages, of which we have distinct relations. 

^* Inhere are two accounts extant of the voyage of the 
Ascension ; one written by Captain Robert Coverte^ and 
the other by Thomas Johes. There was a third, written 
by Henry Moris at Bantam, from the mouth of William 
Nichols, one of the sailors belonging to the Ascension ; but 
as the voyage part was the same in substance as that- given 


' Purch. Pilgr. I. 228. Astley, I. 336. 

CHAP. X. SECT. Yiii. EfigUsk East India Company* 315 

by Jones, Purcbas omitted that part^ and only inserted tbe 
journey of Nichols by land from Surat to Masulipatam ; 
which requires to be inserted, although his remarks on the 
road to Masulipatam^ and his voyage from thence to Ban- 
tam, are comprised in very few words. ' 

** The relation of Captain Coverte is not inserted in the 
Pilgrims of Purchas, who omitted it, because, as he tells us, 
it was already in print. Its title runs thus : *^ A true and 
almost incredible Report of an Englishman, that, being 
cast away in the good Ship called the Ascension, in Cam- 
baya, the furthest Part of the East Indies, travelled by Land 
through many unknown Kingdoms and great Cities. With 
a particular Description of all these Kingdoms, Cities^ and 
People. As also a Relation of their Commodities, and 
Manner of Traffic, &c. With the Discovery of a great 
Empire, called the Great Mogul, a Prince not till now 
known to the English Nation. By Captain Coverte. Lon* 
don, printed by William Hall, for Thomas Archer and 
Richard Redmer, 1612." 

*^ The circumstance of this narrative having been before 
printed, is a very insufficient reason for its omission, since 
Purchas inserted many others which were before in print, 
and few tracts had a better title for insertion, than this of 
Ooverte. De Bry, however, knew its value, and gave a 
translation of it with cuts, in his Ind. Orient, partxi. p. 1 1, 
but divided into chapters, the original being in one conti- 
nued narrative. It is true that Purchas has given an ex- 
tract from it in his Pilgrimage, book V. chap. vii. sect. 5. 
a work on general geography entirely difierent from his 
PilgrimSf or Collection of Voyages and Travels ; but this is 
very imperfect, and only refers to his lard journey. 

** This voyage of Coverte contains sixty-eight pages in 
quarto, black letter, besideathe dedication and title, which 
occupy four pages more. It is dedicated to Robert Earl of 
Salisbury, Lord High Treasurer of England ; but there is 
nothing in the dedication worth notice, except that he sfCys, 
after the wreck of the Ascension, and getting on shore with 
seventy-four others, he was the only one among them who 
would venture upon so desperate an undertaking as to travel 
home by land. He likewise asserts that every thing he re- 
lates is true, protesting that he speaks of nothing but what 
he had seen and suffered. 

^' In this place, we shall only abstract the author's voyage 


316 Earfy Voyages of the faxt ii. book hi. 

to Cambaya ; and, instead of hk journey home through In- 
dia, Persia, and Turkey, [which will be inserted among the 
Traveb, *3 sl^H ^ve the account of Jones of his own return 
from Cambaya l^ sea to England. This voyage lays claim 
to two discoveries, that of the Moguk country, as appears 
in the title, though Captain Hawkins had got the start of 
him there ; and tlie discovery of the Red Sea by the As- 
cension, as mentioned in the title of the relation by Jones 
in Purchas.** — jistley. 

In Astley's Collection, copying from Parchas, abrtef ac« 
count of the same voyage is given, as written by Thomas 
Jones, who seems to have been carpenter or boatswain of 
the Ascension, and whose narrative differs in some particu- 
lars from that of Coverte, though th^ agree in generaL 
Instead of augmenting our pages by the insertion of this 
iidditional narrative, we have only remarked in notes the 
material circumstances in which they differ. Neither can 
be supposed very accurate in dates, as both would proba- 
bly lose their journals when shipwrecked near Surat. 

We have likewise aJdded, in supplement to the narrative 
t>f Coverte, such additional circumstances as are supplied 
by Jones, after the loss of the ship.-— £* 

{1. Relation ofthu Voyage, as written by Robert Coverte.* 

We weighed anchor from Woolwich on the 14th of 
March, 1608, and came to the Downs over against Deal, 
three miles from Sandwich, where we remained till the 25th, 
when we sailed for Plymouth. Leaving that place with a 
^fair gale on the 31st, we arrived at the balvages^ 500 leagues 
from thence, on the 10th of April, and came next morning 
in sight of the Grand Canary. Casting anchor there at 
midnight, we fired a gun for a boat to come off: But the 


' This promise is not however peifdmed in Astley's Collection. In 
. the PUeriros, I* 2S5, Purchas has inserted the peregrination of Mr Jos^h 
Salbanl tlirough India, Persia, part of Turkey, the Persian Gulf, and 
Arabia, in 1609, written to Sir Thomas Smith ; and tells us in a side- 
note, that Robert Coverte was his comc^nion in the journey all the way 
through India and Persia, to Bagdet We meant to have inserted these 
^ peregrinations as a substitute for thpse of Coverte, but found the names 
of places so inexplicably corrupted > as to render the whole entirely use- 
less. — ^E. 

' Astley, I. 336.— In Astley's Collection, this person is named cap- 
tain ; but it does not appear wherefore he had this title.*-£. 

CHAP* X. SECT. vni. Ei^Ush East India Company. 817 

SpAniards, fearing we were part of a 8<|iiAdron of twelve 
HoUanders^ expected in these seas, instead of sending any 
one on board) sent into the country fot a body of 150 norse 
and foot to defend the town ; neither were their fears alra*- 
ted till two of our factors went ashore, and acquaintedthem 
that we were two £ngUsfa ships in want of some necessa- 
ries. Next morning we fired another gan, when the go^ 
pernor sent off a boat to know what we wanted. Having 
acquainted him, he made answer, thait it was not in his 
power to relieve our wants, unless we came into the roads. 
Yet, having examined our factors upon oath, they had a 
watrant for a boat at their pleasure, to go between the 
dicnre and tlie ships with whatever ^vas wanted. What we 
most wondered at, was flie behaviour of two ships then in 
the roads, known by their colours to be English^ the people 
of which had not the kindness to apprize us of the customis 
4if the subtile currish Spaniards. It is the custom hei*e, wh^ 
any foreign iship comes into the roads, that no person df 
the same nation even, or any other, must go on board with"- 
out leave from the governor and council. 

During five days that we remained here^ some of the 
Spaniards came on board every daiy, and eat and drank 
with us in an insatiable manner. The general also made a 
present to the governor of two cheeses, a gammon of bacon, 
and five or six barrels of pickled oysters, which he accepted 
very thankfully, and sent in return two or three goats and 
sheep, and plenty of onions. We there took in fresh wa- 
ter, Canary wine, marmalade of quinces at twelve-pence a 
pound, little barrds of suckets, or sweetmeats, at three kil- 
lings a barrel, oranges, lemons, pome citrons^ and excelled 
white bread baked with aniseeds, called nuns^bread. 

We set sail on the 18th April in the mornings with a 
fair wind, which fell calm in three hours, which obliged us 
to hover till the 21st, when a brisk gale sprung up, with 
which we reached Mayo, one of the Cape Verd islands, in 
the afternoon of the 27th, SOO leagues from the Canaries, 
where we came to anchor, determining to take in water at 
Bonavista ; but finding the water not clear, and two or 
three miles inland, we took the less, but had other good 
commodities. At our arrival we were told by two negroes, 
that we might have as many goats as we pleased for no- 
thing; and accordingly we got about 200 ior both ships. 
They told us also, that there were only twelve men on the 


318 Early Voyages of the . partii. book hi. 

island) and that there was plenty of white sali^roTm? out 
of the ground^^ so tliat we might have loaded both ships* 
It was excellent white salt, as clear as any that I ever saw 
in England. Eight leagues from Mayo is the island of St 

We left Mayo on the 4th May at six in the morning, 
and passed the equinoctial line at the same hour on the 
20th.' The 145th July, we came to Saldanha bay, having 
all our men in health except two, who were a little touched 
with the scurvy, but soon recovered on shore. That day 
we had sight of the Cape of Good Hope, 15 or 16 leagues 
from hence. We refreshed ourselves excellently at Sal- 
danha bay, where we took in about 400 cattle, as oxen^ 
steers, sheep, and lambs ; with fowls, plenty offish of various 
kinds, and fresh water. At Penguin island, five or six 
leagues from the land, there are abundance of the birds of 
that name, and infinite numbers of seals. With these lat* 
ter animals we filled our boat twice, and made train-oil for 
our lamps. From this island we took off six fat sheep, left 
there by the Hollanders for a pinnace which we met 200 
leagues from the Cape, and left six bullocks in their stead. 
On our first arrival at Saldanha bay, we set up our pin- 
nace, which we launched on the 5th September, and in six 
or eight days after she was rigged and fit for sea. 

The natives of the country about Saldanha bay are a very 
beastly people, especially in their feeding ; for I have seen 
them eat the guts and garbage, dung and all. They even 
eat the seals which we had cast into the river, after they 
had lain fourteen days, being then full of maggots, and 
stinking most intolerably. We saw here several sorts of 
wild beasts, some so fierce, that when we found their dens, 


* This must be understood as formed naturally by evaporation, owing 
to the heat of the sun, in some places where the sea-water stagnates af- 
ter storms or high tides. — E. 

^ Jones observes, that after passing the ]ine, they fell in with the 
trade-wind^ which blows continually between S.£. and S.£. by £. the far- 
ther one goes to the soutinvards, finding it still more easterly, all the way 
between the line and the tropic of Capricorn. This almost intolerable 
obstacle to the outward-bound India voyage, was afterwards found easy 
to be avoided, by keeping a course to the westward^ near the coast of 

Jones likewise mentions, that on the 1 1 th June, when in lat. 26^ S. 
they overtook a carak, called the Nave Palma, bound for India; which 
was afterwards lost on the coast of Solkia, "Within twelve leagues of Mo- 
zambique. — £. 

CHAP. X. SECT. Till. English East India Company, 319 

we durst neither enter nor come near them. The natives 
brought down to us ostrich eggs, some of the shells being 
empty, with a small hole at one end ; also feathers of the 
same bird, and porcupine quills, which they bartered for 
our commodities, being especially desirous of iron, esteem- 
ing old pieces of that metal far beyond gold or silver. . 

Early on the 20th September,* we came out of the bay 
and set sail ; and that night, being very dark and windy, 
we lost sight of the Union and our pinnace, called the Good 
Hope. The Union put out her ensign about five o'clock 
p. m. for what reason we never knew, and lay too all that 
night. We proceeded next day, and having various changes 
of wind, with frequent calms, we came on the 27th October 
to the latitude of 26° S. nearly in the parallel of St Law- 
rence. Continuing our course with similar weather, we 
descried two or three small islands on the 22d November 
in the morning, and that afternoon came to another oiFa very 
high land, called Comoro ' Sending our boat ashore on 
the 24th, the people met five or six of the natives, from 
whom they bought plantains. The 25th, by the aid of our 
boat towing the ship between two islands, as the wind would 
not serve, we came to anchor in the evening near the shore 
of Comoro, in between 1 7 and 20 fathoms water. 

The boat was sent ashore on the 26th with a present for 
the king, in charge of our factor, Mr Jordan^ consisting of 
two knives, a sash or turban, a looking-glass- and a comb, 
the whole about 15s. value. I'he king received these things 
very scornfully, and gave them to one of his attendants, 
hardly deigning them a look : Yet he told Mr Jordan, that 
if our general would come ashore, he might have any thing 
the country afforded, and he bowed to him very courteous- 
ly on taking leave. It appears the king had examined the 
present afterwards, and been better | /leased with it, for he 
sent off a bullock to our general m the afternoon, when the 
messenger seemed highly gratified by receiving two penny 
knives. Next day, tne general went ashore with twelve 
attendants, carrying a small banquet as a present to the 


^ Jones says the 25th, and that the subsequent storm, on the 26th, in 
which they lost sight of the Union and the pinnace, was so violent as to 
split their fore-course. — E. 

* According to Jones, they wibhed to have passed to the south of 
Madagascar, making \^hat is now called the ou>er ami usual passage, 
but could not, and were forced to take tiie channel of Mozambique. — £. 

820 Early Voyages 6fihe vxKf ii. book iii. 

king, consisting of a box of mannalade^ a bartel of sweketSt 
and some wine. These were all tasted by the English ill 
the king's presence, who touched nothing, but his noUeg 
both eat and drank. The general had some discourse with 
the ldng9 by means of an interpreter, concerning our wants^ 
and understood that he had some dealings with the Portur 
mese, which language the kuig could speak a little. The 
king had determined on the 2 8th to have gone aboard the 
Asoension, but we were told by the interpreter, that his 
Gounoy and the common people would not allow him. 

I went ashore on the 29th with the master, Mr TindaH 
and Mr Jordan, and all the trumpeters. We wei^ kindly 
Teceived at the water-side by the interprets, who ccmduct>- 
€d us to the king, who was then near his resid^ice, and 
bowed very courteously on our approach. His guard coii^ 
fiisted of six or eight men, with sharp knives a foot lon^ 
and as broad as hatchets, who went next his person. B^ 
sides these, several persons went before and many behind, 
for his defence. The natives seem very civil, kind, and 
honest ; for one of our sailors having left his sword, one of 
the natives found it and brought it to the king, who, per- 
ceiving that it belonged to one of the English, told him he 
should be assuredly put to death, if he had come by it others 
wise than he declared. Next day, oh going ashore, the in- 
terpreter returned the sword, and told us what the king 
had said on the occasion. 

The natives Ukewise have much urbanity among themi* 
selves, as we observed them, in the mornings when they 
met^ shaking hands and conversing, as if in friendly saluta- 
tion. Their manners are very modest, and both men atid 
women are straight, well-limbed, and comely* Their reli- 
gion is Mahometism, and they go almost naked, having only 
turbans on their heads, and a piece of cloth round their 
middles. The women have a piece of cloth before, coverr 
ing their breasts and reaching to the waist, with another 
piece from thence to a little below their knees, having |i 
kind of apron of sedges hanging down from a girdle^ very 
becomingly. They go all barefooted, except the king, who 
wears sandals. His dress was as follows : A white net cap 
on his head ; a scarlet vest with sleeves, but open before ; 
a piece of cloth round his middle ; and another which hung 
from his shoulders to the ground. 

When at the town, the natives brought us cocoa^nufe 


CBAP# z« 8VCT. Txsr. IJ119IU& Ea$i India Company. S21 

for sale, of various sizes, some as big as a man's head, each 
having within a quantity of liquor proportioned to its size^ 
and as much kernel as would suffice for a man's dinner. 
They brought us also goats, hens, chickens, lemons, ric^ 
milk, fish) and the like, which we bought very cheap for 
commodities; as two hens for a penny knife; lemonst 
cocoarnuts, and oranges ibr nails, broken pikes, and pieces 
of oki iron. Fresh water is scarce, being procured from 
hples made in the sands, which they lade out in cocoa-nut 
shells as fast as it springs, and so drink. They brought, 
some of it to us,, which we could not drink^ it locked so 
thidi and muddy. 

We sailed from' Comoro on the 29th November, and on 
the 10th December, at three a. m. we suddenly descried a 
low land, about a league a-head, having high trees growins 
dose to the shore. We took this at first to be the island 
of Zanzibar, till one of the natives told us it was Pemba.^ 
We immediately stood off till day-break, when we again . 
made sail for the shore, along which we veered in search of: 
a harbour or anchoring place, and sent Mr Elmore in the: 
boat to look out for a convenient watering-place. On land- . 
ing, some of the inhabitants deonanded in Portuguese who 
we were ; and being told we were fjiglish, they asked again 
-what we had to do there, as the island belonged to the King 
of Portugal ? Answer was made that we knew not this, andj 
only wanted a supply of water. The ship came next day 
to anchor, near two or three broken islands, dose by 
Pemba, m lat 5"" 20' S. The 12th, Mr Jordan went 
ashore, and conversed with some of the people in Portu- 
guese^ but they seemed not the same who had been seen 
before, as they said the king of the island was a Malabar. 
Mr Jordan told them, though the ship was English, that 
lie was a Portuguese merchant, and the goods were belong* 
Ing to Portugal. Hiey then said he should have every thing 
lie wanted, and sent a Moor to shew them the watering- 
plac^ which was a small hole at the bottom of a hill, more 
like a ditch than a wdl. Having fiBed their borachicis, or 
goat-skins, they carried the Moor aboard, and going again 
Bext day for water, set him ashcnre. The report he made 
ef his good usage, brought down another Moor who could 

VOL. viu. X speak 

^ Jones sajs they overshot Zanjtbar by the fault of their master, so 
llwt 93Sl their misfortunes seem attributable to his ignorance,-*£. 

S2d EaHy Voyages ofihc ipabt iil book nr. > 

speak a little Portuguese, and said he was one of tbeking^s^ 

This man went also on board and was well treated, and 
on landing next day, he promised to bring hens, cocoa- 
nuts, and oranges, which he did. I went this day on shore 
along with the master, Mr Revet, and some others, and 
dined on shore. When we had done dinner, there came 
two head men and a Moor slave to the watering-place, who 
asked if the chief men belonging to the ship were adiore» 
and where they were. Edward Churchman told them that 
the master and one of the merchants were ashore, and hb 
would bring us to them if they pleased. At our meeting . 
they saluted us after the Portuguese fashion^ and told us 
that we were welcome, and that every thing in the island 
was at our command : But all these sugared words were 
only a doak to their treacherous designs. . We asked who 
the chief person among them was, and were told he was 
the king'fr brother ; who immediately produced a plate of 
silver^ on which were engraven the names of all the villages 
and houses in the island, telling us that he was governor of 
all these. On asking if there were any Portuguese on the 
idand, they said no^ for they were all banished, because they 
woiild have refreshments there by force, and endeavoured 
to make slaves of the people ; wherefore they had made war 
upon them ever since their first appearance. > 

In the mean time our pinnace joined us, having been sent 
to another part of the island for cattle according to appoint- 
ment, but the people had postponed supplying them, till they 
could find an opportunity of executing their intended treach- 
ery. The people of the pinnace told us, they had been in- 
formed that fifteen sail of Hollanders had lately taken Mo- 
zambique, and put all the Portuguese to the sword. At 
this news, which came from Zanjibar, the head Moors 
seemed overjoyed, being another subtle contrivance to lead 
us on to our ruin. On the approach of night, we entreat- 
ed them to go on board with us, which they declined, but 
promised they would next day. Accordingly, he who call- 
ed himself tne king's brother came with two others on 
board, having Thomas Cave, Gabriel Brooke, and Law- 
rence Pigot, otir surgeon, as their pledges. They were 
handsomely entertained, and next morning our general 
gave the chief two eoats and a cartridge of gunpowder, 
with some trifleskto the two others. Messrs Revet, Jordan, 


CHAP. X. SECT. viit. JEt^Ush East India ConqHiny. S2i 

Glascook^. ^xid I, ^ent ashore with them for the pledges^ 

and on landing went unadvisedly along with them to sOme 

.^uses, ^nrhere we found the pledges guarded by some fifty 

Gi;^. sixty men, armed with bows and arrows, swords, buck« 

j(exa» a|id darts ; yet were they delivered to lis. We theii 

;Teturped to the pinnace, accompanied by the king's bro- 

tjher, ^post of the Moors following us, and six or seven of 

,tbem going up to the pinnace to examine it, after which 

^^qr returned to the rest. We went all into the boat^.and 

^ith^ king's brother readily came along with us, and waft 

l^urteously entertained as usual. Towards night the mas- 

i^f|0^ere4 him a knife, which he scornfully refused^ and 

immeuiately went ashore in an almadia. 

, ^, .jThe, longrboat went ashore very early of the 14th for 

..water^i aqd when the casks were filled the ship was seen with 

,)^ saik ^et down to dry; but the natives believing she was 

.>gQing. away, the companion of the king's brother came and 

iask^^d our boatswain if it were so. T^e boatswain, ias well 

,f^, Ke. could .by si^s, made him understand that it was only 

to^dry the. sails. While thus talking, our pinnace was obser* 

i(ea comipg ashore well armed^ on which the natives went 

away. Had not the pinnace made her appearance so very 

^opportunely, I belfeve they intended at this time to hav6 

Qi^ pff our mep, and seized the long-^boat, for two or more 

CI the rogues were seen lurking about the watering-place, 

,^ if waiting for the signal of attack. When our pinnace 

camp on shore, and the men were standing near on the 

J^^ds under arms, the master sent Nicholas White to the 

^fQivn, to tell the islanders that our merchants were landed^ 

^d as White was passing a house full of people^ he obser- 

;jfjl^ six Portuguese in long branched or flowered damask 

.^owns, lined with blue tafl^ta, under which they wore white 

, ralico breeches. Presently after, the attendant on the king's 

'.prother came and told Mr Revet that the native merchants 

were weary,, and requested therefore that the English would 

coi^e up to look at the cattle* Now White saw only one 

bullock and no more. Mr Revet desired to be excused^ 

fmd pressed him to send down the buUock, saying, there 

were enough of goods in the boat to pay for it; with which 

answer he went away. 

The, lung's brother was then on the sands, and gave or- 
ders to a a^o to ^ther cocoa-nuts to send to our gene- 
ral, and desired Edward Churchman to go and fetch them, 


'324* Early Voyages of the ^AftTn.Booknt 

who went accordingly, but was never seen or heard of 
moreJ Finding that the English refused to land, and stood 
on their guard, the word was given for assault, and a horn 
was sounded, upon which our men at the watering-place 
were immediately assaulted. John Harrington, the boat- 
swain's mate, was slain, and Robert Bucker, Mr Ellanor^s 
man, was sore wounded in eight or ten places, and had cer- 
tainly been killed, but that a musket or two were fired from 
the boat, by which it would seem that some of them were 
hurt, as they retired crying out. Bucker, though weak and 
faint, made a shift to get to the boat, and two or three 
other men, who were at the watering-place, got safe int6 
the boat. , 

In the morning of the 26th, the boat and pinnace went 
ashore well armed to fetch in our davy, which is a piece of 
timber by which the anchor is hauled up ; and a little be- 
yond it, they found the body of Harrington stark naked, 
which they buried in an island near Pemba. The natives 
of this island seemed well disposed towards us; for, at our 
first coming, they made signs to us, as if warning us to take 
care of having our throats cut, which we then paid no at- 
.tention to-* 

We set sail that same day from Pemba, being the 20th 
December, and by midnight our ship got aground on the 
shoals of Melinda, or Pemba, which we were not aware olj 
but got off again, by backing our sails, as the wind was veiy 
moderate. Next morning we pursued and took three small 
boats, called pangaias, which had their planks very slightly 
connected together, while another boat was endeavouring 
to come off from the land to give them notice to avoid us. 
In these boats there were above forty persons, six or eight 
of whom being comparatively pale and fair, much differing 
from the Moors, we thought to have been Portuguese ; but 


7 Jones says he was informed £iflerwards by a Portoguese^that Church* 
man afterwards died at Mombaza. He tells us likewise, that the Portt»- 
guese of Mombaza intended to have manned a Dutch hulk which had 
wintered there, on purpose to tak^ the Ascension ; but learning her forc« 
they laid that design aside, and endeavoured to circumvent them by 
means of the natives of Pemba, who are very cowardly, and dare not 
Venture on any enterprize, unless instigated by the Portuguese.-— £• 

^ This circumstance is not easily understood, unless by the natives are 
here meant negroes, as distinguished from the Moors, who endeavoured 
to murder the Engh'sh, probably at the instigation of the Portuguese* 
— £• 

CRAP. X. SECT. VIII, English East India Company. S25 

being asked^ tbey shewed their backs all over with written 
characters ; and when we still insisted they were Portu- 

§uese, they said the Portuguese were not circumcised as 
ley were.^ As we could not be satisfied of their not be- 
ing Portuguese, some of our mariners spc^e to them about 
the murder of our men, which seemed to put them in fear^ 
and they talked with each other in their own language^ 
which made us suspect they were meditating some despe- 
rate attempt. For this reason, I remained watchful on the 
poop of our ship, looking carefully after our swords, which 
lay naked in the master's cabin, which they too seemed to 
have their eyes upon. They seemed likewise to notice the 
place where I and Mr Glascock had laid our swords, and 
.anxiously waiting for the place being clear. They even 
beckoned several timesTor me to come down upon the spar- 
deck^ which I refused, lest they might have taken that op- 
portunity to seize our weapons, which would have enabled 
them to do much more mischief than they afterwards did.. 
Our master, Philip de Grove, came soon afterwards on 
the spar-deck^ and asking for their pilot, took him down 
into his cabin to shew him his plat or chart, which he ex- | 

amined very attentively; but on leaving the others to go | 

with the master, he spoke something to them in the Moors 
language which we did not understand, but which we af- 
terwards supposed was warning them to be on their guard 
to assault us as soon as he gave the signal. It was reported 
that the pilot had a concealed knife, for which he was 
searched ; but he very adroitly contrived to shift it, and 
therewith stabbed our master m the belly, and then cried 
out. This probably was the signal for the rest, for they 
immediately began the attack. cm our people on the spar- 
deck. The general, with Messrs Glascock and Tindal, and 
one or two more, happened to be there at the tim^ and 
had the good fortune to kiU four or five of the white rogues, 
and made such havoc amonff the rest that at length thqr 
slew near forty of them, and brought the rest under subjec- 
tion. A little before this, our master had proposed to the 
generid to boy firom them some garaxmnces, or pease, the 
ordinary food of the country, if they had any for sale, and 


® These men were probably tawny Moon, or Arabs of pure descent ; | 

whereas many of the Mahometans along the eastern shore of Aliica, and 
IB its islands, are of m»ed blood, partly negro.-^£. j 

336 Earhf Foyages of the part ii. book iii* 

then to set them at liberty with their boats and goods. To 
this the general had agreed, and the master,.as before men- 
tioned, had called the Moorish pilot, to see if he had any 
fikm in charts. But as they had treacherously attackecf uSf 
we certainly could do no otherwise now than slay them in 
our own defence. Five or six of them, however, leapt over- 
board, and recovered a pangdia by their astonishing swift- 
ness in swimming, and escaped on shore, as th^ swamf to 
windward faster than our pinnace could row. 

In this skirmish only three of our men were hqrty.iianiao 
ly, Mr Glascock, Mr Tindal, and our master.*** The first 
had two wounds^ one of which was very deep in the baclc. 
When they commenced the attack, Mr Tindai had no wea* 
pon in his hand, and one of them aimed to stab him in tl^e 
breast; but as he turned suddenly round, he received the 
wound on his arm. They all recovered perfectly. 

The 19th of January, 1609, we espied many islands, 
which the Portuguese call Almirante,*' being nine in num- 
ber^ and all without inhabitants, as the Portuguese affirm- 
Next morning we sent our pinnace to one of them in search 
of fresh water, which could not be found, but our people 
saw many land tortoises, and brought six on board. We 
then went to another of these islands, where we came to aii- 
dior in twelve or thirteen fathoms in a tolerably good birth^ 
and here we refreshed ourselves with water, cocoa-nuts, 
^sh, palmitos, and turtle-doves,** which last were in great 
plenty. The 1st of February we set sail with a fair wind, 
and passed the line on the I9lh, having previously on the 
15th come within ken of the land on the coast of Melinda. 
W^ came to anchor next day on the coast of the continent, 
in 12 fathoms, about two leagues from shore, and sent our 
pipnace to seek refreshments ; but tfaev were unable to land, 
and the natives could not be induced to adventure within 
hearing, wherefore our ship departed in the afternoon. 
,;AboMt thjs time, William Acton, on^ pf the ship boys, 


' ^^ Accoi^iog to Jones, be personally slew the Moorish pilot in this 
affi^y. One of the persons wounded on this occasion was the chaplain, 
but his name is not mentioned. Great lamentation was made by the 
-" "l^fo^rs en thei coast of Africa for their loss in this afiair» as Jones was 
told afterwards by the Portuguese, as some of theni, probably those men* 
*^ti6ned as whit^ rogues by Coverte, were of the blood royal.:— E. 

'*' C^ed by Jones the Desolate Islands, because not inhabited. — E, 
'^ Jones says these turtle-doves were so tame that on^ man niigh( have 
taken twenty dozen in a day with his hands.— £. 


CHAP. X. SECT. VIII. English East India Company, S2T 

ccaifeBsed beins gaiky of a foul and detestable crime ;'' and 
being tried and found guilty by a jury, was condemned and 
executed on the morning of the 3d March. 

The 21st betimes, we espied an island in lat 12^ 17' N. 
iwith four rocks or hills about three leagues from it. We 
|iad beaten up a whole day and night to get to this island ; 
but finding it barren and unpeopled, we passed on, and got 
«igbt of three other islands that same day about sun-set, in 
]at. 12"* 29' N* Two were about a lea^e asunder, and we 
found the third to be Socotora, which is in lat. 12® 24' N. 
We arrLeed here the 29th March, and came to anchor next 
jday in a fine bay. As the islanders lighted a fire on seeing 
us, we sent the skiff on shore, but the people fled in aJQ[ 
bfliste, having possibly been injured by some who had pass- 
.ed that way. Finding no prospect of any relief here, our 
men returned on boards when we again made sail to find 
the chief harbour. 

Standing out to sea next day, we met a ship from Guze- 
xat, laden with cotton, calico, and pintados or chintz, and 
bound for Acheen.'^ As they told us it was a place of great 
trade, we went there along with her, but we found it quite 
otherwise, being merely a garrison town with many sol- 
diers. There is a castle at the entrance cut out of the main 
land, and surrounded by the sea, having thirty-two pieces 
of ordnance, and there were fifty in the town. Arriving 
there the 10th April, the people of the Guzerat ship lancf 
ed, and told the governor that an English ship had come 
to trade there. The governor sent his admiral to invite 
our general, who went very unadvisedly on shore, where he 
and his attendants were received with much courtesy, three 
or four horses waiting for his use, and was brought in great 
pomp to the governor. Finding our general but a simple 
man, the governor put him into a ho^se with a chiam, or 


'^ In the last paragraph but one of bis book, Mr Coverte explains the 
nature of this crime : '* Philip de Grove, our master, was a Fleming, and 
an arch villain, for this boy confessed to myself that he was a detestable 
sodomite. Hence, bad not the mercy of Uod been great, it was a won- 
<ler oar ship did not sink in the ocean." — ^For any thing that appears^ the 
boy was put to death to save the master. — AsU. I. 348. c. 

In Jones's Narrative no notice is taken of this crime and pumshment. 

'^ Jones says she belonged to Diu, but told the English she was frots 
Surat, and gave them an account of the arrival of Captain Hawkins at 
ihat place.— E. *' 

S2S Early FiHfu^es tfthe .part ii. book in» 

k^er, and a strong guard of janissaries, and kepi him and 
his attendants prisoners for six weeks, I being of fihe nimi'- 
bcr. The governor then obliged him to semi aboard finr 
iron^ tin, and doth, to the value of 2500 dollars, pfet^iding 
that he meant to purchase the goods ^ but when once cm 
fehore, he seueed them under pretence of customs. Seeing 
he could get no more, he sent the general aboard on the 
27tb May, but detained two of our merchants as pledges 
for payment of 2000 dollars, which he said was for anchor- 
age : But as we all declared against siibitiitting to pay this 
arbitrary exaction, the governor sent our two merchants to 
the Pacha at Sanaa, about eight days journey up the 

The 28th of May, we were joined by our pinnace^ the 
'Good Hope, the master of which, John Luffkin, had been 
knocked in the head with a mallet by Thomas Clarke, with 
the consent of Francis Driver, master's mate^'' together 
with Andrew Evans and Edward Hilles. Being asked the 
reason for this murder, they could only allege being refused 
some aqua vita and rom solisy which Luffkin wished to pre-> 
serve for the crew in case of sickness. A jury was called on 
the 31st May, when the murderers were convicted ; of whom 
Driver and Clarke were hanged in the pinnace. The other 
two met their deserts, for Hilles was eaten by canibals,'* 
and Evans rotted where he lay. 

The 3d June, we departed from Aden, and sailed into the 
Bed Sea through the Straits of Mecca.^' This strait is 
about a league in breadth, and three leagues in length, with 
an island in the middle, and 18 fathoms water close to the 
island. Within the straits there is a shoal some two leagues 
offshore^ which it is necessary to keep clear from. From 
the .straits it is about six leagues to Mokba, where is a 
road and fair ground for vessels to ride in 14 fathoms, 
port is never without shipping, being a place of great 
trade, and frequented by caravans from Sanaa, Mecca, 
Cairo, and Alexandria. There is good vent here for tin, 


^^ Jones calls Clarke master Vmate, and Driver gunner. — B. 

'^ Hilles was left at Madagascar, where perhaps he might be eaten.--*> 
Astl. 343. c. 

'^ In the original it is Mockoo, and on the margin Moha, but these 
.are not the Straits of Mokha, but of Mecca^— Astl. I. 34h. b. 

The proper name of the entrance into the Red Sea is Bab-al-Mondub, 
usually called Babel mandel, signifying the gates of lameDtatioD^ owing tm 
the gangers of the navigation outwards to ladia.— £• 

GVAF. z« sicr. Till. EngUsk Easi India Compawf. 829 

maif lead) cloih, swOrd-blades, and all kinds of English 
ocHlimodities. It has a great batar^ or market, every day 
in the week ; and has plenty of apricots, quinces, dates^ 
grapes, peaches, lemons, and plantains, which I much won<* 
dered at, as the inhabitants told me they had no rain for 
seven years before^ and yet there was abundance of good 
oom to be had at l%d^ a bushel. There is such abundance 
of cattle, sheep, and goats, that we got an ox for three dol^ 
lars, and a goat for half a dollar. Of dolphins, mow-fish^ 
basse, mullets, and other good fish, there was such plenty^ 
that we could buy as mUch for %d. as would suffice ten men 
fbr a meal* The town is under the government of the Turks^ 
who punish the Arabians severely fbr atiy offence, having 
gallies for that purpose, otherwise they would be unable td 
keep them in awe and under subjection. 

We departed from Mokha 6n the 18th July, repassing 
the straits^ where we lost two anchors. Froih thence we 
sailed to Socotora, and about the 5th August cast anchor 
Opposite the town of Saiob, or Sawb^ where the king resides. 
One of our merchants went ashore, desiring leave to pur- 
chase water, goats, and other provisions, which he refused) 
alleging that the women were much afraid of us ; but tf we 
would remove to another anchorage about five leagues ofi^ 
we might have every thing his country afforded. We ac« 
eordingly went there, where we bought water, goats, aloes, 
dragoirs blood, &c. We set sail from Socotora on the 18th'* 
[August?], and on the 28th came to Moa,'' where one of 
the natives told us we might have a pilot fbr 20 dollars to 
bring us to the road of Surat, but our wilful master re*- 
fused, saying that he had no need of a pilot. 

The 29th [August?] we proceeded, thinking to bit the 
channel for the bar of Surat, getting first from ten fathoms 
into seven, and afterwards into six and a half. We now tack- 

*B This date is inexplicable^ but was probabty the 18th of Aii|[U0t ; th6 
month being omitted by the editor of Astley's Collection^ in the hurry of 
abbreviation. — £ . 

'^ Jones says they fell in with the coast of Diu about eij;ht leagues to 
the eastward of that place, and steering seven leagues more along the 
coast, came to anchor at a head-land, wh^re they sent the skiflT ashore^ 
and boi^t sheep and other things, and were here offered a pilot to Su- 
rat for seven dollars. Fifiteen leagues east frotn Diu would bring them 
to near Wagnagur, almost directly west from Surat river, on the opposite 
coast of the Gulf of Cambay* Moa was probably a village on the coast. 
— E. 

8dO Early Voyages of the . . taut ih book ul. 

cd westwards, and deepened our water to fifteen fiifliaiDs; 
but the next tack brought us into five. When some of the 
(Company asked the master where he proposed going ? hean- 
sweredf tjxe vessel must go aver the height. The ship imm&* 
diatelv struck, which I told him of. On hearing |fais he cried 
out, Who dares to say the ship has str.uck F and had scarce- 
ly spoken these words when she struck again with such 
violence that the rudder broke off and was Ipst,^^ We then 
came to anchor, and rode there for two days ; after which 
our skiff was split in pieces, so that we now only had our 
Ionff*boat to help us in our utmost need. But our people 
maoe a shift to get the pieces of the skiff into the ship^ which 
our carpenter contrived to bind together with waldings, so 
that* in the extremity pf our distress, she brought sixteen 
people pn shore. 

The @d September, about six p. m. the ship again struck 
and began to founder, having .presently two feet water in 
the weU- We plied our pumps till eleven ; but the water 
increased so fast that we could continue no longer on board, 
and took to our boats. About <£ 10,000 in money lay be*- 
^een the main-mast and steerage, of which the general de<» 
aired the people to take what they would ; and 1 think they 
took among them about <£S000 ; some having c£50, some 
«£'40, and others more or less. We now quitted our ill-fa- 
ted and ill-pianaged ship, without taking a morsel of meat 
or a single drop of drink along with us; putting off for the 
shor^, which lay about twenty leagues to the eastward, be- 
tween midnight and one in the morning. We sdled and 
rowed all night and next day till five or six in the evening, 
without any sustenance, when we reached a small island on 
the bar. But just then, a sudden squall of wind broke the 
piiddle thwart of our long-boat, in which were fifty-five 
persons. But we saved our mast, and when the gust ceased 
we got over the bar into the river of Gundewee.*^ 

When the people of the country saw so many men in two 
boats, they beat their drums and ran to arms, taking us for 
Portuguese coming to plunder some of their towns. Ob- 

^^ According to Jones they attempted the shoals of Surat river at the 
last quarter of the ebb ; whereas if they bad taken the first quarter of 
the flood tid^y they would have had sufficient water to carry them clear 
pver the shoals. — £. 

" Gundavee, a small river, on which is a town of the same xiamci fiv» 
leagues south from the river of Surat.— £• 


tTttAP. X. s£CT. VIII. Engluh Easi India Company. S3 1 

iserving their alarin^ and having a native of Gnzerat anuMie 
lis, we set him on shore to undeceive the inhabitants ; and 
as soon as they knew who we were, thej directed us to the 
city of Guodavee, of which a great man was governor, who 
seemed sorrv for oar misfortunes, and gave us a kind wel- 
come; arid here ended our unfortunate voyage* 

§2. Stwplement to the foregoing Narrativeffrom the Aceoimt 
of the same unforttmate Voyage, by Thomat Jbnef.' 

Thus was our tall ship lost, to the great detriment of the 
Vorshipful company, and the utter ruin of all us poor mth- 
riners, our voyage being altogether overthrown, with the 
loss of all the treasure and goods both of the merchants and 
all of us, who were now fer from our native country. We 
took to our boats on the night of the 5th September, it be- 
ing almost miraculous that in two sd small boats so manv 
men should be saved, being at the least eighteen ledgtai 
'from the shore.^ We remained at sea in our boats till 
about four p. m. of the 6th, when we discovered land, wliidi 
we made towards by all the means in our power, endeavoar- 
'ing to get into the river of Surat. But Providetioe, which 
had already saved us from the shipwreck, would not now 
suffer us to &11 into the hands <^ our enemies the F&ltki- 
'gaese, who then lay off the bar of Surat with five fngates 
to take us and our boats, as th^ had intelligeAce of the in- 
tended coming of our ill-fated ship ; for, contrary to onr 
imh and intention, we fell in with the river of Gondavee, 
about five leagues to the southward of the bar of Soraty 
where we were kindly entertained by the governor of the 
town. We here learnt that our pinnace had come into the 
same river, and had been taken |M)S8e8sion of by the Portit- 
gucze, but all her men got ashore, and were gone by land to 

The governor of this town of Gundavee is a Banian, and 

one of those people who observe the law of Pythagoras* 

' They hold it a great sin to eat of any thing that hath life^ 

' but me on that which the earth natural^ produces. They 


* Porch. Fflgr. L 938. AstL L S44. We have here given cnfy to much 
of the nanative of Jones as supplies additional circumstanoes after the 
fioA of that by Coverte.— E. 

^ This sorely b a gross error, as they coold hardly exceed the dislanoe 
of a league or two from shore, thoi^b the shore it said in the former 
namtive tohave been twenty leagues fiom where the tbip waslost^—E. 

SS2 JSarfy Fojfoges of the part u. book uu 

likewise hold the cow in, great honour and reverence, and 
also observe the ancient custom of burning their de&id* It 
has also been an ancient custom among them^ for the wo- 
men to bum themselves alive along with the bodies of thai: 
deceased husbands.; but of late years they have learnt more 
wisdom^ and do not use this custom so commonly ; yet those 
women who do not, have their hair cut out, and are ever 
afterwards held as dishonoured, for refusing to accompany 
their husbands into the other world. 

On the 7th of September, we left Gundavee to travel by 
land to Surat, whidi m^ht be isome thirty or forty miles 
distant, and we arrived uiere on the 9th, where we wer^ 
met by WiUiam Finch, who kept the English factory at 
that place. Captain Hawkins had gone up to Agra, whidi 
is about thirty doys journey up into the interior country 
from Surat, and at which place the King, or Emperor of 
the Moguls, resides. Our general. Captain Alexander 
Sbarpey> remained at Surat with his company till the end 
of September, when he and the rest of our people went 
from Surat to Agra, intending to go by land through Per* 
fiia in the way to England. But I, holding this to be no fit 
course, for me, determined to try some other method of en* 
deavouring to get home. While I was in much uncertainty 
bow to proceed, it {^ased God of his infinite goodness to 
aend a father of the order of St Paul, who was a Portu- 
gUiese, who came from Cambaya to Surat by land, and with 
whom J became acquainted. He offered, if I would com* 
mit myself to his guidance, to procure me a passage home, 
or at least to Portugal, and which promise he most failii- 
fillly performed. 

In company with this father, myself and three more of 
our company left Surat on the 7th of October : these were 
Richard Mellis, who died afterwards in the carak during 
oitfjvoyage to Europe, John Elmor, who was master of the 
pinnace Good Hope^ and one Robert Fox. We arrived 
at the strong town and fortress of Daman, where I again 
saw our pinnae^ the Good Hope, which we buUt at Sai- 
danha Bay, near the Cape of Bona Esperanza. From Da- 
man we went to Chaul, and thence to Goa^ where we ar- 
rived on the 18th November, 1609. 

We embuiEed on the 9th January, 1610, in a carak call- 
ed Our Lady of Pityj being admiral of a fleet of four sail 
bound for Lisbon, and immediately sailed. The 28th, we 


CHAP. X. SECT. Till. EtigUBh East India Company. 333 

crossed the equinoctial line on the eastern coast of Africft.' 
The 21st March, we feD in with the land in lat. 33* SC S. 
about five leases east of Cape Aguillas^ where we lay with 
contrary winds till the second of AprD, when we had a ter- 
rible storm at W. S. W. so that we were forced to bear up 
iHx liours before the sea,^ and then it pleased God to send 
ns feir weather. The 4th April, we again fell in with the 
land in lat. 34® 40' S. We continued driving about in sight 
of land with contrary winds, having twice sight of the Cape 
of Good Hope, yet could not possibly get beyond it, till the 
l9th April, when, by the blessing of God, we doubled the 
Cape to our no small comfort, being almost in despair, and 
feared we must have wintered at Mosambique, which is 
usual with the Portuguese* The 27th April, we crossed 
the tropic of Capricorn, and came to anchor at 8t Helena 
on the §th MaVs in lat. 15' S. We remained here water- 
ing tin the 15tn, when we weighed anchor, and crossed the 
equator on the ^d June, 

We crossed the tropic of Cancer on the 26th June, ha- 
ving the wind at N. E. which the Portuguese call theg«ie- 
tal wind. By the judgment of our pilot in the carak, we 
passed the Western Ishnds, or Azores, on the l6th July, 
being in latitude forty degrees and odd minutes, but we saw 
no land after leaving St Helena, till the 3d of August, when 
we got sight of the coast of Portugal not above two leagues 
from the rock of Lisbon, to our no small comfort, for which 
we gave thanks to God. We came that same day to an- 
chor in the road of Caskalles \Cascais] ; and the same day 
I got ashore in a boat, and so escaped from the hands of 
the Portuguese. I remained secretly in Lisbon till the 13th 
of that same month, when I embarked in a ship belonging 
to London, commanded by one Mr Steed, and bound for 
that place. We weighed anchor that day from the Bay of 
JVayerSf where a boat full of Portuguese meant to have ta- 
ken the ship and carried us all on shore, having inteUigence 
of our intended departure; but by putting out to sea we 
escaped the danger, and, God be praised, arrived at our long- 
desired home on the 17 th September, 1610, having been 
two years and six months absent from England. 

' In Purchas it is called the coast of India, an obvioua error. — E. 
^ The meaning cf this is not clear. Perhaps they had to drive witil 
the storm, being unable to ply to windward.*-£. 

334 Earhf Voyages of the paet u. book i&i 

§ 3, Additional Supplement, from the Heport of WHUam * 


At BmnKporty or Boorbanpoory most of our, company 
departed from the general. Captain Sharpe}v who was unr 
able .to provide for them, except some who. were skk andt 
were obliged to remain. Some went to one place, and some 
to another, and some back again to Surat I told my com- 
panions, being pne of those who were willing to take the 
best course we could, that I would travel, God willing, tp 
Masulipatam, where. I had learnt at Surat that there was a 
factory of the Hollanders. Kfot being able to prevail on 
any Christian to accompany me, I made enquiry at Boor- 
hanpoor if V there w^ereiiny persons going thenc^^for Ma^^ 
lipatam, and found one, but it was such a company as f^w 
Englishmen would have ventured to travel with, as it cpn-' 
tained three Jews ; but necessity hag no law. After agreie? 
ing to travel with them, I thought if I had any money, the 
dogs would cut my throat, wherefore I made away wi|l;i all 
my money, and attired myself in a Turkish habit, and set 
on along with these dogs without a penny in my purse. 

Travelling along with them for four months, I had no* 
thing to eat but what the Jews gave me ; and many times 
they refused. to give me any food, so that I was reduced to 
the necessity of eating such food as they gave their camels^, 
and was glad to get even that, tor which I had often to 
make interest witn the camel-keepers. In this miserable 
case I travelled with these dogs four months. Sometimes 
they would say to each other, ^^ Come, let us cut the throat 
of this dog, and then open his belly, for he has certainly 
swallowed his gold." Two of them would have cut my 
throat, but the third was an honest dog, and would not 

jl^at length, with many a weary days journey, and many 
• btogry belly, after long and dangerous travel, we came 


' Purcfa. Pilgr. I. 232.— ^William Nichols, according to Purchas, was w 
mariner in the Ascension, who travelled by land from Boorbanpoor to 
Masulipatam. His account of the unfortunate voyage was written at 
Bantam, 12th September, 1612, by Henrv Moris ; but being the same in 
substance with those alr^y given, Purchas has only retained the follow-' 
ing brief narrative of the route of Nichols to Masulipatam and Bantanu 

CHAP. X. SECT. ix» Emglish Eari India Company* S55 

asSe to Masulipataro, where I immediately quitt^ these 
cruel dogs, and betook myself to the Dutch factory, where 
the chief used me very kinaly, and gave me clothes and meat 
and drink for £ve months, before any shipping came there^ 
At last there came to Masulipi^m three ships belonging ta 
the Hollanders^ one called the flay, and another the Sun ; 
the third was a frigate which they had taken in the Straits 
bf Malacca. The San and the frigate being bound for Ban-% 
tam, I entreated the master of the Sun to aUow me to work 
my passage to Bantam, when he told me very kindly, he 
would not only ^ant me a passage for my work, but would 
^ve me wages, for which I gat^ him my beiu'ty thanks, 
and BO went on board. We set sail not long after from 
Masulipatam, and arrived safe at Bantam on Thursday the 
6th September, 1610, when I immediately went with a Joy- 
fiil heart to the English bouse. 

In my travel overlaid with the three Jews, I passed 
through the following fi^r towns, of which only I remember 
the names, not being able to read or write. First, from 
Brampprt [Boorhanpoor] we came to Jevaport^ Huidare^ 
and Goulcaude^* and so to MasuHpatania, 

Section IX^ 

Voyage of Captain Richard Rowles in the Union, the Consort 

of* the Ascension.^ 


^^ In PurchaS this is entitled, ^ The unhappy Voyage of 
the Vice^ Admiral, the Union, outward bound, till she ar- 
rived at Priaman, reported by a Letter which Mr Samuel 
Bradshaw sent from Priaman, by Humphry Bidulpb^^ the 
11th Mareh, 1610^ written hj the mid Henry Motii^ at 
Bantam, September the 14th, 1610.' This account given 
by Moris, the same who wrote the brief account of the 
journey . of 'Nicbdb» relating the voyage of the Union no 


^^ These names are'strangely corrupted, and the places on that route 
which most nearly resemble them are/Jalnapoor^ Oudigur, or Oudgir, 
aThd Oolconda, near Hydrabad. — E." 

' Purch. Pilgr. I. 232. AstL I. 348. 

5SG Marfy Voyages of the part n. Mox ni# 

farther than to Priaman, appears to have been only tran^- 
si^ribed by him from the letter of Mr Bradshaw, one of die* 
&ctors; yet in the preamble to the voyage, Moris says that 
he had the account from the report of others, without aii5r 
mention of the letter from Bracbhaw. What concerns the 
return of the Union from Priamao, and her being cast away 
on the coast of France, contained in the second subdivision 
of this section, is extracted from two letters, and a kind cS 
postscript by Purchas, which follow this narrative by Mo'- 

% !• Of the Voyage of the Union, after her Separation 
from the Ascension, to Acheen and Priaman* 

You have already had an account of the voyage of the 
two ships^ the Ascension and Union, from England to the 
Cape of Good Hope^ but of the proceedings of thp Union 
after her separation you have not heard ; therefore I have 
thought proper to make some relation thereof, as well as of 
Ae other, as I have heard from the report of other men^ 
and thus it was : 

The Union and Ascension were separated by a storm in 
doubling the Cape, during which storm the Union sprung 
her main-mast, and they were obliged to fish it in the midst of 
the storm, owing to which they lost company with the ad- 
miral ; and as the storm continued, and they were hopeless 
of recovering the company either of the Ascension or pin- 
nace by continuing off the Cape, they shaped their course 
for the Bay of St Augustine in Madagascar. Being arrived 
there, they went ashore, and remained twenty days, where 
they procured good refreshing, being always in hopes of 
the coiping of me Ascension and pinnace, but were disap- 
pointed. Then making sail from thence, they directed theii^ 
course for the island of Zanjibar, in hopes to meet the ge- 
neral there. On their arrival they went ashore, and were 
at first kindly received ; but when they went ashore again^ 
the natives lay in ambush, and sallied out upon them as soon 
as they landed, killed presently the purser and one mariner^ 
and took one of the merchant^ prisoner ; yet the rest had 
the good fortune to get off the boat and came on board. 
The names of those wlio were slain, were Richard Kenu, 
purser; I have forgotten the marinei's name, but the mer- 
chant, who was taken prisoner, was Kichard Wickhain. 


eBKB4 X*' sKcr. tx« JSiqi&i £ast /j^ui Cimpany. 337 

The Union put now to sea about the month of Febru- 
aiy, 1609, havuig the wind at N. E. and nordi, which was 
direcdy cbiltrdry for dieb intended voyage to Socotora* 
After having been loi^ at sea, and made little or nothing of 
thek way, the men mmg very much troubled with die 
scurvy, the captain thought proper to bear up for the north 
mrt of the island of Madagascar, meaning to go into the 
my of Antongil ; bttt they came upon the western side of 
tlie island, where tUejr proposed to endeavour the recbveiy 
of thdr almost lost men^ and to iqpeiid the adverse monsooui 
On this side of the island, they came into an exceedingly 
extensive bay, which they afterwards understood was caUed 
by the natives, Ca$iquomarra* the country round being 
very fert^e and beautiful. The first view of this place gave 
nmch pleasure to all theii? men^ and they soon had confer 
rence with th^ natives, who at the first proffered great kind- 
ness, but afterwards treated diem very iU. 

As all the merchants had been sundry times on shor^ 
vifflting the king^ who treated them kindly, and came abbard 
again as safe as if thev had been in England, the ci^ltaitt^ 
attended by Mr Bichard Reve^ chief merchant, Jeffrey 
Caste], and thrte others, adventured to go ashore to the 
king. Samuel Bradshaw had been often before employed 
about business with the king ; but it pleased God at this 
time that the captain had other business for him, and so 
made him remain on board, which was a happy turn foi* 
him : For no sooner was the captain and his atti^ndants on 
shor^ thim they were betrayed and made prisoners by the 
nadves ; but by the kind providence of the Almighty, the 
boats escaped, and came presendy off to the ship, inform-^ 
ing us of all that had happened. 

No sooner was diis doleftil news communicated, than w^ 
saw such prodigious numbers of praws and large boats co- 
ming out of the river, as were qmte wonderiul. The master 
gave immediate orders to the mmner to get the ordnance iA 
readiness, which was done with all speed. The vast fleei of 
die infidels came rowing up to ourship, as if they would have 
immediately boarded her ; but by the diligence and skill of 

VOL* vui. V the 

' tn the maigiii Purdias gives Boaaiora as a sytionimous name of this 
bay. VoheniafOt or Boaroora, is a province or district at the northenl 
end of Madagascar, in which there are several large bays^ but none ha* 
ving any name resembling that in the text. The Bay of Yohemaro is on 
the east side of the island, in lat. Xdf* S(Jf S.— £• * 

33S "* Earfy Toyaga tfihe part n. book ni# 

Ae gunner and his mattes, sinking some half dozen of the 
boats, they were soon forced to retire like sheep diased by 
the wolf, faster than they had come on. But before our 
ordnance made such slaughter among them, they came up 
with so bold and determined a countenance^ and were in 
such numbers, that we verily thought they would have car- 
ried us, for the fight continued at the least two hours, before 
the effect of our ordnuice made them retire^ and tben he 
was the happiest fellow that could get fastest off, and iii^e 
continued to send our shot after them as far as our guns 
could reach. 

We remained after this in the bay for fourteen days, be* 
ing in hopes of recovering our lost captain and men, in 
^ich time we lost seven more men by a sudden disease^ 
which daunted us more than the malice of the infidels ; 
those who died were among those who fought most lustily 
with the cannon against ^ae savages, yet in two days were 
they all thrown overboard. These crosses coming upon 
us, and having no hopes to recover our captain and the 
others, we thought it folly to remain any longer at this 
place, and therefore we made haste away. Not being tho- 
roughly supplied with water, we thoi^ht good to stop a 
little time at another place not far off; but before we could 
dispatch this business, the savages made another attem^ 
with a great multitude of boats, some of them even large 
vessels, and so thick of m^i that it was wonderfol ; but they 
liked their former reception so ill, that they did not care 
for coming near a second time, and went all ashore, and pla- 
^ed themselves so as to have a view of the ship. Perceiving 
their intended purpose, and fearing some mischief in the 
night, we w:ie|ghed, and stood in towards the shore where 
the savages sat, imd gave them a whole broadside as a fare- 
well, wmch fell thick ,among them, making visibly several 
lanes through the crowds on whidi they all ran out of sight 
as fast as possible. 

We then stood out to sea, leading fourteen of our men 
behind us, seven treacherously taken prisoners by the sava- 
ges, and seven that died of sickness* We then directed 
ou,!* course for Socctora; bitf by some negligence, by not 
luffing up in time, the wind took us short, so that we could 
not fetch that island, but fell over upon the coast of Arabia. 
This was about the 4th June, and as the winter monsoon 
was come, we durst not attempt ^oing to Cambaya, neither 


. cHi^. Xi SECT. ». EngSth East In&i-Company. 339 

could we find any place upon that coast to winter in* 
Wherefiare^ after being in sight of the coast four days, and 
several times in danger of ^ettilig on shore, we thought it 
improper to waste time any Icmger, and determined to con- 
sult how we might best promote the advantage of the voy- 
age. The maister ^lerefore held a council olall the prin- 
cipal people in the ship, who were best conversant in these 
affairs, when it was unanimously concluded to go for 
Acheen, being in hopes to meet there with some of the 
Guzerat people, to whom we might dispose of our Eng- 
lish commodities. 

We accordingly directed our coarse towards Acheen^ 
where we arrived on the 27th July. Within seven days we 
.bad admittance to the king, to whom a present was made, 
which it was necessary to make somewhat large, because 
iSae Hollanders endeavoured to cross our trade, aspiring to 
engross the whole trade of India, to the exclusion oi all 
others. Wherefore^ after Mr Bradshaw had waited upon 
the king, he began to trade with the Guzerat merchants 
who we;re at Acheen, bartering our En^ish cloth and lead 
for black and white baft^ which are Guzerat cloths in 
.much request in those parts. We then went to Priaman, 
where in a short space we had trade to our full content; 
and though fortune had hitherto crossed us during all the 
voyage, we had now a fair opportunity to turn our voyage 
to sufficient profit. We staid here till we. had fully loaded 
our ship with pepper, which might indeed have been done 
much sooner, had there not been a mutiny among the peo- 
ple^ as the sailors would only do as they themselves pleaiBed* 
At length they were pacified with &ir words, and tne busi- 
ness of the ship completed. 

Griffin Maurice^ tlie master, died here, and Mr Brad- 
shaw sent Humpbjry Bidulph to Bantam, with Silvester 
&nith to bc^ him company, to carry such remainder of 
the goo4s as they could not find a market for at Priaman 
and Tecu. Mr Bidulph sailed for Bantam in a Chinese 
bulk^ and Mr Bradshaw set sail with the Union^, fully l^ea 
with pepper, for England. 

d4iO Early f^oye^ cfthe fkM ii^ book iiI. 

$ 2. Return of the tMon from Pridmait tMapSs Engldna** 

Respecting ihe disastrous return of the Union fh>m Prid- 
man, tnsteiad of a narrative^ Pinxh^ gives Ds only two let- 
teirs, whidi rdate tlie miserable condMon in which she ar- 
tived On the coast of France, uid a short su|>p}^entaTy 
aocOwDt, probably writtai by Purchas himseUv which here 

Lous Deo* in Morlaix^ the 1st ofMafrcky 1611. 

Brother Hide, 

Hiis day has come to hand a Irtter from Odwen^ [Au- 
idteme,] written by one Bag^et^ -an Irishman, Resident tit 
that place, giving Us mdst lataoeittable liews of the ASp 
Union cf LoiMon, ^ich is ashore tipon the coast about 
two lei^es from Audieme: whidb, whein die men of thfit 
town perceived, they sent two boats to her, and feand sbie 
wds a AAp -from l^e East Indies, richly laden with pdpper 
and otfher goods, having only fonr men in her alive, onie of 
whom is an Indian, other thtee lyilog tliead in the ship, 
whose bodies the four living men haa not been ableto thi^i^ 
overboard, throi]^ extreme feebleness; indeed they wei*e 
%ardly able to speak. The people in 'l3ie two boats ha'i^e 
brought the ship into the road of Audietne^ aad they of 
that tolim have unloaded mOst of h^r goods. The Irishmah 
lias directed his letter to some Eng^di merchants in tiiiis 
'place, desiring diem to repair thither widi all e^spedition, 
to isee the proper ordering of the ship lend gOods, !as bdong^ 
ingto the East India Company; 

Tliis letter is confirmed by ahodier in French, written 
by the bailiff of Qnimper to ^ person .in this tOwn^ which t 
Irave seen. Wlierefore we 4Mrve thought it right to send 
three several copies of 'the Irishman's letiter, by three difiei>- 
ent batks, that the merdiants may be duly advertised, an^ 
may give orders to look after their sfhip and goods ; iov it 


■ Purch. Pilg. I. 2S4. Astl. I. S49. 

^ This seems to have been the name of a shipf and Mr Bernard 
Cooper appears to have been an English merchant or ship-master, then 
on business with this vessel at Morlaix. — E. 

3 This^ certainly is Audieme, on the southern shore of the peninsula 
of Britanny, called Olde^eame in the subsequent letter,r— £• 

C94P* %* pi^Cr^ Vli* Enffiish ]^ Mia Canqku^. 341 

is to be doubted that the rude people will endeavour ta 
make a. wr^k of l^r. I thiok it therefore mpit amiss, that 
they send to the court of France, to procure the king^s au- 
^H&> ^ I ^ t)iere may be touch trouble about the 

Ip tl\e in^^ time^ f aqd George Robbius will ride down 
t^ see 19 If W stat^ all Uuugs are» a|id to do the best we 
can fbr tb^ iif&teire^ of the coiimauy, till they send some one 
il^il^b a procuration in ^ood and ample form for conducting 
^ l^sines^y as i^ their discretion may seem fitting. The 
d^p is r^xirted tq» be of three or &ur hundred tons, and 
l^ Af^ ijjs^ i hiitt I doubt we shall find her si^lly rifled 
ll^fear^ Ife get there, llie importunate writing, both pf the 
^ishpifin apd the bailiff of Quimper^ has ii^uced v^ ta 
^Jce t^s jit^i^ney i nt^ch we do the rather in oonsideration 
ojF the <?Q^panyy prefuming th^ they will cQi^sidei: our 
cjmvgesg, ^a we h^ye both ^dted friends, and procured 
la^p^ in, thif^ place, that we may satisfy those yrhp haye 
exerted th^pi^elyea in sayii^ the shiji^ and goods, if that 
ahcmid b^/ ^^essf^. Yet f would wish the company to 
tmi 80|[^ pfG^rsoQ^ iu all qcpedltian by way of Roueu^ with 
additips^pri^yiBipn of ^noncy ; as you know that this is no 
pl^pe of regol^ ^change^ where money oa^ be had at ^11 


. I h%d riither ha^ye gkyen fifty pounds tl^an taken this jour- 
ney at the present time, because I have much jgop^s upon 
my hands, as I pfutly wrote yoi^ in my last. 'Ine name of 
the B9Aster of the Union is Edmund White, his mate's 
name is Thomas Diickmanton, and the other man is Tho- 
vsm ^^mith, be^i^es the {^[idian fonnerly mmtip^ed- They 
tff^ ip a ippst pit?PV3 ^qpditipn^ and ip fi^reat want of iponey^^. 
^oil^er cap ^ey ii&Ye my ^^wnj^nd ofthelr gpo^. There- 
^De let tho c^pmiy sei;id men pf gpod eiqperi^pe to ^n- 
du^ thi§ bv^fs^ and do ypu lose po time in making this 
IfOl^iHi ^ tjiie cop>pa,l!;^- Thps^ being in haste tp take po;rfi^ 
1 iXfismiti y^ to.ttfl jt^wVp^Ptection, resting yqur as^^iried 


Me^<^bftpt JA Lopdon. 5 


342 JEarhf Voyaget (fthe part ii. book tit. 

Second Letter respectijig the Union at Audieme. 

^ The 8th day of February, I came over the Pole-bead of 
Bourdeaux, and the 1 Ith I lost my foremast, bolt>^rit^ and 
Tudder, and put into Aodieme that night for repair* The 
13th the Frenchman brought the ship Union of London 
upon the rocks. The 14th I went in my boat aiboard the 
Union, by which time the Frenchmen hml been four days 
in possession of her. I then brought on shore Samuel 
Smith, Thomas Duttoilton, and Edmund -White the mas- 
ter. The 15th I got William Bagget, my merchant, to 
write a letter to Morlaix; and the I8th the letter was sent 
off, when I paid two crowns for its carriage. The Indian 
died on the 20th, and I buried him. The 20tti the master 
died, and I buried him also. The S2d Mr Roberts and Mr 
Couper came, and then went back to Morlaix on the 26th, 
Again the 4th of March, William Coarey, the host of Mr 
Couper and Mr Roberts^* The 6th, 1 and Mr Coarey 
went in my boat to the Union. At low water I went into 
her hold, and brought away a sample of the worst pepper. 
The 6th I left Audieme, and came to Morlaix on the 8th. 
The 17th Mr Hide came to Morlaix. The 21st I sailed 
from. Morlaix, and got to the Isle of Wight on the 22d at 
night. The 24th I came to Southampton, and the 28th I 
arrived in London. 

Your loTing friend, 

William Wottok. 

After the spoil of the Bretons, they saved almost 200 tbn» 
of pepper, some befnzoin, and some China silks, which had 
been purchased At Tecu in Sumatra. The Union^ after 
her unfortunate voyage outward-bound, as already briefly 
related, loaded with pepper at Acheen, Priaman, Pasd^= 
man, and Tecu, at which last place they bought some silk 
out of a Chinese junk. On their return voyage, they met 
Sir Henry Middleton, having then thirt^-six men on board 
in reasonable good health, and they delivered some chests 
of silver to Sir Henry. They afterwards became very 
sickly, missed the island of St Helena, and most of their 


^ This sentence is left unintelligible by Purchas; Coarey probably 
came at this time to Audieme* Roberts is probably the person named 
ilobbins by Couper tn the former letter.— £• 

CHAP. X. SECT* x# JSitg^ East India Company. 343 

men died on tins side o£ Cape Yerd. Ten Englishmen and 
four Gtizerats were taken out of them by a bark betonging 
to Bristol, and a Scot. The circumstances respecting tlieir 
landing at Audierne, and other matters therC) are before set 
dowii in tlie two preceding letters. 

' After the' pepper and other goods were taken out of the 
ship^ she was inspected by Mr Simonson, a skilful ship- 
wright, sent thither on purpose to save her if it could oe 
don^ but she was found utterly unserviceable. AH the ordr 
nance, anchon^ and other furniture, were brought away,, 
and -the hull was abandoned. Of seventy-five men that 
wait in her from England outward-bound, only nine got 
home alive^ These were Thomas Duckmanton, the mas- 
ter's mate, Mr Buttock, the surgeon, Robert Wilson of 
Dqptford, Jacob Peterson, and five other Englishmen^ ha-^ 
sides three or four Guzerats.' 

Section X, 

I^tk Voyage of the l^nglish East ImEa Company^ in 16Q9,. 
under the Command of Captain David Middleton^ 


This narrative is said by Purchas to have been extracted 
from a letter written by Claptam David Middleton to the 
Company, and was prcmably abbreviated by Purchas, who 
certainly is not happy on such occasions. This commander 
is probably the same person who commanded the Consent 
in a former vovage; and is said by the editor of Astley'a 
Collection^ to nave been brother to Sir Henry Middleton,^ 
who commanded in the sixth voyage. One ship only, the 
Expedition belonging to London, appears to have been em- 
ployed in this fifth voyage* 


' ^ All these must have been brought home in t&e Bristol vessel and 
the Scots ships, except Duckmanton, and perhaps Smith. But Puichas 
seems to have forgot that Mr Bradshaw and flumpbry BidiUph were 
leA aKve in India. — ^£. 
» Purch. Pilgr. 1, 238. Asth I. 351. 


<P94J^ Xf.^l^* Xp JEngUA East Jndlk Con^fomf. 945 

lirhicb we i^rere becahned for tm day% ivjiich vas no snail 

Srief to me^ in mach heat under the line^ being doubtful of 
iie western inonsoon iailiug me^ which would have entirely 
disappointed my intended voyage to the Moluccas; The 
$th January^ lllO^^wie came before the town of Bootoui, 
sfiA sent on ^hojce to enquire the news. Findittg very &w 
pec^le in the town^ and the king being gone to the wars, I 
did not anchor^ but weiat through the straits the sarnie day* 
Next day we saw a great fl^t of caracols, which we iman 
gined to belong to the King of Booton^ which it actually 
did. When we d^ew near^ the ki|ig sent a snmljl praw ta 
enquire what we wer^. . I sent him word who I was, and 
being ^ecahned and in want of water, \ requested tp knpw if 
ihere were any to be had near* So the popple pointed out 
lo me a plape wher^ X n^^ht have abuna^npe of water, ia^ 
which I went. The king and all his caracols came sailing 
sfter me, and cast am^VH* nea^ our $hip; after which !»& 
kiis^ s^t a messengi^r on b^rd to welcome me in Ids nam^ 
and^desired me to send Mr Spalding to him along with the, 
messenger, to let him know the news. 

The kii]^ likewise s^tf me word, that he wished I would 
re^wn all night at anchor, as he proposed coming next: 
nioraing abpard to visit m^ and seie the ship. As it re* 
plained ealm, we <^ntinued at anchor, and next dav on the 
king coming aboard, I made a banquet for him ana his no-t 
bles, making the king a present worthy of his dignity wd; 
friendship. A ^ale of wind springing up, we prepared to 
make saiJ^ on which the king w^t, saying, I might think 
him a dissembler, as he had no goods for me f but that four 
months before his house was burnt down, in which he had 
provided for rm somewhat of evi^ry things a$ nutmegs^, 
cloves, aj^d mace^ with a large quantity orsanderH wood, 
of which he had a whole housefuJl, a^Ukewise a great ware* 
house full of his country cloth, which was very ve|idib)e in. 
all the islands thereabout. All this great loss, he said^ had. 
not fonnerlv grieved him so much as n^w, when I told him. 
I had got the ship fitted out expressly to CQU^e and buy his 
commodities* He said farther, that he saw I bad kept my 
promise ; and swore by the he^ of Mahomet he would have 

6^ S. while the text speaks of being under the line. No* other eupposi- 
tion, however^ csn agree with the circumstance pf falling ia next day 
with the fleet of BootoD.—£. 

ii& Early Voyagei of the part h. book iii« 

• ' ' . • ' 

$o done likewise, had not God laid that scourge of fire up* 
on him, by which several of his wives and other women were 
burnt. He was now, he said, engaged from home in wor 
with all his forces, the event of which could not be foreseen, 
and could not tlierefore spare any of his people to make 
any provision for me; as, if we bad not corner he had by 
this time been in the field against another king who was 
liis enemy. He pointed out the town belonging to the kmg 
"With whom he was at war, and requested me to fire again$t 
it as I went past : I answered that I was a stranger, and had 
no cause of quarrel with that king, and it would be impro*' 
per for me to make myself enemies; but if the other king 
should come while I was there, and offer any injury to him 
or his subjects, I would do my best to send them away. The 
king was quite satisfied with thi% and took his leave, ai!d 
we presently made sail. 

The 24th January we arrived at the island of Bangaia,^ 
whence the king and most of the people were fled for fear 
of some enemy, though I could not learn the truth. There 
w^ a Hollander there, who told me that the king bad fled 
ibr fear of the King of Macassar, who, he thought, wanted 
to force him to become a Mahometan, as he was an idola- 
ter. But I rather think they had fled for fear of the Hoi-* 
landers, who intended to have built a fort here, but desist- 
ed on seeing that the people fled. This single Hollander 
bore such sway, that none of those who remained in the is- 
land dared to displease him. He had two houses full of 
the young women of the island for his own use, taking as 
many women as he pleased, and had many slaves, both men 
and women. He is a pleasant companion, and will dance 
and' sing from mom to night, almost naked like the natives. 
He has won the hearts of the people, along with whom he 
will often drink for two whole days. He lives here alone, 
and will not submit to be commanded by any other Hol- 
lander. Being over against Amboyna, when the governor 
of that place wants to speak with him, he must send two of 
his merchants to remain as hostages till his return* He col- 
lects the duties for the King of Temate in all the islands^ 
hereabout, serving himself in the first place, and sending to 
the king what he pleases to sparc« 


3 From the sequel, Bangaia seems to have been near Amboyna^ on the 
iouth-west of Ceram.— £• 

(^AP. X. SECT. X. Er^BA Eak India Ompat^. S4? 

We had here abtftidance of good refreshments for out 
people, who were now, thank God, in better state than 
ii^hen we left England, not having hitherto one sick man on 
board. I had my long-boat sheathed at this place^ for fear 
of the worms destroying her bottom, as we now towed her 
always astern. We saikd from Bengaia on the 29th of Ja^ 
nUary, and on getting out to sea, found the wind right in 
oar teeth in the way we wanted to go; so that strivrng all 
we could to get to windward, we found the current set so 
fftrong against us along with the wind, carrying us directly 
aotith, so thitt we lost fifteen leagues in two days. I then 
&und myself constrained- to change my purposed voyage for 
the^ Moluccas, and bore up the helm for Banda, to which 
we could go with a flowing sheet. 

-^ 2. Occurrences at Banda ; Contests with the Hollanders; 
Trade at Ptdo^way^ and many Perils^. 

We got sight of the islands of Banda on the 5th Febru* 
ary, ana made all sail to get near before night. When near^ 
I sent my skiff to procure intelligence from some of the na- 
tives, who sent me word that the Hollanders would not al- 
low any ship to come into the roads, but would take all our 
goods, if they were such as they needed, and pay for them 
at their own pleasure. They said, likewise, that when any 
junks happened to come there with voidible commodities^ 
they were not permitted to have any intercourse with the 
people } but were brought to the back of the Dutch castle^ 
within musket-shot of tneir cannon, no one being allowed 
to set foot on shore^ under penalty of being shot. There 
were, as was said, fifteen great junks detained under the 

funs at this time. We had little hope, therefore, of ma* 
ing any profit of our voyage here, seeing that they dealt 
80 with all that came into the roads, whence they bao]3hed 
Captain Keeling, not permitting him even to gather m hia 
debts, for which they gave him bills receivable at Bantam, 
as I hope your worships have been informed by him at 
]arge. Yet for all thl% I stood into the roads, displaying 
my flag and ensign, and having a pendant at each yard* 
arm, as gallantly as we could. While we were standing in, 
a pinnace of about thirty tons came to meet us, sent by the 
governor of the castle, as believing we had been one of their 


34ai Jgar/y Fe^f^ei of tM paw Ut bj^» ip^ 

own ship I but iniDdodi^tely on JmSi^ M f^o^ b^ i|ito 
the iroadsy bq thM ^9^0 pf^k} Vve PQ 9pee<?b of h^v 

As soon as I got ftthwMt Lanf^r^ I telute^ tly^ town witli 
n\j gons» 9»d camQ to afichor within ^bpt of 4i^ ^piii 
when pf e^ently a boa^ p^me «bmrd ftoift th^^ I^iteb »wper-» 
ncMT, die^iring dje to bring my iihip ifttP JtHe tfA4f» wd tQ 
eome ashore And shew my oomms^iw- My iin^w^r w^9s tfa#t 

I was Q^ly n^^ opunp, and th«t J did not think H ppi^p?'' to 
shew uiy oovm^issioo to their gpyfflmfir» or tp mp-k^ my per- 
son 9^painted with the nature of my bu^inesf. They tbea 
asked me whetb^ my ship iW9& 9 n^n of W9V or a m^rch^nt-. 
man. To which I madie. answer} that I should pay fi>r 
wbiftteyer I had. They then tibreatened m^ on which I jsft-r 
swered, ^< Here I am, and am resolved tP abide at anj^cww 
You may do as you please^ and I hope I shall defend my- 
self as \ oi^ght.^ The Ditfch messengers thei) r^t;m*ne4 to 
the castle in a rage ; |ind they we^e no sooni^ gone, than a 

great number of the inhabitants of Lantor and the neigb- 
omrmg country canue on board. Froo$i them I l^rnl the 
^te of the country^ which was now in friendship with the 
Dutch, or rather under subjection ; and that they woul<) 
wiUiufl^y trade with me, if I qould procure p^rmi^io^^from 
the l£)ilanders. They told me at the s§mQ \me^ that the 
inhabitants of Pulo-way and I^ulp-'tronu w^e ^t wm: wid^ 
the Dutch* j^owing well that it is good to fish in trp^-. 
bled water^f and discoveriijg that a native of Pulo-w^y waa 
among the people now in my ship, I took him aside aQd 
had some private conversation with him. Qiving some 
money, I desired him tp make known to the people of his^ 
island? that I would give them money or commodities for 
aU their spice; and that, although the Hollanders wd m^ 
were likely to be enemies, I wpwc^HiiUive tp g^t thek spice 
one way or c^her. 

Th^e came another boat from the D^tch vjv^f^lidinir^. 
accompanied by the fodrmer boat from th? c^tle^ bringing 
a second message from the governcH*, expr^^y commiiij^iog 
me to come into the roads. Being our dinger time, I det^in^- 
ed the messengers to dine with me, and then tpid them th^ 
I should ride where I was ; for, af our nations were fri^da 
in Europe it would look ill for us to be enemies among the 
heathens. They then told me rQund^ they would brinsp 
me away by force. Tp which I ag^in made answer that I 


C&J^* "^k Bttft. It. Ei^h Ea$t indiit. Company. 94^d 

\|lhd^dd 6@i<leS% ridte ^^^h I Wad^ till t ^petie^ced the in- 
^liV^len^ of tlie {itoise, ibr they told the it tiras foid 

r]fufid, ^d tb^ii I sbdnfld tome to occupy the best ^ix>iuid 
thdi* fdadi^ ; ftrr heHli^ bf bur prit^ces gave any stich 
totiibi*ily to their subj^idts^ biit th^t those of th6 other uiajr 
ride or gb iks th^y please. TTiey theii said the cbuiitly was 
theirs. *< Sd ititfcJi Ae h^Sbet th^^^ said I ; «« for as our 
eoutitries are iii Meiidshi^, I may the more boldly rid^ 
%here I aui.'* UpoA this they went away much dis* 

In the evalitig I prc^osed to have lianded some ordnance 
6n the «ide eS h, hm which 'cbm»tohded the placid where t 
rode at anfchbr, that I m%ht the better be able tb drfend 
tiiysetf if the HblkiBde^ ishoi^d indlest me ; but on sending 
xmt some bf thy people to examine Ihe bottom round about 
IKbe dhipj it \^s louhd to be all foul \vlili rodks, wherefore I 
gave up the project of landing cannon. Next morning I 
sent Mr Spalding, and some others oif my priiicipal people^ 
ih the 91^^ with a letter &r die governor^ desiring dietii 
iM>t %d add a Bylkble to What I had written^ and to bring 
me off ati aftsWer ^s ifoon as {x)il;^]e. Ih this letter, after 
ofTeridg to Supply the governor i^ith any thitig he might 
want^ and deprecating hostilities beiweeA the subjects of 
iKendly poi^ers^ I offered to shew my commissioti on e(|Ual 
terms, 'if he would meet me oh the water, each in a boat 
eir|ually manned, or in any other equally secure manner. 1 
&en redtiested to be >c6nsideted as an Indian for my tno^ 
ney, and that I Nv&s willing td ^rcbase spice fVom bihi. Fi^ 
naJly^ as lie teas ^t enmity with Ae inhabitants bf Pulo-way 
fiihd Pulo*^tronu,* I deiii^ to lurdw if I mig&t have the 
spice of these ifiladd's without his hibd^^ce. 

The go^rnor would send me no answer in "writitag. Mj^ 
pedple fea^ht that thte Dutdi had here thriee large ships of 
i'OOO toni^ each, a»d thre^ pinnaces of SO tons % and that 
they proposed to lay one of llieir lai^ ships, the Great Sun> 
which was unserviceable, on board of my ship to set me oU 
fee, having put thirty barrels of powder into her for that 
express purpose, and had sworn sundry persons to bring 
her against me, and make her fast with chains^ all the boats 
bdonging to the slttps and the castle att^ding to bring 


' At this place in the orkina]^ this island is called Pul(Kon^ which is 
prdbably the right name. — ^£» 

850 Early Voyages rfthe part »• book i»; 

them off when she should be set on fire. The Great Hom^ 
likewise^ was to be brou^^t out against me, and atichored 
within musket-shot to batter us, and their frigates or pin*- 
Daces were to come round about us, to keKsp warm work oh 
all sides. Seeing them busied in warping out the Sun, my 
folks came and told me what preparations were going oik 
I therefore thought it now expedient to go on shore. to the 

Stvemor, to see what he would say to myself, before we 
ould try the fate of batde. So, taking my commissirat 
along with me, I went on shore at the castle, and was met 
«t my landing by the governor, and all the principal men 
belonging to the castle and the ships. I was led through a 
guard of 300 muleteers, who gave me three vplUes, be- 
sides which, seven pieces of canncm were fired to welcome 
me. After this I was conducted to the governor's chamT 
ber, where chairs were set for him and me, and forms for all 

the others. 

After many compliments on both sides, I addressed the 
' governor to the following ^ect: UndersUnding from my 
people whom I had sent ashore, that they considered me as 
a pirate^ having no commissi<Mi, I had come myself to sar- 
tisfy them to the contrary, having brought my commissiou> 
to make manifest that I had a regular commission under 
the great seal of the king, my master. This I shewed to 
them, reading the first line, and then wrapped it up again. 
They then desired to see it all. On which I declared that 
this wa^ more than I coukl answer for, and having already 
exhibited the great seal of England, and my name contain- 
ed in the commission, they should see no more while I had 
life. We now motioned to return on board, but they re- 
quested me to stay yet awhile. So there passed words be* 
tween us, some sweet and some sharp : But at length they 
became more mild, and called for a cup of wine ; after which 
we all rose up and went to walk about the castle, the offices 
in which were very neat, and well furnished with arms and 


Taking a favourable opportunity^ I resolved to try what 
«aoney might do, which often makes wise men blind, that 
»o 1 might procure my loading by means of large bribes. I 
ofiFered to give a thousand pounds, so that I might be sure 
of my loading, and besides to rive the chain I wore about 
*^y neck, to any one who could procure me this, md offer- 
^^ to give a higher price than they paid for the spice.. Ha- 

^ ving 

COAB. X. SECT. X. English Easi I^ia Compamf. 951 

ying set this matter afloat, and knowing that my ship rode 
in a dangerous place, I told the governor that, now he was 
siEK;i^ed X w&s not a man of war, I would bring my ship in- 
to their roads. He and his officers then said, that I i^hould 
find them ready to shew me all the friendship in their 
power. Being now late,- 1 took my leave to go on boards 
on which the governor caused all the ordtiiance of the castle 
to be fired o£f ; and as I passed the ships, they and the pin- 
naces fired their gnns till I got to my own ship. 

I<i[ext day, the 8th February, I brought my ship into the 
road, coming to anchor betwe^sn the Dutch ships, and the 
castle ; and saluted them with all my ordnance^ whi^h was 
returned by the castle^ and all the ships and pinnaces*. Im« 
mediately after coming to anchor, the governor and all the 
principfd people belonging to the castle and the ships came 
aboard to visit me, and staid to dinner; but I could neither 
prevail by arguments or gifts to get leave to purchase a sin- 
gle pound o[ spicC) Ae governor plainly telling me h^ durst 
not permit me under pain of losing his head« Seeing no 
good could be done by remaining, 1 determined to take, in 
water and try my fortune elsewhere; but on sending ashore 
for water, they made my people be accompanied by a Dutch* 
man, lest we might have any conference with the natives* 
Having procurai water, I sent Mr Spalding ashore to ac-p 
quaint the governor that I was going away, for I thought 
it wrong for me to leave the ship* The governor marvel- 
led much where I could go, as the wind was westerly, b.i^t 
Mr Spalding said he knew not«. 

While I was warping from the roads till I could get sea- 
room for setting sail, dae governor sent three pimmces tp 
accompany me, and one came in a boat with a message 
saying, that the governor commanded me not to go near 
any of these islands. To this I answered, that I was not 
under his command, and was bound for Pulo-way as quick- 
ly as I could, and he might send his ships, if he pleased, to 
drive me away if they could, for I would soon make bis JTri- 
gates* leave me. Observing the governor go on board onp 
of the frigates, and that the Dutch ships were likewise pre^ 
paring for sea, and bending their sails, I ordered my people 


- ^ On former occasions we have conjectured that by frigates, in these 
older days, very small vessels were intended ; and in the present passagQ- 
frigates and pinnaces are distinctly used as synocimous terms. — K* 


to prepare fer acci<ttl. I called thetn tocher that I mig^t 
know their Hiiads, plahihf tdlkig them, if thejr would stand 
by me, that I meant to trade at thete iskndB^ let the Hol^ 
landers do what thej wonld ; and I promised them, if an^^ 
Were maimed, he dionld have a maintenam^ during hislife^ 
which, God wilKng, I should see perft>rmed ; and farther^ 
tf they would fight manfully, that I wonM give freely among 
them every thing ill the fi^ip that was mine own. So, witn 
one consent, they aU agreed to try What strength the Hoi* 
itttiders might send against me. Seeing us making all things 
ready t6t action, the Dutch aboard the pinnaces seemed td 
think it might bfe little to their profit to guard u^ any lon-^ 
ger, and therefore bore up for thdir hanyolar. While W6 
weire warphig out, the Dutth govemor, fiiid lieutenant-go^ 
vemor of the casde, and their admiral^ were twice on board 
the pinnaces^ but what they did there I know not 

It &11 calm, What wind there was belhg westerly, atid H 
great currait set to the E. N. E. which drove us at a great 
rate. So I sent Mr Spalding in the boat, with my purser^s«> 
mate and 6ve more, giving him mOney, and desir^ him to 
inform the people of Pftilo^way, that we had parted in cfti-^ 
mity from the Hollanders, and that if they would sell me 
their spic^ I wotkldgive them money for it, and woidd have 
come myself, but wished first to get the ship to some place 
where she might ride in safHy, and would then come td 
them, either in the ship or in a pinnace which I had aboard, 
ready to set up. While my boat was abseftt^ two praws 
came from Lantor, to enquire wherefore I had gone away? 
I told them I was forced away by the current ; but desired 
them to tell the people of Lantor, that I virould giye them 
money or goods for their spice, if they would sell to me in 
prefbretice to the Hollanders, Who came to reduce their 
coiintfey to slavery. One of them said he would go first M 
Pulo-way to See my people, and would then deliver my 
message to those of Lantor. 

When Mr Spalding come ashore, the people of Pulo-way 
flocked about him, and made him welcome, but would fix. 
no price with him till I should come, ofiering to deliver 
spice on account till my arrivaL I desired Mr Spalding td 
hire me a pilot, if possible, to bring my ship near ; so the 
people of the country hired two, to whom they gave twenty 
rial^ toying that I must give as much* Mr Spalding sent 
them aboard, and desired me at the same time to send him 



moFe money aad dotky whidi I did^ th|Ui niglit. Wa now 
ho9e «f> the hellii for Cevam^ an^ came ti» a {dace called 
GeltmUOi^A reaitdtiat^j^oed foad) some thirty leaoiies Jixiw 
Banoa. As soon as possiUe w« todk a h^sey sua fasaoqgiili 
die^materiak of ouf pimiaee ashofe to set her ujp. Laboimi 
ing hcmi to get her fitted,- 1 called her the HopevsU*. T3m 
^7th March, I6IO9 we haid all things ill readinesafisir going 
to P'lllo-way, and arrivedth^efhe night oi[^theSlst» bat could 
lade no spice till I had %ade agreement wid^ the,natiKB% 
who asked mo^y dtifnes and great gifts., In fiae^ I agreed 
to pay ^e sanie as^ haid been paid by Captain Keding« Tht 
chiefe bad iiijiat they looked fep, as everyone most llare 
sbmetyug, and unknown to €he rert^'so that pneofflu never 
^ve done giving, as they ne^r cease begffing^ and it was 
not convenient to deny than any feasonabie re(}ile8t, espe^ 
cip^ny as I was sUuated* 

After we had agreed, ^e Hopewell was loaded «sil^ mafie» 
or 4iled rather; &r fih4#ifis only nine tons bnirdeii» and 
could carry v^ little of! &at commodity* 80,. after semdt 
ing ivway the Hopew^, I hired a latge praw^ which I ptot 
posed to bmld upon, whi<^ we loaded with aiitmegB, and 
sent to the ship, where i^e was built higher^ so as to be.crf' 
S5 tons bui^en ; but she made only one ^oyfige, and then 
we heard no tidings of her in three months. The Hoper 
well making two voyages, and hearing n.o news of the pittv^ 
I verily th^ight she had sunk ; for I came in compa^y.wltk 
her mysdf in the H(^weH^ and had so great a storuL that 
% gB^e her up as lost^ having twelve of thy stoutest men in 
her. It was no small grief to -me to- see ^e lieason thus 
wear away, and could not get my loading to the ship, nei- 
ther durst I. bring over my ship to Prio«way, as there was 
no safe anchorage for her. I made enquiry for soiae other 
vessel, and heanl of a junk belonging to Lantgr, but she 
was old. and lav near the Dutch ships; yet I went and 
IxH^t her, and got such help as I could to trim her* 

The want of my twelve men in the praw put me to much 
trouble, as they would have shortenal our labour much : 
P^rmostof our m«i were laid up ^d€h sore legs, and when- 
ever any one was reasonable well, he had to go in the Hopa- 
weU, in the room of another poor lame fellow, some being 
three several tii^es wdU and down again. I was thus driven 
to my wits end, not knowing whidi way totum rae^ being 
every boor in dinger that the Hollanders would come and 

vQii. vin. z tj^ke 

954> Early Foyages of the part ii. bookiii* 

take the island. By intellig^ce at sundry times, I learnt 
that they endeavoured by various contrivances to get me 
made away with, offering large bribes for rogues to kill me^ 
by poison or otherwise ; but, God be praised, I had some 
friends on the island, who gave me secret warnings, and put 
me on my ^ard against such men^lavesj who would do me 
some mischief, and came for the purpose. 

I prevailed on the islanders to combine and fit out their 
caracols, to keep the Dutch pinnaces from coming to assail 
us, after which the pinnaces durst not stir ; and tlie island* 
ers often landed secretly on Nera, and cut off sundry of the 
Hollanders, so that they durst not stir from the castle,{except 
in numerous parties, well armed. The islanders even built 
a fort on the side of a hill, whence they fired into the cas- 
tle^ and troubled the HoIIandei*s much. By this we were 
secured against the Dutch pinnaces coming out, to attempt 
intercepting our intercourse with Pulo-way. I made nine 
voyages myself iu our small pinnace, and could never spare 
above seven seamen to go in her, leaving five at Pulo-way, 
all the rest being sick or lame with sore legs. This was a 
most villainous country, every article of food being exces- 
sively dear, and only sometimes to be had, which troubled 
lis exceedingly; and we were so continually vexed widi vio- 
lent rains, mat we thought to have all perished. I was 
forced to fetch away the junk I bought at Lantor unfitted 
for sea, as the Dutch, on seeing men at work upoh her, sent 
out one of their ships to batter her to pieces. So that night 
I got the help of two tonies to launch her, having to carry 
'her a great way on rollers, which we did under night, and 
got her out of sight before day. We brought her to Pulo- 
wayj where we had to buy sails and every thing else for her, 
she being only a bare hulk ; so I set the native carpenters 
to work upon her, who did lier little good, as it was after- 
wards found. I likewise sent orders by the Hopewell to 
the ship, to send some rigging, and that Mr Davis shoukl 
come to carry her over. 

. . On this occasion the Hopewell did not appear again for 
three weeks, so that we were doubtful of some mischance ; 
•and it might have been long before they at the ship could 
have hired any one to bring us word, as the Hollanders 
have often usad them very ill for carrying provisions to the 
Bandanese. The weather being tolerably good^ and having 
our skiff at Pulo-way, I resolved to go over to the ship in her 


tflA?* x« «fior. x» £Mgfiiut& East India Companj/. S55 

myself} for I ccmid not bire men to carry over the junk, if 
. I would have loaded her with silver, and I' had not a man 
with me sound enough to stand on his Ws; so I hired three 
natives, and put to sea in the skiff. When out of sight of 
Pulo-way, it came on. to blow a heavy storm, so that I had 
to scud before the wind and sea to save our lives ; yet, thank 
God, we got sight of Ceram, and kept her right afore the 
sea, but clean from the place where our ship lay, and on 
Bearing the shore the sea did break so aloft, that we had no 
hpp^ <)f getting safe on shore. Night being at hand^ we 
strove all we could to keep the sea till day; but as the storm 
increased, we had no remedy for our lives but attempting 
to' get. through the surf over a ledge of rocks. This we did, 
but durst not leave the boat, lest. we had been dashed ia 
pieces on the rodcs. Next morning we got her on shore, 
being brim-full of water^ and every thing we had washed 

< Immediately afterwards, the blacks came and told us we 
must go to sea again instantly, if we valued our lives, for we 
liad landed in the country of the canihah^ who, if they saw 
us, would come and eat us. They said, nothing could ran- 
J9om us from them if once taken, and especially because we 
were Christians, they would roast us alive, in revenge for 
the wrongs the Portuguese had done them. Our blacks 
iidded, ifwe would not put immediately to sea, they would 
gp and hide themselves, being sure the canibals would be 
jSLt the water*side as soon as it was light. On hearing this, 
■and seeing by the moonlight that the sea was more cdm, 
the wind having dulled, we pushed oS, and having the tide 
in our favour, we got quickly a-head, so that by day-light 
we were beyond the watches of the canibals'; and keeping 
dose to the uiore, we espied the hull of a bark, on nearing 
which we knew it tobe the DiligenceJ Coming up to her, 
J found two Englishmen on board, who told me they had 
come there to anchor the same night we had the storm in 
the skiff, and anchoring at this place, their cable broke and 
«he drove on shore, Mr Hemiman having gone to the town / 


^ This aflerwards appears to have been the praw, formerly mentioned, so 
named after being raised upon for carrying spice from Pulo-way to Ceram ; 
.jbut this drcumstance is left here unexplained, possibly by the negligence 
of Purcbas in abbreviating, by Which he leaves matters oftvn obscure 
sometimes unintelligible.— £• 

356 Early Veyaga iff ilU PAiti^'lf; Booit-fft*^ 

to get people to assisft in ureigfaSiig htt^ ' Ther sieuidy 
was covered With people who came to^ piSa^bep^aiid I ad* 
vised tlie two EngGafanfei} to finea shot now andllhei^y whieh 
scared them from coming nearer. On coming tO'fkL^tKfmki 
Mr Hemiman' was gone by tend 'to -our sbipi' - 1 offinred 
mon^ to the governor to hetp^ to- sate' the bark^^ when- he 
said he would raise the conntrv in two or three days Ibr 
that purpose ; but I told him, if it came tabldw she woaid 
be lost in an hour. One of the Piil<[>*Way people being 
there, plainly told me that the governor only waiira to hsEve 
her bilged^ that he might have the pfarnks- to' build' a pvaw 
for himself. 

Finding no help could be had exeept from llie ddpi 
which was twelve miles off by land, I hired guides to foHbw 
Mr Hemiman, taking one of my own mcxt to bear meeom* 
pany. Half-way we came to a large river^ iRdiiek it vraa 
necessary to swim across, . and as my man could not swinh^ 
I sent him back with my clothe»^ except a searkt m&ndUiMl^ 
which one of my guides engaged to carry over ftrme.- Ii(6 
told me the river was full of alligtttors, and if I saw any I 
must fight with him, or he would killmej anclfbrthtttpiHr^ 
pose my guide carried a knife in hir mouth.' Being very 
weary, as I had- not slept for two nights, I took the^ water 
before the Indialis, knowing thev wouM be over before ttie. 
The river being very broad, and the stream swifl, Occasion*^ 
ed by late great rains, the Indiians would h^e bad -me r^ 
turn when naif Way, to which I would not censenf." While 
swimming, the Indian whocarried my mandilion tombed iMr 
side with a cane he carried in his hand ; suspecting this had 
been an alDgator, I immediately dived, when tbe current got 
such hold of me that I was carried out to sea^ whieli threw 
me on the beach, and bruised me so on the back and sfaou)- 
det* that I could not get a-^land, tin the Indian came and 
gave me hold of one end of his cane, and pulled me out al» 
most drowned, as every surf drove me against the beach 
and washed me out again. I praised (Sod, and got on 
board, where my company was amazed to see met So diat 
night I sent all that were able to crawl to save the bark^ 
which they did with much toil and small help of the natives $ 


.j^ . .1 

^ This word h explaitted bjr kaciGOgnipii^lfs 
1«9S jadcet, oc a eddierV coiit<^£. 

oskA9. ,K*-8S€i^.^. EvgSA Etui India Company* '$5'f 

the -eauntty not p own itt in g.wjr oike to ^^whA in saviiig li(er,' 
'i9xp«Gt]«g 4tS/tp.,fi>csake>lier9 tbat tbcy i^ight ei]^y tibe 

. Tbe tJojpeiReU arsivM next aiornUig laden with spU^ 
IwHrHJ^. bte»» arw^g, as mmtiwei befi>re. Shebad basR 
4dveB ^E^jki^esto.the oastof Bandain acraelstor^H 
ai7]Mdiigi^^^<tWamucb,ado,io.giBt.Agam I re- 

tmned ta JRidorWAy in ^a {vima^e^ whi^b I a^n loaded withr 
oiiil t delay ^MaOid Mx Davie Mrf^i<t^iiig in his loai^g in the 
jonlc,. .aiMl inaki^g -ftU^Uie diiipa)^ he eould miih his poor 
lame^rew^ theibost part i^ my^craw being long abs^it in 
jjie JQil^eme- W^pr^sently^^n]aded her, a^d I that piffhl; 
acfts sail in jiar xnpolf/ to «ae if I <»uld come before 1i|r 
Xia^oaiDAe'&oni^tbfn^ce, Spr I w^ told tbe junk was vei^ 
Jfieikfs a«4 I wjj|hQd:tO)haveher,accompani(ed by the f^ope- 
velly whal«aa«(er. wifiht})e&U; as she hi»d not a nail in her, 
|b«4«8mb as,we.ha>d uriven, and a&wehadnoneof ourselyesy 
Iv^fCansadKibarsiiw'^ JoaUye^withs to^<Jc«,.s<N3ae Jron pins, 
£irrtbqr)<an jpaka U9 aails»^ a^ besXoufi^ these. in tbe 
m^ Aeed^ plac^a* While striving in. the HopeweU to 
«aaich. Pnlcwifw, XjiKaapfit past it in a mjgbly storm by tbe 
^mnmii for. (the ntgn db^fr^i^, the oirrent is always the 
f|i[0||ger:; bpif^^pptio }aeM^ar4» and long before we could 
fetch the ship, and fain to take shelter on theCeram shor^ 
pr.else be blown laway* ^ r Aft^ many trips, and stiU fiJling 
4o leewafidof the ahip, .I.4^«d Mr I)a¥is to look out for 
soii»eharb€rar>&r .our ship, io whioh.we might come over 
jdirad &om JPidc^way, without bei^. pbljged to ply to wind- 
jKacd witlv our , craft whea^eeply^lad^n, which was effected. 
. Jiir]]9yr!lo«i|g>stqr.frAm.Fxul^^ apd^Banidapn.this occar 


; 'J . 

^ It will.beae^ ui,other w)yi|g^.i;bat,tke MaI«rS|.who are^WdeJy dif- 
fused over the liidian archipelago, often live under a kind pf aristocra- 
tied reptiMican govemtneDt; even where the^are subjected to kings, 
^rtskiBg imieh ^ -tlie liRidal- sembknce. This obsapvatien seemed ae- 
fsassaiy. BSian/attempt tv eqplsin.tha ivcaBitfig in tbe text of the country 
pot pecnu(tingy,&GA*£. 

^ This parsgraph .is utterly inexplicable, at least with any certainty, 
*th6 abbrfeyfation byTurcbas having reduced it almost to al^lute nbn« 
^sense. ' Cloi^eeturM- amendment being kiadmiasible, die subject is of so 
ditllejiMBientasinot' to .warrant any.£amraeDtarjr.-^£. 

7. £vea to.iherpppp^at tjqMS, tbe^boasted empire of China is unable to 
make a head to a nail. , All th^ir. smiths can do for a substitute, is to 
bend the head of a small piece of iron like tbe letter j?, which flattened, 
-bnt-not'welded, senres^as a substitute for the saH-head. Eveiy chest of 
^saafibrds numerous examples of this dumsjr qui^ro quik^lL^ 

S5S Earhf Voyages of the part ii. book iir- 

sron, the islanders had intelligence that our ship had weigh* 
ed ; and they were persuaded I had gone away for fear of 
the Hollanders. . Upon this the islanders would not deal 
with my people whom I had left among them, ndther even 
would they sell them provisions. They even began to rail 
at them and abuse tbem^ saying that I had gone away widi 
the ship, as the Hollanders did formerly, and would come 
back with a fleet, as they had done, and take their country 
from them. In this disposition of mind towards us, they 
had come to a determination to seize our house, and to send 
all our people prisoners to the top of a high rock, the con- 
sent only of the sabandar being a-wanting tor i»king posses- 
sion of our goods, though some even began to take our 
goods forcibly. On the arrival of the sabandar, Mr Spal^ 
ing waited upon him, and remonstrated upon the unjust 
conduct of the islanders in taking away our goods, craving 
his protection. The sabandar then said. That the islanders 
were resolved we should not do as the Hollanders had done, 
and were therefore resolved to make all the English pri- 
soners ; for the ship was gone, and our intentions seemed 
bad towards them. All that Mr Spalding could say, they 
would not be persuaded btrt that I was gone away in the 
ship, and that tfty people were left behind at Pulo-way for 
a sinister purpose. 

Next day, the islanders met in council in their churoh, 
\mosque(] and while deliberating upon the seizure of our 
goods, and the imprisonment of Mr Spalding and our men, 
news were brought them that I was in sight in the Hope- 
well, on which they broke np their council. At my land- 
ing, Mr Spalding told me of the hard usage he had recei- 
ved, and the fear he was. in. When I got to our house, 
the chief man of all the islands sat before the door, waiting 
my arrival^ and told me plainly, if I had not then come 
myself, they would have taHen our goods and made our 
people prisoners. I then explained to them the reason of 
removing the ship; adding, that it was no wonder the 
Hollanders had built a castle to defend themselves, when I 
received such hard and unjust usage from them, who was 
in friendship with them, had left my men among them with 
such commodities as the country required, had made the 
Hollanders my enemies because they were their enemies, 
and had done every thing in my power to serve them. 
They ans\yer^d, That I must not blame them for being 


CHAP. X. SECT. X. EngU^ Easi India Compam/. 359 

jealous of all Christians, as the Portuguese and Holland- 
ers had done exactly like me for many years, but were now 
oimously determined to enslave their country. 

Friend^ip and confidence being completely restored, I 
bought spice from them, and had soon enough to load my 
ship, which I dispatched in the Hopewell to where the Ex- 
pedition now rode. Having still a considerable overplus of 
stock, I thought I could not dd better service to your wor- 
slHps, than by laying out your money in farther purchases. 
I therefore loadea thirty tons more in a junk, and bought 
anothisr junk of forty tons and spice to load her: But as 
she was not yet launched, I left Mr Spalding in charge of 
her loading, leaving Mr Chapman, a very honest and suf- 
ficient man, as master of this junk, with twelve persons to 
navigate her. I then took my leave of all the chiefs in a 
friendly manner, giving them various presents as farewell 
tokens, entreating them to give Mr Spalding such assist- 
ance as he might require, as after my departure he ^oiM 
have to rety on them. 

Leaving Mr Chapman as master of the new junk, I was 
obliged to take charge of the Hopewell myself, and set sail 
the 7th September, 1610, from Pulo-way, having the junk 
Mlddletod in company, having remained longer in this 
country than any Englishman had done hitherto. I arri- 
ved at the ship on the 10th, which I now found was not 
folly laden, as seven tons of nutm^ that had come last 
from Pulo-way were spoiled and bad to be thrown away. 
I laded her therefore from the Hopewell and the junk ; and 
now turned off the Hopewell, which had done good service. 
She was only of half-inch plank, which we had never had 
leisure to sheath, and was so worm-eaten, that the pump 
hsd to be in constant use. 

§ S. Departure for Bantam, Escape from the Hollanders, and 

Voyage Home, 

When the ship was fully laden, we set sail from Keeling 
bay for Bantam, having never a top-sail overhead, as the 
top-sails had b^en blown from the yards while Mr Davis 
was removing the ship from her original station to another 
bay, seven leagues more to the westward. As the junk 
went better than we, I wrote a letter by her to Bantam, de- 
siring her crew to make all speed there^ yet I hoped to over- 


$$0 Ei^rfy Vioj/age^ (^th§ pabt u. book 21K* 

Uke her when I oould get up n^w top^-stuky on whidi ^wo 
were busy at work. Hainng completed our top-6ajlB» I 
overtook the junk on the 16th S^t^nber, wheq we tomd 
It 0^d not now ke^ us compa^a^, unless we took in ^ur 
top-fiailf^ I directed them diierefore to eariy such sail in 
th^ junk as she wss able to bear^ abd to kllovf fae tQ Ban- 
tam^ as my remaifthig with them cooM s^rve ^o good pur- 
pose^ and I had much to do at Bantam to trim die diip for 
her voyage hotncb So we tojok leave of them and bore awis^ 
for BflJitam. I arrived there on the. 9th Oct6bep) where I 
found Jtf r Hiensworth and: £dw»:d Needes had both died 
idiortly Hfber ray suiting for the spice islands ; so that all the 
gtiods I bad left were still thare, not a yaard of cloth befug 
•ciid'to the Chinese. 

Having, dispttched mw affidi^ ^ Bantam^ t app(Mnte4 
iUcbard Wooddies as <»ief ef ifm &ctory» with whom % 
left diretticms for Mr l^i&ldingy wb^i God shoiddsepd hini 
|o 6antam^9 to c<»»ider of a voyage to Succadania in Borneo 
for diamonds. I set sail on the 16th November^ aixl ha^ 
ving ;a good passage to Saldanha bay> I got thi^e on the 
$;lst January, 1611. I found that my brother Sir Henry 
Middleton had been.there^ arriviw the 24th July^ an4 de* 
pmrting ^e 10th tAugust, 1610« Ithere found ^ cofiy of a 
leitf^ my brother bful dent home by a Hc41a^f|r ^eds^ 
after, he dame to the road $ which, if your wisrships hnyo 
not received, you may see that Uiey will detain all your 
worships letters. I took in water at Saldanha bay, and 
made in the dispatch I could for England 

Thus have I certified your worships of all matters in an 
^pk inanner, as seemed my duty. I have en board 100 
tons, six catkayeSi one quarterp^ and two pounds, oi iiut- 
megs ; and 622 suckets of mace, which i|ire thirty-six tonsi 
fifteen cathayes, one quartern, and twenty-one pounds. I 
left in the junk with Mr Hemiman twen^^four tons» sev^en 
cathayes, two quarterns, eight pounds. All this cost me 
25,07 1^ rials ; of which sum I have disbursed 500 rials of 
my own, for spice, which lies mostly on the orftfi ; and be* 
ing in bond to your worships, it shall there remain till I 
know your worships pleasure whether I shall enjoy it. 


fHAp, X. SECT, xi* Enf^iA MaU bidia Compamf. Wi 

Section XL 

Siifih Ve;/age of the EfigUsh East India Contpaiyf, in I^IQ, 
^mdet the ComOand of Sir Hemy MiddkUm^ 


: TJMd it one af tlie moat carioHg of all the earhr itoyages 
W>tli0 £t\^i^ to India» partkuliuiy on account of the tma- 
aaetioiHi or Sir Heiury Jb the Red Sea. According to the 
tiUe c^ the v^4ge in the ^^risiB, ibe narvative was writi- 
ten by Six Henry himself, probably an abstract of his jonri- 
nak k brealqr off abrqpt^« and leaves -die fate of the Toy- 
age:€nti]!e^ uneKplainea) which will be foiund in some OM^ 
sure s^plied by' the subseonent narrative of Downton*. 

From the title, given by Pur^as to the narrative^ it-i^ 
gears t|iftt xbi^e were tiu^ ships employed in this voyi^t 
The Trade&'in<i:ee»e of 1000 ton% adtniniiy commanded by 
Sir Henly MiddlfetoD, general of the expedition i m^ 
f^jppeiH»rn of 250 tOB% vice-admiral, commanded by "Cap- 
tain Nkfablas Downtmi ; and the Darling of 90 tons. Be- 
sides these, the bark Sanmd of 180 tons accompanied as « 
victualler to Cape Yard. — K 

$ 1. Incidents of the Voyage till the Arrival of the Sqimdram 

itt Mokha. 

^ « 

W-e came. to. andior in the toads of Cape Verd on the 
1st M^i 1610, under an island, where we found a French- 
man "Of Dicffpe, who was setting up a pinnace. Next daj^ 
I set «ll'the carpenters of the fleet to work on my main* 
•mast ; and having taken off the fishes, they found it so 
sore wrung about three feet above the upper^eck, that it 
was half through, so that it must have gone by the board 
if we bad met wth any foul weather. I sent one of my 
«ai|>enters a-land on the main to search for trees, who re* 
turned that night, saying he had seen some that would an- 
swer. The third we began to unload the Samuel, and sent 


' Pnrd). Pi}gr. 1. 247. i^stl. L 960. 


S6^ Early Voyages of the part ii. book uk 

the carpenters on shore to cut down trees, having leave of 
the alcaide, who came on board to dine with me, and to 
whom I gave a piece of Rouen cloth which I bought of the 
Frenchman, and some other trifles. The fifteenth, the 
mast being repaired, and all our water-casks full, we stow- 
ed our boats at night, and prepared to be gone next morn- 
ing. Cape Verd is.the best place I know of for our out- 
ward-bound ships; not being out of the way, the road be- 
ing good and fit for the dispatch of any kind of business, 
ana fresh fish to be had in great plenty. In a council with 
Captain Downton and the masters, it was agreed that our 
best course to steer for the line from hence was S.S. W. for 
sixty leagues, then S.S.E. trll near the line, and then east- 
erly. We dismissed the Samuel to return home, and held 
on our way. 

We came into Saldanha roads the 24th July, and salu- 
ted the Dutch admiral with five guns, which he returned. 
There were also two other Holland ships there, which came 
to make train-oil of seals,' and which had made 300 pipes. 
This day I went arland, and found the names of Captain 
Keeling and others, homewards-bound in January, 1610; 
abo my brother David's name^ outward-bound, 9th August, 
1609, and likewise a letter buried under ground, according 
to agreement between him and me in England, but it was 
fio consumed with damp as to be altogether illegible. The 
26th, we set up a tent for our sick men, and got them all 
ashore to air our ships. From this till we departed, no- 
thing happened worth writing. 

The 6th September, in lat. 23^ 30' S. wind southerly, a 
pleasant gale. This day, after dinner, we saw land, and 
before night, came to anchor in the bay of St Augustine, 
where we found the Union distressed for want of provi- 
sions.* The 7th, I went ashore in my pinnace to endea- 
vour to get fresh victuals for the people, but could not; we 
got however wood and water. The 10th, we steered along 
the coast with a fresh gale at S.E. reckoning to have made 
twenty-six leagues that day, but we only went twenty-two, 
owing to a current setting south. The 11th, we steered 


' In a letter wliich I had from Mr Femell, written from Saldanha bay, 
he mentions two French ships in like employment, which he suspected 
lay in wait for distressed ships coming from India. — Furch, 

* See the narrative of her voyage in sect. ix. of tliis chapter. 

CEEAP* X. SECT. Xi. Efi^sh Eo^ India Company. S6S 

along the land, having stiD a great current against ns. The 
20th, at noon, onr latitude was 11^ 10', the variation being 
130 40^ This afternoon we saw land, being the islands of 
Queriba,^ which are dangerous low islands, environed with 
rocks and shoals. 

The 16th October, early in the morning, we saw the 
Duos Irmanas, or Two Sisters, bearing N. by W. the wind 
at S. W. and the 18th, we came to anchor in a sandy bay 
in the island of Socotora, in lat. 12° ^5' N.^ In the even- 
ing we caught many fish with the sein. The 2l8t, we en- 
deavoured to get into the road of Tamarin, the chief town 
of the island, but from contraiy winds were unable to get 
there till the 25th. The latitude of Tamarin is 12» SO^ 
[1S*» 87'] S. This town stands at the foot of high rugged 
hills, and the road is all open between £• by N. and 
W.N. W. We anchored in ten fathoms on good ground* 
I sent Mr Femell ashore well accompanied, with a present 
to the king of a cloth vest, a piece of plate, and a sword- 
blade, when he promised all possible kindness. The 26th, 
I wait ashore, accompanied by the chief merchants and a 
strong guard, and being conducted to the king's house, he 
entertained me courteously. 1 enquired of him concern- 
ing the trade of the Red Sea, which he highly commended, 
saying, the people of Aden and Mokha were good, and 
would be glad to trade with us. He said farther, that the 
Ascension had sold all her goods there at high prices, and 
came so light to Tamarin as to require much ballast. This 
news gave me good content. I asked leave to set up my 
pinnace on his island, but he would not allow it in this 
road, as if I staid long at Tamarin it might deter all others 
firom coming there ; but if 1 chose to return to the former 
port, I might set up the pinnace at that place. On enqui- 
ring for aloes, he said he had sent away all his aloes to his 
father, who resides at Kushem, near Cape Fartak, being 
king of that part of Arabia Felix. I asked leave to wood 
and water. He gave me free Jeave to take water, but said, 
if 1 would have any wood, 1 must pay very dear for it. He 


^ Querimba, an island and river of that name on the Cafre coast, in 
Jat 12^ 30' S. There is an island called Oibo, a little ivay to the north, 
and another named Goat's island, a little way south of Querimba; all 
three b eing probably the islands of Queriba in the text. — K. 

♦ The latitude inihe text is very erroneous ; the most southerly part 
of Socotora being in tS^ €^ N. 

S64 Earbji Vn^foga cf the fart lu book x2i« 

cdnfirmed the loss <^tlic AsoensiDn and her jnuiBeiSy which 
was no smail grief to me. He ui^ed me much to go to the 
*Red Seaj bnt advised me not to attempt trade at Fartok^ 
as he' thought his father would not aHow me. I and aU my 
people dined with the king, and then went aboard* 

The 7th November, miilc steering along the coast of 
Arabia, we saw a hi^ land about ten o'cloeki rising like 
^iha'-ddr'Curiai and capable of beiqg «een a great wny ofl^ 
which we imagined to be the high land of Aden* In the 
evening, we came to anchor b^re the town in ttweaty far 
thorns on sandy ground. Aden stands in a vale at the &ot 
of a mountain, and makes a &ir appearance. It is su9v 
yoimded by a stone waU, and has forte and bulwarks iii 
many places ; but how these are ftmiished I know Bot* 
The 8di, there came oiF a small boat in whidi wece tteee 
Arabs, who said they were sent by the lieatenant of the 
town Xo -enquire of what nation we were ; 'sending jus* word 
we were welcome if f^glish^ and that Captain Shatpey had 
been there the year before, and had gone thence to MsAha, 
where he sold ail his goods. I asked the nittne of ih^ 
pacha, and whether he was a good man. They fanswered his 
name was. Jafier Pacha ; that the former pacha was a verv 
bad mans this rather better, but all the Turks were baa* 
Asking what sort of place Mokha' was fop<tvade, th^ told 
4Be there was one man in Mokha who would pusefaase aU 
iB^goods. Isent John Williams adinire^ ^one^of my faGtov% 
mkio could ^eak Arabic, who was kindly entertained. 

'Kie morning id the 0th, I «eiit my pinnttee ashoce to 
j^ciirc a pilot for Mokha, and in Uie mean time wwghed 
4UidK>r and got under sail. The pinnaoe' tetumed witiatoat 
•A pilot, feayii^, they would not' let us liave any unless we 
left tiiree of our chief mecchantsr in<pkdge» and diat iihstf 
'.entreated me to leave one ship, =aad they would buy allher 
-goods. ' Being desiseus of ttfade^ I agreed to leaie lihe 
iFeppev-eorn^ and did whiatweeould toiregain the void, 
but w<^e Cfurried to leeward by the current, so we tsame td 
anchoT'to the south of the town. I then sent Mr Fowler 
»and Joh^ Williams ashore^ to tell them I was to leave one 
ship with them to trade, and begged they would let me 
have a pilot They seemed glad that one of the ships was 
to remain, and promised me a pilot next day. Seeing jio 
•hope of a pilot on the 12th, and having dispatched our bu- 
siness with the Pepper-com, I sailed about noon with the 
Trades-increase and Darling for Mokba^ 


«HAP« X. nnere xi.- EngUA £atf Indian Campamf. d6& 

lie 14th5 ^^ ^A^' ^^ bead-Jfliad going into the Red SeiBf • 
rismg like' an island^ and about (&?e% we were ath^rt 
the entrance, being only t^ree miles bfoad.^ Ootbenoarthi 
side-k a rugged land like an kland,, and on the other side 
is a low flat islaady called Babelmamle/y^ on the south udb 
of whidiifihiid there appeared to be a broad strait or «n«^ 
trance^ After passing through the stzait^ we saw a vlBage 
in a san^ bay on the ncMfth shores to whidb. place I sent: 
|iiy ramace^ to get, a pilot It so^. returned with . twoi 
Arabs, who pretended t» be very skijfiiL Our deptfi in the 
straits wa% from ei^t to elevei^ fethoms, and the dktiuMie 
from Aden to the straits is thirty league^. About £Mib 
o^deek p. m«r we had sight of the- towQ of Mokha-; and 
about -five, while luffing with a strong wind, we ralit our 
main^top^sail, and puttmg abroad our miuen, k spik like* 
wisetf At this time our pilots got our ship aground oa ti 
sand' bank^ the wind blowing ha^d, and the sea son^ewhat 
higtr, sotiiatwemuch feared her getting safe off again* 

'- § 2. Tramaetiom at Mokha^ and Ttemk&y o^ the Tuth» 

there^ and (U Adeth 

That same night,. a boat came off to us &ofB^ the town^ 
in which was a proper man of a Turk, sent by Ae goreivi 
nor to enquire who we were, and what was onr businesBi 
i answ^^ that we were En^kh merchantsi whoeamoin 
search of trade. To this he replied, that we were heartijt|r 
welcome, and shouU not fidl in whai we* wanted ; and that 
Alexander Sbarpey had sold all his -^oods >ther% and we 
might do the like. He made %h t of^he groondoig 0f our 
ship; saying it was quke- customary for the great ships of 
In^a to get there ground, and yet none of them ever sii& 
'fered any harm by it. He then hast^ed on shore to ae* 
quaint the aga what we were, and-jMromised to returb in the 
morning with boats to lighten our ship. Thk man, as I 
uAerwaras understood, was what th^ call tlord of the Mea ; * 
hk office is to board all sh^ that -come to Mdkha, to- see 

*' This mu^t have been the -jpiissage, between the iahmd of PriH 
aad the promontoiy oa the coast of Arabia* The other psssdge is. ouic^ 
broader.— £, 

^ The name of the island is Priru JBab-al'Mondub, signifying the ^te 
of lamentation, is the Arabian name of the straits leading into the necl 
)Sea.— E. 

f In Arabic^ AmirHtUBahar. — ^Astl. I. 363. a. 

$66 Early Ftrt/ages of the part n* book iu« 

lighters sent to dischai^e the ships, and to take care .that 
they do not defraud the customs ; for all whidi he has cer* 
tain fees, which constitute his salary. 

Early in the morning of the 14th, the lord of the sea r^ 
turned with three or four other Turks in his company, two 
of whom spoke Italian. They brought me a small present 
from Uie aga, with hearty welcome to his port, saying, we 
should have as good and free trade as we had in Stambqulf 
[Constantinople, J Aleppo, or any other part of the Turkish 
dominions, with many other compliments, and offers c^ 
every tUng that, the country could aflbrd. They brought 
three or four lighters, into which we put any thing that ^st 
came to hand to. lighten the ship. Mr Femell went ashore 
in one of these before I was aware, carrying with him every 
thing he had in the ship. We sent our money, elephants 
teeth, and . all our shot^ aboard the Darling ; and in the 
evening carried out our anchors into deep water, trying to 
heave off our ship, but could not. The 15th we sent more 
goods ashore, and some on board the Darling, and about 
five p. m. on heaving the capstan, our ship went off the 
bank to all our comforts. I had this day a letter from Mr 
Femell, telling me he had received kind entertainment from 
|he aga, and had agreed to pay five per cent, custom for 
all we should sell, and all that was not sold to be returned 
custom-free. Likewise the aga sent me. a letter und^r hia 
hand and seal, offering himself and every thing in his coun- 
try at my disposal, with many other compliments. 
: The 19th two boats came off for iron to Mr Femell, 
which I caused to be sent ; but wrote to him, not to send 
for any more goods till those he had already were sold. In 
answer, Mr Femell wrote, that I must come ashore ac- 
cording to the custom of the country, if I minded to have 
trade, otherwise they could not be. persuaded but we were 
men of war. The aga Ukewise sent his interpreter to en- 
treat me to come ashore, if I were a merchant and friend to 
the Great Turk, and hoped for trade ; alledging, that Cap- 
tain Sharpey, and all Indian captains, did so. The 20th, I 
went ashore, and was received at the water-side by several 
of the chief men, accompanied with music, and brought in 

Seat state to the aga's house, where all the chief men of 
e town were assembled. I was received with much kind- 
ness, was seated close to the aga, all the rest standing, and 
many compliments paid me. I delivered his majesty's let- 

CHAP. X. SECT. XI. En^ish Eati India Company. S67 

ter for tiie pacha, and a present, which I requested might 
be sent up to the pacha with all speed. I likewise gave the 
aga a present, with which he seemed much pleased, assu- 
ring me I should have free trade, and if any of the towns- 
people offended me or my men, he would punish them se* 
yerely. He then made me stand up, and one of his chief 
men put upon me a vest of crimson silk and silver, sajring, 
this was tne Grand Seignor's protection, and I need fear 
no ill. After some cora^ments, I took my leave, and was 
mounted on a gallant horse with rich furniture^ a great man 
leading my horse, and was conducted in my new coat, ac- 
companied by music, to the English factory, where I staid 
dinner. Meaning to go aboard in the evening, I was much 
entreated to remain, which I yielded to, being forced also 
for some days following by bad weather. 

Every day I had some small present sent me by the aga, 
with compliments from him, enquiring if I were in want of 
any thing. On the 28th, he sent twice complimentary, mes- 
sages, desiring me to be merry, as when their fast was over, 
^ow almost expired, he would take me along with him to 
his gardens and other places of pleasure. This afternoon 
Mr Temberton came ashore for cocoa-nuts, and wishing af- 
terwards to return on board, the Turks would not allow 
him, saying it was too late, and he might go as early next 
morning as he pleased. I sent to entreat permission for 
iiim to go, but it was refused. All this time we suspected 
no harm, only thinking the officer was rather too strict in 
his ccmduct on this occasion, which we thought had been 
without orders, and of which I meant next day to complain 
to the aga. .Ailer sun-set, I ordered stools to be set mr us 
at the door^ where Mr Fcmcll, Mr Pemberton, and I, sat 
to take the fresh air, having no suspicions that any evil was 
intended us. About eight o'clock, a janissary brought 
some message for me from the aga; and as we cottld not 
understand him, I sent my man to call one of my people 
.who could speak Turkish. While this man was interpret- 
ing the aga's message, which was merely complimentaryf 
my own man came to us in great consternation, saymg we 
were betrayed, for the Turks and my people were by the 
ears at the back of the house. 

The Turk who sat beside us rose up immediately, and 
desired my man to shew him where the quarrel was, several 
<>f my follu following to see what was the matter. I imme- 

SM Early Voyaga of the paat su book m^ 

diately ran after then, callinff as loud as I w^ able tbt 
Ibem to turn back and defend our house; but «ibik ipeak-*^^ 
ing, I was struck on the head by one behind me witli'sucb^ 
ynolmusCf that I fell down and remained senseless tiU> lA^ 
had bound my hands behind me so tigbtiyy that the pabi 
restored my senees. As soon aa they saw me move, thejf 
set me on my feet, and led me between two of tl|4»m tp-tlie 
house of the aga^i where I found several of my pe(^fe iii a 
similar situation with myselE On the way the soldiers* pilk 
laged me of all the money I had about me, and to!i^ mm 
Bie three goU rings, one of which was my seal, anotb^ was 
set with seven diamonds, which wei% of considerable valscy 
and the third was a gimmall ring. When all of us that ee- 
oqsed alive in this treacherous and bloody massacce-were 
brought together, they began to put us in iron% I and se- 
ven more being chained together by the neck^ others by 
their feet, and others againjby the hands. This being done 
they all left us, except two soldiers appointed to keep ffuard 
over us. These soldiers had compassion upon u% and eas^ 
ed us of the bands which tied our hands behind ; ibr most 
of us were so tightly bound that the blood was ready to 
start from our finger-ends. 

After my hands were thus eased, being much dis^essed 
both for mysdf and the rest, and in great anxiety Ibr 1^ 
ships, which I believed the faithless Turks would leave no 
villainy unattempted to. get possession of, we began le eon* 
verse together as to what could be the reason of ibis infa- 
mous usage. I demanded if any of them could tdl how the 
affiray be^in, and if any of our pec^e were slain* I was 
informed by those of our company who were in die fray^ 
and had esa^ed, that Francis Sianny^ John Lanabt^ and 
six more were slain, and that fourteen of those now in cus- 
tody along with nie were sore wounde^. They said that 
eur house was surrounded by soldiers, who, when I was 
knodked down, attacked our company with merciless cm- 
dty, against those who had no weapons to de^Hid them- 

Having thus succeeded in the first act of their treachen^ 
they now aimed to gain possession of our ships and gooos. 
For about ten o'clock that same night, they manned three 
large boats with about 150 armed men, in order to take the 
Dariinff, whidi rode somewhat nearer the shore than our 
large ship. The boats put off from tiii shore togedier, and 


_ 4 

CHAP. X. SECT. XK Ea^h East India drnpany. S69 

that they miglit be mistaken for Christians, the Turks took 
• off their turbans, and all boarded the Darling, most of them 
getting upon her deck. This attack was so sudden, that 
three men belonging to the Darling were slain bqfore they 
could get down below : The rest took to their close Quar<- 
ters, and stood on their defence* At thu; timer the Emir 
al Bahar, who comnianded on this entcrprize, called to his 
soldiers to cut the tables in the houseJ^ The soldiers misun- 
derstanding him, many of them leapt into the boats and 
cut the boat ropes, so that they drifted away. By this 
time pur men had got hold of their weapons and man>- 
ned their close quarters, the Turks standing thick in the 
waste, hallooing and clanging their swords upon the deck. 
One of our company threw a large barrel of powder among 
them, and after it a fire-brand, which took instant effect, 
and scorclied several of them. The rest retired to the quar- 
ter-deck and poop, as they thought for greater safety^ where 
.they were entertained with musket-shot and another train 
of powder, which put them in such fea:r that they leapt into 
the sea^ many of them cUnging to the ship's sioe and desi- 
ring quarter, which was not granted, as our men killed all 
they could find, and the rest were drowned. One man 
only wras saved, who hid himself till the fury was over, when 
he yielded and was received to mercy. Tlius God, of his 
goodness and mercy, delivered our ship and men out of^the 
hands of our enemies,; for which blessol be his holy ham& 
for ever more. Amen^ 

On the return of the boats to Mokha, they reported that 
the ship was taken, for which there were great rejoicings. 
The aga sent off the boats again, with orders to bring tne 
ship close to the shore ; but on getting out to where she 
rode, they found her under saU and standing oil^ on which 
thcT returned, and told the aga that the ship had escaped 
and was gone, and they now b^eved the Emir-al-bahar and 
his soldiers were taken prisoners^ which was no pleasing 
news to him. Before day, he sent his interpreter to teU 
me that my small ship was taken^ which I believed. At 
day-break, I was sent for to come before the ajga^ and went 
accordingly with my seven yoke-feUows, all fastened witE 
VOL. VIII. 2 a rac 

^ This seems muntdligible nooseose; From w6at folkms, it would 
appear that the order was ta cut the cablet in the hate, thai the fhip 

nii^it drift a-sbore<^£. 



370 Early Foyages of the taxlt ii. book lit* 

me by the neck to the same chain. With a frowning coun- 
tenance) be asked how I durst be so bold as to enter theit 
port of Mokha, so near their holy city of Mecca i I an^ 
sweredy that he already knew the reason of my coming, and 
that I had not landed till earnestly entreated by him^ with 
many promises of kind usage. He then said it was not law- 
iu! K>r any Christian to come so near their holy city, of 
which Mokha was as one of the gates, and that the pacha 
had express orders firom the Great Turk to captivate all 
Christians who came into these seas, even if they had the 
imperial pass. I told him the fault was his own, for not 
having Uud me so at first, but deluding us with fair pro* 

He now gave me a letter to read from Captain Down* 
ton, dated long before at Aden, saying, that two of hi^ 
merchants and his purset had beeh detained on shore,' 
and that they could not get them released, without landing 
merchandize, and paying 1500 Venetian chequins for an*> 
chorale. After I nad read the letter, the slsjel desired to 
know Its purport, which I told him. He then informed 
me that the ship, since the writing of that letter, had been 
cast away on a rock, and all her ^oods and men lost. He 
then commanded me to write a letter to the people in my 
large ship to know how many Turks were detained in the 
small one. I said that was needless, as he had already sent 
me word the small ship was taken. To this he repliea, that 
she was once taken, but the large ship had rescued her. He 
then ordered me to write a letter, commanding all the 

I>eople of the large ship to come ashore, and to deliver the 
arge ship and her goods into his hands, when he would 
five us the small ship to carry us home* I said it would 
e folly to write any such thing, as those who were aboard 
and at liberty would not be such fools as to forsake dieir 
ship and goods, and come ashore to be slaves, merely fbir 
my writing them. He said he was sure if I wrote such a 
letter, they durst not disobey me. When I told him plainly 
I would write no such letter, he urged me again, threat^- 
ma to cut off my head if I Refused. I bade him do so, in 
which he would eive me pleasure, being weary of my Hfe. 
He then asked wnat money we had in the ship, and what 


^ Besides these, twenty more were treacherously betrayed at AdeO; ha- 
ving leave given them to go onshore for business.-— PtircA, 

CBMVi%» SECT. XI. Eng^ East ImSa Can^ny. 371 

store of Txctaals and water ? I inid we bad batlittle monej^ 
being only for pilrcfaasiB^ Tictimby not. merdiflindize^ and 
that we kad enoDgb of victuals and water fiir two years^. 
irbicb be would not bebeve^ 

I was now taken out of. my chain and colbuv bavnoig a 
large pair of fetters put upon my legs, with manades on 
nijr. wrists ;. aiid being separated from die rest of my com- 
pfmy^ I was bestowed.^ tfaat^. day in a ditty dog^kennel mn 
der a stair ; but at n^t^ at the entreaty dTShenoaU^ ccm- 
sul of the Banians^ I was taken to a better room, and at' 
lowed to have one of my Inm along with me wha. spoke 
Tudkish ; yet my bcid was the hard gnnuidj^ a. stone my 
pillowy.and my eompany to keep me awake were grief of 
heart and a miiUitude o£ fatss About audni^t came the 
Ikutenaiit of the aga with the tarugaum^ entreating me ta 
write a letter oa bourd to enquire hem many Turks they 
had prisonersy and wiiat were their names ; but ia no case 
to write aiiy dimg of the loss of our men> and the hard 
usage we hiad met with % butio say we were the 
9^% house tin orders came fiom the pacha^ and that we 
Wanted.fbr nothing. This latter I wrote exactly as th^ 
wished ; bat commaaded them to look weU kr their AaapA 
9nd boats, and by no means to let any of thw men come 
ashore* Takmg this letter with them^ thqr examined two 
Qt three of nty men apart as to its meaning. 
. . They oonld noH at first get any one who would ventare 
on board) so that my first fetter was not sent Bat at length 
a pers<m,.who was bom at Turns, in Barbary, and spoke 
good Italian, undertook to carry a letter, providing I would 
arriteto nse him wcil. I wrote wain as Ihejr desbed, which 
wiBS taheit on boasdand answered, sayii^ thai aU the Turks 
were slain or drowned, sare.onc^ laoKDUklimmanf a cKXWh 
aKm soldier ; in tUkranswer tb^ ezpiassed their salisfi»» 
tfeOD to \ms diat I was ative^ as BoaswaB teid them he be^ 
lievad I and all the vest weie slaia* We continued in this 
waaeKj till ^ 15tL December,, never hearing any tUng 
fifom the ships aor Aey firom us. Hie aga came severm 
fhnes to me, sometanes with threats and sometnaes soolb- 
asgy to have me writefor all n^ people to oome ashore and 


^ Or mfemieter, aow commonly cslled dn^oflMUi, draggennsay er 
tmcbemant 4i.of whicii ace oomiptions from the Aislsc Uir^m^t 
AsU. I. 366. a. 

372 Earfy Voyagaofthe pabt ii. book ijur. 

driver up the ships ; bnt I always answered him as befinre; 
He was in hopes our ships would be forced, for want of wa- 
ter and provisions, to surrender to hip, knowing they could 
not have a wind to get out of the straits till Mav^ and 
would by no means believe me that they were provided for 
two years. 

In the mean time th^ in the ships were at. thdr wits 
end, hearing nothing from us ashore^ and not knowing well 
what to do. They rode very insecurely in a» open an« 
ehorage^ the wind blowing continually hard at S.S.E. in* 
closed all round with shous, and their water begumii^ to 
fail, as we had started fiffytons in our lar^ ship to lighten 
her when we got aground. While in this perplexity, an 
honest true-hearted sailor, named John Chambers, offered 
to go ashore and see what was become of us, putting his 
life and liberty at stakes rather than see the people so mudi 
at a loss* He eflected this on the 15th December, being 
set ashore upon a small island with a flag ei truce, a little 
to windward of the town, having one of our Indians along 
with him as an interpreter. On being carritBd before the 
aga, who asked him how he durst come on shore without 
leave, he said he came with a flag of trucey and was only a 
messenger, which was permitted among enemies. Being 
asked what message be had to deliver, he said a letter for 
his genera], and likewise, if allowed, to see and enquire how 
we vXL did. He and the Indian were strictly examined as 
to the store of provisions and water on board, when both 
answered as I had done^ that there was enough of both fo£ 
two years. 

Chambers was then brought to my dark cell^ and couU 
not for some time see me on coining out of the li^t. He 
delivered me the. letter with watery eyes, on seeing me so 
fettered, both hands and feet being in irons. When he had 
told me how he came ashore^ I tokl him I hardly thought 
they would let him off again ; as, not many days before^ a 
man who brought a letter for me from the P^per-com was 
detained a prisoner, being neither allowed to return nor to 
go aboard the ships in the roads. His answer was,^ that 
before leaving the ship he bad made up his mind to submit 
to the sam'e nard fate as I did, if they were so villainous as 
to detain him who was only a messenger. The 16th I wrote 
an answer, and delivered it to Chambers, and, contrary to 
my expectation, they let him and the Indian return, with 


c«AP. X. SECT. XI. English EoMi India Otimpamf. S73 

leave to come again next day if they bad occasion. Next 
day accordingly, Chambers returned alone^ for the Indian 
was %o terrified that he durst not venture again* My man 
sent me various things by ^Chambers, but the aga was my 
receiver, thinking them too good ibr me. 

While daily expecting orders from the pacha to put us 
to death, or to ma^e us perpetual prisoners or slaves, on the 
20th December an aga came down firom Zenan, who was 
captain, or chief of the ddausiSj with orders to brii^ us all 
up thera Being desirous to see me and my conqumy^ three 
dbairs were brought into my pri^n, on which Reeib aga^ 
bmael t^a, the mpessenger, and Jadfer aga, seated them» 
selves. Regib aga began by asking, how I dared to come 
into that country so near dieir holy city, without a pass 
from the Turkish emperor? I answered, that the king my 
master was in peace and amity with the Grand Turk, and 
that by the treaty between them, trade was allowed to as in 
all his dominions, of which this being a part, we needed no 
pass. He then said, that this place being tiie door, as it 
were, ei thdr holy city, was not lawful for any CSiristians to 
aster; and then asked me if I did not k]K>w die grand 
:8ignior had a long sword ? I answered, we were.not taken 
by the sword^ Imt by treadiery ; and if I and my people 
were aboaid, I would not care for the length of hb sword^ 
nor for all their srwords. He then said, this was proudly 
qpoken ; and, as former^, desired I would write, command- 
ing all my people to come ashore, and surrender themselves 
and ships to the pacha^ to which I answered as formerly. 
Ismael aga now broke off this idle discourse, by telling me, 
he came from the pacha with express orders to conduct me 
mA all my people to Zenan, and therefore advised me to 
^floid aboara for warm clothing, as we should find it very cold 
in the mountains. I requested him that my poor men might 
be sent aboard ship, and that imly I and a few more should 
go up to Zenan. He said> it was not in his power to re- 
medy this, as the pacha had ordered all to go ; but Regib 
aga said i ^should have my wish, and that I and five more 
should go to Zenan^ the rest jremainiug where they were 
till &rther orders from the pacha. This same day, the20tli 
December, Cmtain Downton came in the Pepper*com to 
Mokha roads from Aden ; and learning this, I wrote him 
a letter, giving him my opinion of what was best for him to 
do, he being commander in my absence. 


574 JEmf^ Voyages rfthe paat n. book ni. 

§ 3. Joumev of Sir Henry MiddUton to Zenan^ in the Inte-- 
iior of zemen^ or Aratia Felis, with name Deseripiion rf 
the Country, and Occurrences tiU his Return to MokXa. 

Hie 22d December, oar irons were all taken off our leg^, 
CKcept the carpenters and smiths, who were detained at 
Moldia to set np bur pmnaiee^ and some sick men who were 
nnable to travel. I and thirly»fomr of my people were des- 
tined to go up to 2fenan, the chief city of tfie kingdom,' 
•where the pacha resided. About four p. m. of die SiSd we 
left Mdkfaa, myself and Mr Femiell being on horseback, and 
all the rest of my pecq^le upon asses. About ten at night, 
when ten or twelve miles from Mokha, Mr Pemberton sup- 
ped awaj. We missed him immediately^ but s«id not ft 
woord, aiding his escape with our prayers to God to speed 
liim safe aboard. About one hour after midni^t, we came 
to an inn or town, called Moimie, tvhen we were counted^ 
but Pemberton was not missed. We remained here till 
four in the afternoon of the 23d, when, at our coming out 
to depart, we were again connted, and ome wasnoow mund 
wanting. The aga asked me how many of us left Mokha, 
on which I answered^ tlrirty>^ur, as I thought, but I was 
not certain. He insisted there certainly were thirty-five, 
and iliat one was now missing ; ixi wfaidi I said that was 
more than I knew. 

I ought to have mentioned, that, while a prisoner Bt 
Mokha, I found mudi kindness Seom one Hamet aga, who 
sent me various presoits, encouraging me to foe of good 
comfort, as my cause was mod. He sent ia supply of bread 
for me and my people on die joumqr, and mve me lettms 
for tlie kiahya of the pacha. The consul likewise of the 
Banians came every day to visit me^ and never empty hand- 
ed; and Tookeharwas our great friend all the time we 
were prisoners, sending every day to each man, fifty-one in 
aU, two cakes of vdiite bread, and a quantity of cEates or 
plantains. He went away fitom MoUia for' Zento two days 


.^^w-, or Ssnaa, is a cky in the interior of Yemon, or YaoMO* In 
lat. 16^ 45* N. and loog. 46^ £. from Greeawich ; being about U&O miifs 
K.N.E. from Mokha, and about 150 miles N.N.W. from the nearest co^st 
of the Indian ocean, situated on one of the very few rivers that are to be 
found in Arabia.-— £• 

C9IAP. X. S£CT. XJ. English East India Compos^. 375 

before nsy promisiiigiiie to iise his best endeavours wilb the 
pacha fiir our good ; and I believe he did what he said, for 
I was told by <Feveral persons at Zenaii, that he laboured 
hard in our business^ both with the padia and the Idahya, 
which latter was a vezy discreet persoB, and governed die 

On Christinas day we arrived at the city of Tyes, four 
days journey firo^ Mokha, where wc were marshalled two 
and twot^gether^asthey do a,%Stamb(d*wiiii captives taken ia 
tb^ wars^ our aga riding in triumph, as a great conqueror* 
We we^e mef a mile out of town by the diief men of the 
place cm horsf^backy inidtttud^ of people standing aD the 
way gating and wondering at us ; and this was done at aS 
th(^ cities and towi^s through which we passed. A youth 
belonging to Mr Pemberton fell sick at this town, and had 
to bel^ in dbarge of the governor, being unable to travel 

I kept no JQun^al aU the way from Tyes to Zoian ; but 
this I well remember, thai it wsis exceeningly cold all that 
piurtof ibejouniey. our lodging being thecoJa ground, and 
ey«(Tn,«nuiigtfi«groqnd was povmid with luwirW I 
would not beliey^ at Mokha when I was told |iow cold waa 
the upper cpl^}try, but esfiedence taught me, when to^ 
late^ to wish I had cofue better provided. I bought for 
g^wns for most of my men, who were slenderly clothed^ 
otherwise I think thev would have starved. 22enan is> as I 
ju^g^ about 180 miles N. N. W. from Mokha.' It is in 
Jat. 16^ 15', as I observed by an instrument I made there. 
We were fifteen day s between Mokha aqd 22enan, The 5th 
of January, 161 1, two hours before day, we came within two 
miles of ^enan, where we had to sit on the bare ground till 
day-light^ and were much pinched by the cold, and so be* 
monbed that we could hardly stand* Every morning the 

Sound was covered with hoar frost, and in Zenan we nave 
id ice an inch thick in one night, which I could not have 
believed unless I had seen it. 

About a. mile from Ae tQw% ^e were met by the subasha^ 
jyt sberifi^ with at least 200 ^t, accompanied by drums 


^ Stambda, fltamboii, Btambou], vulgar nsmes ia the east for Cpnitaa- 
tinople, is a ponip[)t»oa t^ coilrupdcMi of <cc Td» vh^f^ which the Greeks 
used to say whengouag to CoBatantinople* h e. to the city^ by way of es- 
pepial eminence aoove all other cities. — Purch, 

^ See a former note, in which its geogr^bical rdation to Mokha is 
givea on the authority of our kitest and best maps.— £• 

3'76 Early Voyages of the paut ii. book itt. 

and trumpets. We were now drawn up in single file, or 
one behind the other, at some distance, to make the greater 
shew, our men having their gowns taken from them, and 
being forced to march on foot in their thin and ragged 
suits. The soldiers led the way, after whom went our rneii 
one by one, our trumpeters being next before me, andcom^ 
manded by the aga to sound, but I forbade them. After 
our trumpeters, came Mr Femell and I on horseback ; and 
lastly, came the aga riding in triumph^ with a richly ca-* 
parisoned spare horse led before him. In this order we 
were kd through the heart of the city to the castle, all 
the way being so thronged with people that we could 
hardly get through them. At the first gate there was a 
good guard of armed soldiers; at the second were two great 
pieces of cannon on carriages. After passing this gate, we 
came into a spacious court yard, twice as long as the Ex*^ 
change ^t London. The soldiers discharged their pieces 
at this gate^ and placed themselves, among many others 
there before diem, on the two sides, leaving a lane for us 
to walk through. Mr F^nell and I alighted at this gate, 
and placed ourselves on one side along with our men, but 
he and I were soon ordered to attend upon the pacha, it 
being their divan day, or meeting of the council. At the 
upper end of tBe court-yard, we*went up a stair of some 
twelve steps, at the top of which two great men came and 
held me by the wrists, which they griped very hard, and led 
me in this manner to the pacha, who was seated in a long 
spacious gallery, many great men standing on each side of 
him, and others stood on each side all along this gallery^, 
making a good shew^ the floor being all covered with Turr- 
key carpets. 

'When I came within two yards of the pacha, we were 
commanded to stop. The pacha then, with a frowning and 
angry countenance, demanded of what country I wasi, and 
what brought me into these parts ? I answered, that I was 
'an Englishman and a merchant, a friend to the grand sig-* 
nior, and came to seek trade. He then said, it was not law- 
ful for any Christian to come into that country, and he had 
already given warning to Captain Sharpey for no more of 
our nation to come hither. I told him Captain Sharpey 
was cast away on the coast of India, and did not get to 
England to tell us so; which, if we had known, wip had 
never put.outrs^ves to the trouble we were now in; that 


eHAP. X. SECT. JSt. EngH$h JEcEst India Campanifs S77 

Regib aga had imposed upon us, saying, we were welcome 
into the country, and that we should have asfrce trade aa 
in any part of Turkey, with many other fair promises ; and» 
contrary to his word, had assaulted us with armed soldiers, 
bad murdered several of my men, and made me and others 
prisoners. He said Regib aga was no mere than his slave, 
and had no power to pass his word to me without his leaver 
and that what had be&Ilen me and my people was by his 
orders to Regib aga ; be having such orders from the grand 
signior so to chasti^ all Christians that dared to come into 
these parts* I told him we had already received great harm, 
and if it pleased him to let us return to our ships, what we 
liad suffered would be a sufficient warning for oor nation 
never to return again into his country. He answered, that 
he would not allow us to depart, but that I should write to 
the ambassador of our nation ^t Constantinople^ and he 
would write to the grand signior, to know his pleasure as 
to what was to -be done with us, or whether he chose to 
permit us to trade or no. 

The pacha then dismissed me, desiring me to go to the 
lodging that was appomted for me, taking four or five of 
my people with me at my choice. These men and I were 
conveyed to tlie jailor's bouse, while all the rest were com- 
mitted to the common prison, where they were all heavily 
ironed. At the time when I was taken before the pacha* 
one of our youths fainted, thinking I was led away to be 
beheaded, and that his turn would soon follow. He sick- 
ened imniecfiately, and died shortly after. The 6tfa, I was 
sent for to brealdhst with the kiahya, or lieutenant^neral 
of die kingdom, and after breakfo^t, I gave him a particu'* 
lar account of the vile treadbery that had been practised 

r'ost me by Rqrib aga. He desired me to be of good 
r, not thinking of what was past, which oould not be 
remedied, as he h^ied all would go well in the end, for 
which his best endeavours to do me good should not be 
wanting. Shermall, the Banian at Mokha, had made this 
man my friend. The 7th, I was sent for again by the 
kiahya to his garden, where he feasted Mr Femell and me, 
telling me that I and my people should be soon set at li- 
berty, and sent back to Mcrfdia, where all my wrongs should 
be redressed, as Jie was resolved to stand my friend. This 
declaration was made before many of the principal persons, 
lioth Tnrks and An^bs, his only inducement beingfor God's 


378 EarfyVoifagtttfike mbtii. bookiiu 

sake^ as he preteoded^ but I well knew it wm in hopes of 
a reward. The letter of Haoset aga to this man did W 
xniich eood. 

At wis time there came to Z&ma a Moor of Cairoi wba 
was an old aoquaintance of the pacbay a»d had teat hiol 
large sums at his first coming from Constantinople verjF 
poor. This man was our next nei^bour in MoUu at tbo 
time when we were.betrayed, and bad a ^hip in the road cf 
Mokha, bound for India* which he feared our ships woidd 
have taken in revenge of our ic^uries» but a^ she was allow* 
ed peaceably to depart^^he became our great frieud« He 
wrote a letter in our bd^alf to the pacha^ Ufouiug him £i^r 
using us so ill, and saying he would destroy the trade of ih4 
country by such conducts On cfsttiiig now lo the pMie* 
he repeated what he had written and much more* ui|[i|ig 
him to return me all my goods, and to sei^d lue and my 
people away contented. His influence prevailed much ; as 
when the pacha sent for ^n^ it was his intention to l^ve put 
me to death, and to make slaves of all the rest. Of bH this 
I was informed by Sbermall and Hw^et Waddy^ who were 
hoth present when the letter was read, and at Uie conferf 
ence between the pacha . and him* This Hamet Waddy 
is a va*T rich Arabian merchant, residing in Zenan^ and is 
called the pacha's merchant ; He was much our friend, in 
persuading the pacha to use us. kindly aiul permit us to de- 

The 8th January, I represented to the pacha. That al; 
my coming away from Mokfaa, I had ordered the eomr 
manders of my ships to forbear hostilities for twenty«£ve 
days, and afterwards to use their discspetion unless tbqr 
heard fertfaer from me. And as the time was abaen^ expi- 
red, I requested he would enableme to write them some eur 
cxmraging news, to stay them from doing injury to MoUia. 
Thelith, Iwas sent for to the kiahya, wh» told me my buh 
sinesB was ended satisfactorily, and that the only delay now 
was in waiting for the rest of my people coming from Aden^ 
immediate^ after which we should be sent to Mokha. The 
ITtb, Mr iWler and eighteen mare of the company of the 
Fepper-^ccm alrrived at Zenan ifom Ad(uv end were car- 
ried befosethe padia, who asked them the same queslkin 
he had Afterwards, Mr Fowkr, John Williams, 
and Bobert Mico mere sent to keep me company, and all 
the rest to ths oammon prison vi^. my other men^ where 


HAAS. X. sxc?r; xi; Edf^isk Eat^ Rdfii Cmnpany. 979 

ikty, ivere aS piit in icons; Hidr only sUdwance iibin 'the 
pacha wa^ btovn bsead and water, and th^ had all dial 
of hangar if I had not reUcTed diem. 
. Tbe'^Sth, I was aent for to the kiahya's warden, where 
line spent «ome hoars in oonieimce. He tcSi me I was to 
exsooiaspBhy him to the pacha, and adi^sed me to sooth him 
with finr words. The diief cause of this man being onr 
iri^id was, that I had promised him 1500 sequins after we 
were delivered, which I had done through Shermall, the 
consul of the Banians, after a long negoctadon. Mr Femeil 
and I were brought to the pacha's garden, where we fimnd 
him in a kiosk, or snmmer^honse^ sitting in a diair, the 
kiahya standing at his right hand, and five or six others 
bdiind him. The pacha asked me how I did, desiring me 
lo be <^ ffood cheer, as I and my people should soon be 
sent to ]\£>kha, where I and twenty<-nine more were to re- 
main till all the India ah^s were come in, and the winds 
settled westerly, and then I and all my company dionld be 
allowed to emoaxk and proceed on our voyage to India* I 
Tequested diat he would not detain so many of us $ but he 
answered, ^ Thirty have I said, and thirty shall remain." 
I then asked if tmr goods should be returned. He answer- 
led no, for th^ were all put to the account of the grand 
aignior. I asbed if all my people should be allowed to de* 
part at the time appoimeo. To which he answered^ that 
not one should be detained, not even if I had a Turkish 
dave, and I migfat dq>end on his woid« 

Having given htm thanks fiir his kindnesis aa counselled 
by ihe kiahya, he b^gan to excuse Umaelf^ and to praise hii 
o#ii elemem^, sayin|;^ it was hajipy ftnr us we had Alien 
into Ins hands, aa if it had been in the time of any of his 
predecessors, we had all suffered death fer presuming to 
come so ne$r their holy cjty. He said, what had been £ne 
*waa by older of the grand signior, pioceeding upon the 
complaints of the padiaa of Canro mid Swaken, and the 
flharif of Meoca, who represented thet^ when the Ascension 
«nd her pinnace were in the Red Sea, they had boitfiit np 
all the ehoiee goods of Indu^ by wfaidi die Tnrkim cus- 
toms weie mach'dimiiiiBhed ; and, if aUowed to continue^' 
it wonU ruin the trade of tlie Red Sea. Whefefixre the 
grand signior had given orders, if any more Rngli^lmwm or 
other Christians came into these parts, to confiscate their 
sh^ and goods^ apd to kill or reduce to slavery all tl^r 
men they could get.hold cL 


580 Earfy Voyagei rfthe pabt ii. book iriw 

In tibe mean time mairjr of our people fell sicky and be« 
came weak through gtuA^ cold, bad air, bad diet, wretched 
fcdffing, and heavy irons. I never ceased urging the 
kianya, till he procured their fiberation» from the loath- 
some prison ; so that on the 1 1th February they were freed 
from their irons, and had a house in the town to live in, 
with liberty to walk about. Next day the kiahya sent me 
six bullocks for my men, so that in a few days, with whole- 
some food and exercise, they recovered their former health 
and strength. The kiahya informed me^ that Regibaga had 
written to the pacha to send us all down to Aden, to be 
there taken on board his ships ; by which means hb town 
of Mokha, and the India ships in passing the bab,^ would 
be freed from the danger of suffering any harm from our 
ships* This advice had nearly prevailed with the pach% 
but was counteracted for our good by the Iqahya. 

Early in the. morning of the 17th February, I and Mr 
Femell and others were sent for by the kiahya; and told 
that we were all to depart next morning for Mokha. After 
breakfast, he todc us to the pacha to take leave. After 
again extolling his clemency and magnifying the power of 
the grand signior, he strictly enjoined me to come no more 
into those seas ; saying, that no Christian or Lutheran 
should be albwed to come thither, even if they had the - 
grand signior's pass. I requested, if any of our nation came 
ihere before I could give advice to England, that they 
might be permitted to depart quietly, and not betrayed as 
I had been : but this he positively refused to comply with* 
I then entreated him to write to Regib aga, to execute aH 
that t the pacha had promised me; for, bdng my mortal 
enemy, he would otherwise wrong me and my people. He 
answered with great pride, << Is not my word sufficient to 
ovecturn a city i If Regib wrong you^ I will pull his skin 
over his cars, and give you his head. Is he not my slave?" . 
I then asked him for an answer to his majesty's, l^ter, but 
he would give me none. On my departure, I told the 
kiahya that I had no weapon, ana therefore desired leave 
to buy a sword, that I might not ride down like a prisoner* 
He acquainted the pacha with my request, who sent me one 
of bis cast swords. The kiahya also gave me this morning 


^ This isi the gate or straits of Bab*al-Mondtib, or Babel Mandel^ as 
corruptly called by Europeans^^-AstL I. 372. a. 

oiAP. x« fiEiCT. xn EngUA East India Company. SSl 

an hundred pieces of gold of forty maydens, hsmtt^ before 
given me fifty. The ISth^ I paid all the dues df the pri^* 
son, atid went to breakfast, yfi\ki the kiahya, where I recei- 
Ted my dispatch, and a letter for the governor of Aden,^ td 
deliver the boat belonging to the Pepper-corn. I request- 
ed also his letter to ute governor of Tyes, to restore Mr 
Pemberton's boy who was left sick there, and who, I bad 
been informed, was forced to turn Mahometan* He wrote 
a letter and sealed it, but I know not its purport. I now 
took leave of the kiabya, and departed for Mokha ; I, Mr 
Femell, and Mr Fowler, being mounted on horses, and all 
lite rest on asses or camels. We had two cMauses to con^^ 
duct us on the way^ one a-honseback and theodier a»foot« 

The city of Zenan is somewhat larger than Bristol,^ and 
is well bulk of stone and lime, bavmg many churches oi^ 
mosques. It is surrounded by a mud wall, with numerous 
battlements and towers. On the west side there is a great 
deal of spare ground enclosed within the walls, where the 
principal people have their gardens, orchards, and kiosks^ 
or pleasure-houses. It stands in a barren stony vaUey, en-» 
closed among high hills at no great distance^ on one of 
which to the noitii, which overlooks die town, there is a 
small castle to keep off the mountaineers, who used fronx 
thence to offend the city. Its only water is from wells, 
which have to be dug to a great depth. Wood is very 
scarce and dear, being brought from a distance. The cas- 
tle is at the east side of the city, and is enclosed with mud« 
walls, having many turrets^ in which they place their watcb 
every night, who keep such a continual hallooing to eacb 
other all night long, that one unaccustomed to the noise, 
can hardly sleep* The pacha and some other principal 
men dwell within the castle. The house of the keeper oS 
the prison, in which I was confined, adjoins the wall, at the 
foot of which is a spacions yard, where a great number of 
people, mostly women and children, are kept as pledges, to 
prevent their hasbands, parents, and relations from rebel* 
ling. The boys while young run about loose in the yard, 
but' when they come to any size, they are put in irons, and 
ccmfined in a strong tower. The women and children 
dwell in little huts in the yard built on purpose, the <^ldren 


^ This is a most in^raper mode of description, as it is now impossible 
to itoy what size Bristol was then. — £. 

992 Early Twfogti ^ ike hamt it. book nu 

going moitly toaked^ unlesB wheD the wea&er ii vcary ooldf 
abd then th^ Iiave sheep-skia coats. 
. The first night of our jour&ey we arrived at Smntf a small 
towii^ with a castle^ on the side of a hilli sixteen miles frtim 
Zenaii» the oountiy abont being very barroi. The 19th. 
we came to Suroge^ a small viUajEp eighteen miles from Si- 
4m9 in a terjr barren country. The people are very poot« 
and go almost nakeds except a cloth round their middka 
leaohing to their knees. The 20tb) Damarit or Dha$nar^ a 
town built of stone and lime» btit in five separate palts^ 
like so many distinct villages. It stuids in a spacious pkun 
or valley» abotmding in water, and producing plenty df 
0rain and odiw provisions^ Thife town is twenty miles from 
Snrage^ and we remained here two days by order of Abdal- 
Ub Chelabi^ the Kiahya, who waa governor of this pro- 
vince. The 22d we came to Ermifh a small village, about 
fifteen miles. The 23d, NiMH Sammar^ a common inn for 
travellers^ called Seniors by the Turks. There are many of 
these sensors between Mokha and Zenimy being bulk at the 
6€6t of the grand signior for the relief of travellers. Tbia 
sensor stanos in the middle of a very steep hill, called Nak- 
hjX Sammar, on the top of which is a great castle^ in which 
the governor of the province resides, who is an Arabian ; 
^eae craggy mountainous countries being mostly governed 
by Arabians, as the inhabitants of the mountains cannot 
brook the proud and insolent government of the Turks. No 
Turk may pass this way^ either to or from Zenan, without 
a passport from the governor of the province from. which 
th^ come. This sensor is about fourteen miles from Ermin. 
The 24bth we came to Mohader, a smaU village at the foot 
of the great hill, thirteen miles firom Nakhil Sammar. Our 
chiaus nad a warrant from the pacha to take up asses for 
our men, and accordingly did so at thit place over night ; 
but next morning the Arabians lay in ambosh in the way, 
and took back their asses, neither of our ehiattaes darins to 
give them one uncivil word. The 25th we came to Rabat" 
tamaim^ a saisor, with a few small cottagea and shops, on 
the.sideof a.hill) sixteen miles. Here grow poppies, of 
which they BEiake opium, but it is not good« The 26th we 
came to a coughe^ house, called Merfamne^ in the middle of 

a plain, 

® It shoiuld rather be Sah^t^ houses signifyiog a house where they 
sell cofiee.-^A9tL I. 373. c. 


tmP* X. mcfH^ St. English I^ Indh Company. 583 

a plflin^ 0i2te^ miks. The Sftth, Tayes^ a dty hidf as big 
as Zenan, surrounded by a mud wall. W^ staid here two , 
daysi in wbkh tame I did alll could to reeorer Mr Fem- 
berton's boy, xsbom Hamet a^ the governor had forted 
to b^MUne Mahometan, tfnd would on no account part with 
him. Waltett* Talbot, who spoke the Turkish language, 
w«^ allows to cofiverse with him in a chamber among 
Odier bovs. He toki Talbot that he was no Turk, but had 
been d^uded by them, saying that I and all my people 
w^re put tb death at Zenan, and that he must change his 
religion if he would save his life, but he refused : yet they 
curried him to a bagnio, where he was circumcised by k^^. 
Finding the aga would not deliver the boy, I gave him the 
ktahya's letter, desiring him to be given up if not turned ; 
fio he was reiiised. This dty stands in a valley under very 
high hills, on the top of one of which is a fair strong caa- 
tle. AU kinds of pmvisions are here plentiful and dieap, 
and in the nelghbeurfaood some indigo is made, but I could 
Mt karn what quantity or quality. This dty is very po- 
pulous, as indeed are all the cities and districts we paired 

The 1st March we came to Eitfras^ sixte^ miles throiigh 
a mountainous and stony country. This is a small town on 
the side of a hilt, to which many people resort from afer 
about the 5th of January, where they do some fi>olish cere- 
monies 1^ the grave of one of their «unts who is buried here, 
^er which they all go on pilgrimage to Mecca. The go- 
vernor of this town, though a Tui^, used me veiy civilly 
on my going up to Zenan ; and, on the present occasion, 
sent a person six miles to meet us at a place where two 
yoads meet, to biing us to this town, where he used w 
kindly. The 2d we lolged at a sensor called Asmmbine^ ele- 
ven miles, where were only a few poor cottages. The 3d to 
another sensor called Accomoih^ in a barren common, with 
a few cottages, thirteen miles. The 4th to Moma^f seven- 
teen miles, through a barren plain with few inhabitants. 
Mousa is a small unwalled town, but very populous, stand- 
ing in a moderately fertile plain, in which some indigo is 
made. We departed from Mousa at midnight, and rested 
two or three hours at ja church, or coughe house,^ called 


' ^ Probably the same place called Mowssi on the journey inland. — ^E. 
f It is not easy to reconcile this synonimc of a coughe house or church. 

98f4i Barly Voyages of the pabt n. book m^ 

Dabulfyf built by a D^buU merchant. Our stop was to 
.avoid coming to Mokha before day.» 

We got tbere about eight in the morning, and were met 
a mile without the town by our carpenters and smiths* and 
some others who had remained at Mokha, all of whom had 
their irons taken off the d^ before^ and were now at hber^ 
ty to walk abroad^ The first question I asked was, what 
was become of Mr Pembertgn ; when they told me, to my 
•great satisfaction^ that he contrived to get hold of a canoe* 
:nx which be got aboard. From the end of the town all the 
way to the aga's. house* the people were very thick to see 
us pass* and welcomed us back to Mokha. On coming before 
the aga* I delivered the letters I brought from Zenan. He 
now received me in his original dissembled shew of kind^ 
•ness* bidding me welcome* and saying he was glad of my 
safe return, and sorry and ashamed for what was pas^ pray- 
ing me to pardon him, as he had done nothing but as com,- 
manded by his master the pacha, and I might now assure 
myself of his friendship, and that all the commands of the 
pacha should be punctually obeyed. I soothed him with 
fair speech, but believed nothing of his promises. He called 
for breakfast, and made Mr Femell, Mr Fowler* and me sit 
down by him* desiring us to eat and be merry, for now we 
had eaten bread and salt with him* we need have no fear of 

Afler breakfast the aga appointed us a large fair house 
near the sea^ in which we abode two days ; but we were af-' 
terwards removed to a large strong house i^anding by itself 
in the court yard of a mosque in the middle of the town* 
, where we were guarded by a captain and his company ap- 
pointed for the charge. He watched himself all day* and at 


vith the explanation formerly given, that coughe ho'&se means cofiee- 
'. bouse ; perhaps we ought to read ia the text, a church or inosque, and a. 
cougjie or conee*house. — ^E. 

^ The preceding journal gives fourteen stages, the estimated length 
of two of which are omitted. The amount of the twelve stages, of which 
the lengths are inserted, is 185 miles; and, adding thirty for the two 
others as tlie average, the whole estimated distance will be 2i5 naieB, In 
these old times, the estimated or computed mile seems to have bee|i 
about one aiid a half of our present statute mile, which would make the 
entire distance 322 statute miles ; and allowing one quarter for deflexion 
and mountain road, reduces the inland distance of Zenan from Mokha to 
5243 milesy nearly the. seme already mentioned in a note, on the authority 
of our best modern maps. — E. 

CHAP. X. SECT. XI. English East India Company. 385 

ni^ht our house was surrounded by his soldiers. Mokha is 
a third part less than Tayes, situated close to the sea, in a 
salt barren sandy sofl, and unwalled. The house of the go- 
vernor is close to the sea, and beside it is a quay, or jet^, 
which advances a good way into the water, at which all 
boats from any ship are enjoined to land, lest they should 
defraud the customs. Close to the quay is a platform or 
battery, on which are about twelve brass cannon ; and at 
the west end of the town is a fort with a similar number of 
ordnance. At our first coming, this fort was in ruins ; but 
it had been since pulled down and new built. The Darling 
came into the roads this afternoon, and brought me news 
of the welfare of the rest, to my no small comfort after so 
many troubles. 

The 6th March, Nakhada Malek Ambar, captain of a 
great ship of Dabiil, came ashore, accompanied by a great 
number of merchants^ all of them being carried round the 
town in a kind of triumph, and were afterwards feasted by 
the aga. I likewise was sent for to this feast, and enter- 
tained with much seeming love and friendship. In presence 
of the whole company, the aga sent for the Korariy which 
lie kissed, and. voluntarily swore and protested that he had 
no ill will to me, but wished me all good, and would do eve- 
ry thing in his power to do me pleasure, being much grie- 
ved for the past, and his heart entirely fi'ee of malice or 
hatred. I returned him thanks, seemingly much satisfied 
with his protestations, though I gave no credit to them^ 
Jbut was forced to endure what I could not remedy, till God 
should please to provide better. 

The 7th, the aga made a great feast at his garden-house 
for the Dabul merchants, to which I and Mr Femell were 
invited. The 8th we were all sent for by the aga, when 
thirty were selected to remain along with me a-land, and 
the rest, to the number of thirty-six^ were sent on board the 
Darling. The 9th I had escaped, if I had not been more care- 
ful for those who had then been left behind than for myself. 
This day the Darling departed to the other ships in an ex- 
cellent road called Assaby on the coast of Habash or Abys- 
sinia, which they had found out during my absence, where 
they were safe in all winds that blow in these seas, and 
where they had plenty of wood and water merely for the 
trouble of fetching. The water was indeed a little brackish, 
but it satisfied them who had been long in want of that ne- 
void. VIII. 2 b cessary 

3S6 ^fly Voyagp of the :^art ii. book hi. 

cessary* The people of this country are as b]ack as the 
Guinea negroes ; those on the sea-coast b^ing Mahometat)^, 
but those of the inland country are Christians, ^nd Subjects 
to Prcster John. They go aimbst naked,' ha^ng only a 
cloth round their waists and downlo theit kne^s. At the first 
coming of our peoplie they were mudh afbaid ; but after be- 
coming acquainted, and a muttial peadd bdng sWorn between 
them, they supplied bur ships with beeves, sheep, And goats, 
for money, at areasonable f-ate j and,' ad they kftefwairds de- 
sired calico rather than: money,' I furnished 'them with it 
from Mokha, after ^hich our ships got refreshments much 
cheaper in truck than formerly for mdney, dealing faithfully 
and kindly with our people, though the Turks sought to 
make them inimical bymeans of barks, which pass to and 
fro. The king of this country on t^e sea-coslst, who resides 
at a town on the coast called Hdhayttiy about forty miles 
south from Jlssah^ nearer the 6a&, sent some of his princi- 
pal people with presents to the comitianders of our shipsy 
who returned thecompliinent by sending him some presents' 
by messengers of their own. lie entertained these messen- 
gers very courteously, promising every thing his country 
afforded. The vulgar speech of this people is quitfe diffeir- 
ent from Arabic, but the better sort speak and write Ara- 
bic^ in which language their law of Mahomet is written, 

§ 4. Sir Henry Middleton makes his Escape from the Turks, 
and forces them to make Satisfaction. 

April 1st, 1611, the Darling departed from Mokha for 
Assab, having permission of the aga to come over every ten 
days to see how I did. This unlooked-for kindness gave 
ho hopes of being able to work my freedom. Between and 
the fourth there ^aihc in two great ships of Dabul, which, 
with the one her^ bdbre, belonged to the governor of Da- 
bul, who is a Persian, and a great merchant, having many 
slaves. Of these, Malek Ambar is one, who is in high credit 
ivith him, and had the managenlent'of dll the goods in tii6 
three ships. Ambar is a tiegro, born in Habash, and per-* 
haps cost his master fifteen or twenty dollars; but now 
never goes out of doors without great troops of followers,- 
like some great lord." * 


^ We have here omitted the ennmeration of many merchant ships that ' 
Arrived from various places, and pf a caravan of merchants from ^amas- 

CHAP. X. SECT. xt. English East Tpdia Company. S87 

The mh, theagaeind all the chief men of the .town rode 
out at day-breaTs: to make merry at his garden-rho'use, which 
gave me a feir opportunity of putting in practice what I 
had long projected, for Hiamet aga and others had told me 
the pacha would hot perform his promise pnleds for fear. I 
wrote, therefore, to Mr Penc^bejton, saying that I meant 
this day, to make my escape on board, and that I would 
have myselfconveyed to the boat in an empty cpsk; and de- 
sired, therefore, that he would send the boat in all speed 
manned with choice hands, and that he would send mis 
sbine Wine and spirits to make my keepers drunk, all which 
.le punctually pierformedl Before I told Mr Femell of mjr 
intentions,' 1 made him swear to be secret, ajpd not to en- 
deiavour to persuade me from my intentions. I then gave 
])im notice of what I meant to do, and that, if he and otners 
would walk down to a certain place at the sea^side, I would 
hot fail to take him and the rest in. 1 also told him that 
the carpenters were appointed to embark themselves at an- 
other place, where a boat lay on the beach^ south from the 
town, with a mast and sail ready for the purpose^ but were 
not to push off till they saw the Darling's boat away from 
^he jetty. 

' All things fell out weO for my purpose. The subasha, who 
was our guardian, and left in town oiily to look after me^ 
fell to hard drinking at a rack house* The boat being com^ 
and my Veepers all drunk, the subasha came home to our 
house about noon. I then sent away the carpenters, two 
and two only together to avoid suspicion, as if to walk, with 
orders to shift lor themselves in the appointed boat. Mr 
Pemell, and those others I was to take In to leeward of the 
town, I ordered likewise to walk by twos at the shore, and 
to wait my coming for them Having given aD these di- 
rections, I was put into my cask and dafely carried to the 
boat, on which I gave immediate orders to bear up to lee- 
wards, where I took in Mr Fowler and ten more of our 
people. Mr Femell and others, being too late of coming 
out of town, were taken b^re thev could get to the boat. 
Having got safe on board the Darung, we espied the boat 
with the carpenters coming towards us, in which four escar 
ped, but a fifth was too long of coming to the boat, and, 
attempting to swim on board, was drowned. 



COS, Sacs, and IQecca, to make prntbases from these ships of Jodia com* 
raodities^ — E. 

388 Early Voyages of the part ii. book in. 

w ... , , , 

About two hours after coining on board, a letter from Mr 
Femell was brought me by two Arabs in a canoei stating^ 
that by the command of the aga, he and the others who re- 
mained ashore had been chained by the necks, and threat- 
ened with death ; but had been released by the intercession 
of Nokhada Malek Ambar and Nokhada Mahomet of Ca- 
nanore, and others, and permitted to remain in our former 
house> but under a strong guard. These NokhadaSf or ship 
captains, acted this friendly part not from love to us, but 
for fear of their ships in the roads, which were now at my 
disposal. I answered Mr Femell, and sent word to the aga, 
that if he did not send me all my people and every thmg 
belonging to my ships, which he detained cohtrary to the 
orders of the pacha, that I would burn all the ships in the 
roads, and would batter the town about his ears. I like- 
wise sent word to the Nokhadas, not to send any boat on 
board their ships without first coming to acquaint me of 
their business, nor to carry any thing ashore from their 
ships without my leave. 

After my escape there was no small bustle and disturb- 
ance in the town ; the aga not knowing how to answer to 
the pacha ; the subasha at his wits end ; and the £mir-al- 
Bahr in little better case ; all. afraid of losing their heads. 
One of our porters, who had assisted in carrving me m the 
cask, took sanctuary in a mosque, and would not come out 
till assured of pardon. The Nokhadas and merchants, who 
before scorned to speak with any of us, being now afraid of 
losing their ships and goods, sent presents of victuals and 
refreshments to Mr Femell and the rest. At night I sent 
the bout well manned to cai*ry news to Assab of my escape, 
with directions for our ships to come over with all speed ; 
and I placed the Darling in such a situation as to command 
all the ships in the roads of Mokha. 

The 12tii, Mahomet, the Nokhada of Cananore, came off, 
saying that the aga was very sorry for my departure, which 
I knew to be true, as he was determined to have set me and 
all my people at liberty to my full content in a few days, 
which I believed to be false. As for the things belonging 
to our ships which were on shore, he would oeliver them, 
but could not send off my people without farther orders 
from the pacha, for which he asked fifteen days respite, af- 
ter which, if I had not my men, they desired no favour. I 
insisted to have my pinnace at the same time, of which he 



CHAP. X. SECT. XI. EfigUsh East India Company, 389 

said he should inform the aga. I yielded to his request of 
a peace of fifteen days, on promise of having my men and 
pinnace within the time; but durst not demand restitution 
or satisfaction for my goods, till such time as I had all my 
men aboard. The Darling's cables, anchors, pitch, tar, and 
other things were sent off, and few days passed but I had 
some present or other of refreshments from the £lfia and the 
Dabul merchants and others, who would scarce^ speak to 
me when I was ashore in trouble, but were now fain to flat- 
ter me. Early this morning, a boat from the shore went 
aboard the innermost ship, on which I made the gunner 
fire two shots at her, which caused them to come to me; 
and I threatened to hang them if they did so any more, so 
they never durst attempt the like again. 

The 13th, the Increase and Pepper-corn came to anchor 
towards night in sight of the roads, the lee-tide being against 
them, and got into the roads next day, when I went on 
board the Increase, where I was received very joyfully by 
all my company. The 18th there came a ship of £>iu into 
the roads, belonging to Shermall the sabander, laden with 
India goods, which I embargoed, both people and ^oods, 
causing her to come to anchor close beside my ship ; but 
next day, at the request of Shermall, I allowed all the peo- 
ple to go ashore, except a few to look after the ship. The 
26th, Mahomet came off, saying the aga refused to deliver 
up the pinnace and my men, unless I gave a writing under 
my hand, confirmed by four or five more of our chief offi- 
cers, and sanctioned by our oaths, containing a perfect 
peace with the Turk$ and Indians, and not to meddle in 
this sea or elsewhere in revenge of any thing that had pass- 
ed, nor to demand satisfaction or restitution for the goods 
taken from me. I told him I was astonished he should thus 
come daily with new demands, as he had this day promised 
to bring my men and pinnace, which I looked to have per- 
formed ; arid for better security, he and all with him should 
remain as hostages till I had them, and desired, therefore^ 
that he would write to this .effect to the aga. Mahomet said 
that he had acted quite voluntarily in all this busineiss, and 
would be laughed at for his forwardness if he should write 
as I deisired, and therefore, whatever might betide, he would 
on no account write to the aga, but promised, if I gave him 
such a writing as he proposed, he would bring off my peo- 
ple before night. 


390 Early Voyages of the part ii. book hi. 

Finding him ibflexible, I thought best to give him some- 
thing that might carry the name of what he desired, so I 
caused draw up a writing in En^sh, signed by myself and' 
five more, containing nothing else than a brief narrative of 
the treacherous mtsusage we h&d from the Turks ; and I 
sent advice to Mr Pemell how he was to interpret it to 
them. When Mahoriiet desired me to swear, I positively 
refused, saying ihy word should be found triler than the 
oath of a'Tiirk. Mahoniet went now ashore with this 
writing, leaving some of the bettei' sort of his company in 
pledge, whom he desired me tb hang if he brought not off 
my people that night. In fadt, he returned a little before 
night with Mr FemcU and nine more ; Mr Femell' and 
other two having received vests of small value. Another 
Vest was sent for me, which tliey said came from the pacha, 
and the Nokhada would have me put it on: I refused it^ 
telling him I scorned to wear any thing thht came from so 
uiiconscionable a dog, by whose order I had received so 
manv injuries. He now dejiarted, thking with him the 
Turk who Was made prisdner in tile attempt upon the 
Darling, who had remained till now iii the Increase. 

The 27th, according to promise, Mahomet brought oflP 
my pinnacle, and asked me if all that was promised was not 
now performed. I told hiJn no \ for I had not yet all my 
company, as they still kept ray boy at Tayesj whom they* had 
forcibly circumcised, and that 1 was determined to have 
him before I Would reletise the ships. The 1st June I' 
wrot^ to the pachairi Italian, demanding restitution of my 
goods, and satisfaction for the damages I had received ; and 
was answered, my" letter was not uiidetstood for want of an 
interpreter. I therefore agahi embargoed the ship of Diu, 
declaring, that no more goods 'shoula be landed from her, 
till the pacha had satisfied nle to the value of 70,000 dol- 
lars, which I had lost and wad damnified by him. The 2d, 
c^me aboard my interpreter at Zenan, Ally Hoskiils, with 
a: message ftom the pacha, desiring m6 not to take any vio- 
lent courses her&, but to seek justice at Constantinople. 
He told me likewise' h6 had brought with him the boy from 
Tayefe. I answered, I would by no meafis release the ship 
till 1 had restitution of my goods, and satisfaction for my 
damages to the amount alreaidy specified. 

The 3d, the aga requested peace for twelve days, till the 
pacha were infonned of my demands. The 4th, Ally Hos- 


cfHAP. X. SECT, xf • English East India Company » 391 

bms, Toqpr% >a Baoiany and others^ camse on l^o^d, «nds 
desic)edine to make, out an account of th^particulax^ of any 
iQss^d^ that it QiighltJi^e'CqnfiideFed.of^ashdl^e, : Xdid^o in, 
wrltipgr^ f^iiid sent word hgi Xheiq. to the aga,;lihat if he did 
not prejsendjrjmake p^ restitution <and satisfaction, I would, 
batfer.t^e,t||wn.^bQ^$ his eare^ would take all the goods 
firomthe JDiu ship intp my own, and burn: all the ships; all 
which J cQuld do.Yritbout breach .of oovenant^ as the time, 
cf tth^ agreed ti^uce w^ expired, and^^hey h^d not perform*- 
ed thoir part/of.die a^qement. The. Stfa, I .sent Mr Pem*: 
bex:tpn to Afsab to purchase fresh provisions, a» we had 
many sick in our ships? and I was £earful of taking provi^ 
slons at Mokha, being warned by my friends to beware of 
poiapn. . ., • ♦r 

; 'Xhe 19tia^ SJiermall, Ally Hpskins, Tocorsiy ^nd many 
oth^s,came on board, bringing Mr Pen^berton'si boy.' 'AH 
ter complinients, Shermall begaa with (along preamble of- 
love and- favour, for which <.h0 hoped I would now iiequitfs 
hi^ ; {qt, the pacha had enJ9ined>him to give |ne.<sati^fecr 
tIpn,.<or to have hi^ tjjieroat cut, and hisgood^ aeizedy which 
lie,di^clare4 tp b^ .truth<^ . A/t:ei; ^ long ddbate^ it was con- 
cjudqd tl^t all our r lead mkA iron iji^as to be restored) and I 
iYAs>tq,receiYe liS^QOO doll^jrs in full fon.satisfaction^ :to be: 
paid in fifteen da}i^. WJhereupon a peace wds CQi¥:luded 
between .us and them^ from the port of Mokha to Cananoce^ 
conditioning that the pacha gave me a writing under his 
hand and seal, confirming this peace between his nation 
and ours fgtr the. time speci^ed. T%e ^d July we^ received 
the last payment, the sabander ShermaU coming himself. 
On this occasion I cleared all accounts with him, as well 
for mon^y bc^rowed .nfhile' I waS' j^riponer as disbursed 
sinc^.. .He then d^eipand^d the IdOO chi^uin^^ Ihadpro^^ 
ml^e^ the kiahya^ but.thi&.I fneremptc^ily refused to pay, as- 
the kiai^ya. had not pei*)|brmed his promise^ to. me^ The 3dV 
Tocorsi, i^d.AUy Ho^iiKs came again* and. bought some 
\ierqvition, for which I g^tii on. their promiae< 
tQ pay meat: Assab ini^fteendayA^ and also to htingme^ 
over i^om^ supply of grain^ together with a writing from; 
tlxe paqha in confim^ation of the peace .agreed upon. In* 
the afternoon we warped out of the road of Mokiia, and set 
sail that night for Assab, but did not arrive there till the 
morning of the 5th. 

The 6th I went ashore, and caused all the wella to be-. 


392 Early Visages of the part ii. book iir* 

emptied and cleaned out, for fear of poison ; having been 
often told at Mokha, that the Turks had practised with the 
people of Assab to poison the wells. The 13th, the king 
of this country hearing of my escape from Mokha, sent me 
a complimentary letter and a present. The ITth, a vessel 
came over from Mokha, in which was Tocorsi and another 
Banian, bringing with them the provisions I had desired 
them to buy for us, and the money they owed me ; but as 
for the writing confirming the peace, they made excuse 
that the pacha was so mucn occupied in war that he could 
not get it attended to ; which was a manifest warning that 
they would give no quarter to our nation. Wherefore, on 
the 24th, we sailed from Assab, plying to windward as far 
as Kamaran, to wait the arrival of a large ship, which comes 
yearly from Sues to Mokha richly laden, hoping by her^ 
means to be amply revenged for all the losses and disgraces 
I had incurred from th6 Turks ; and I the more ai^ously 
wished to meet with her, as I understood the two traitors, 
Jafier pacha and Regib aga, had both great adventures in 
that ship. From the 24th therefore to 31st July we plyed 
to windward for this purpose, sailing by day and anchoring 
all nighty in which period we narrowly escaped many dan- 
gers, oeing in want of a pilot, being many times in immi- 
nent danger of running aground, to the hazard and loss of 
all, had not &od preserved us. But the ship of Sues esca- 
ped us in the night, as we found on our return towards ^e 

§ 5, Voyage from the Red Sea to Surat, and Transaction 


We set sail from the neighbourhood of Mokha in the 
morning of the 9th August, 1611, and in the evening cast 
anchor three leagues short of the straits of Bab-al*Mondub. * 
The 10th, the Darling and Release' went out by the western 
passage, which they found to be three leagues over, from 
the main land of Habesh to the island Bab^Mandel^ [Prin.] 
One third of the way over from the island they had no 
ground at forty fathoms, the channel being quite clear and 
n*ee firom danger, though the Turks and Indians reported 


' This must be the pinnace which was set up at Mokha, so named in 
memory of their release from that place.— £. 

CHAP. X. SECT. XI. English East India Company, 8£>3 

it was full of rocks and shoals, and not navigable for ships. 
We in the Increase, accompanied by the Pepper-corn, 
went out by the eastern narrow channel at which we' 
came in, which does not exceed a mile and half between 
the island and the Arabian shore, of which a considerable 
distance from the main is encumbered with shoals. We all 
met outside of the straits in the afternoon, in nineteen fa* 
thoms water, about four miles from the Arabian shore. 
From the 12th to' the 27th, we were much pestered with* 
contrary winds, calms, and a strong adverse current, setting* 
to the S. W. at the rate of four miles an hour. The 27th, 
we had a favouring rale to carry us off, and by six p. m. 
had sight of Mount Felix^ [Baba Feluk,] ahead-land to the' 
west of Cape Guardafau The 30th, we came to anchor in 
the road of Delisha, on the northern coast of Socotora. 
We found there a great ship of Diuand two smaller, bound 
for the Red Sea, but taken short by the change of the mon- 
soon. The captain of the great ship with sieVeral others 
c^aroe aboard me, and assured me pur people at Surat 
Utrere well, being in daily expectation of ships from Ihdia, ' 
and that Captain Hawkins was at the court of the Great 
Mogul, where be was made a great lord, and had a high 
allowance from the kin^. They^said likewise, that the 
king had given Captain Sharpey money to build a ship, 
which waa nearly ready for launching at Surat. This and 
many other things he told ni^ seemed too good news to be 


As the monsoon was far spent, I requested the nokhada 
of Diu to aid me with his boats and people in procuring 
water and ballast, which he and the others willingly did, 
offering me all the water in their ship, and employing their 
people to bring me more from the shore, so anxious were 
they to get me away. It was long before I could bargain 
with the king for his aloes, but at last I got it, paying 
higherthan Captain Keeling had done; for 1 think the In- 
dians were in hand with him for it^ which made him en- 
hance the price. I left letters with the king, which he pro- 
mised to deliver to the first English ship that came there. 
Having finished all my business^ I had much ado to get a 
simple fellow from the ship of Din to pilot me on the coast' 
of India, who pretended to be a good coaster. We set 
sail from Delisha on the 3d September, with a favourable 
vrind, which brought us by the 26th into the rood of Surat, 


394? Earljf Voyages of the part ii, book hi. 

where we came to .anchor in seven fathoms near three India 
ships. A mile from us rode at anchor seven sail of Jportu- 

Siese frigates or xaen of war, there being thirteen more of 
em withm the river of Surat.* 
. Long fafefpre.our arrival) the Portuguese had intelligence 
tnat wc wer^ in the Red Sea, and bound for Suraty so th$i^, 
those irrigates were sent purposely to prevent us from grading; 
at Surat, or any that coast. Pon FranciscQ 
de Soto-major was captain-major of this flotilla^ beii}g what, 
is called captain- major of the north, and reaped gr^at prQ7> 
fit from granting ear^las^est or. passports, to all ships ^d 
barks trading on fbat coast^ d]l being confiscated t^9,t pi;e- 
(Bumed to. navigate without his licenpe. I. discharged my 
pilots that night, paying thep well> a^nd sent by ti;iem a l^, 
ter to such EngUsiimen as m jght b^ in Suratj as I could not 
learn how many or lyho were there; resident. . , ... 

The 29th, came a small Pqrtugi^ese frigate from, the.adr 
miral of the armada^ as .they term it, ia which was ope Voxr^, 
tuguese and his boy^ bringing me a letter from tbecaptainr. 
major, in answer to one I wrote him the day bei^re.. H^. 
expressed his satis&ction to hear that. I belonged to a^i^g 
in friendship with his sovereign, and that he and his peopIe> 
woulo \>e ready to do me every service, provided I brought' 
a,* letter or order from the King of Spain^ or the, Viceroy of 
India, allowing me to trade in theae parts ; if otherwise^, 
he must guard the port committed to his charge^ in which » 
the king his master had a factory* I. answered by wprcl of 
mouth, by the Portuguese messenger, That X neithejc had^ 
letters from the King of Spain npr.tbe viceroy, of whicK I 
had no need, being §ent bv the Kine*of £ng)^pd» with letr, 
ters and rich presents for tne Great Moguls and to establish 
the trade already begun in these parts. As for the Pprtu- 
guese factory there, X meant not to harm it, as both it and. 
our factory might continue to trade, and I saw np reason 
they had to oppose us^ as the country was free for all na«. 
lions, the Mogul and his subjects not beii^ under vassalage 
to the Portuguese. I therefore desired hiip to tell his ca|)- 
tain, that I expected he would, in a friendly manner, per- 
mit any English who were at Surat to come on board to 


* These twenty Portuguese frigates, as then called, were only barks, 
grab8> or pravvs of tlie country, armed with small guns.^— £. 

CHAP. X. SECT. XT. Efiglish East India Company. 395 

• • 

confer with me?, and lioped he would not' reduce mfe to the 
necessity of using force, as I was resolved to haveintercoursii 
with them by one ihbans oi* the other. 

I went that day in the l!)aiiing to examine the bar, biit' 
seeiiig we could not possibly ^b oyer the bar without a pi^ 
lotj I rAumed in the evening to the road. On going aboard 
the Ihcireasei, I fputid a letter from Surat„ written by 
Nicholas Bangham, formerly' a jdiner in the Hector. He 
iiiformed liid that we had no factory in Surat, to which 
place he had been sent by Captain Hawkins to recover some 
debts owing there, and had likewise letters for me from 
Captain Hawkins, but dUrst not send them aboard for fear 
of the Portuguese. He said nothing as to what had become 
bf our factory and goods; wherefore I wrote to him to send 
me Captain Hawkins' letters, and information of all other 
particulars of our aifairs in that country. 

The third October, Khojah Nassau, governoir of Surat^' 
and the governor's brother of Cambaya,* sent me a Mogul 
messenger with a present of refreshments, offering to do me 
all the serviqe in their power; saying, they wished to trade 
With us, but could see no way' di doing so while the i^ortu-^ 
^cse ahnada'rod^' there/ and therefore advised me to go 
for Gogo,' a' fer better place, where our ships could ride 
nearer the sHofe^ and wnere the Portuguese armada could' 
riot hiiidier oiir laijding. T* hai place likewise was nearer 
Cambav, wliere there were more merchants and greater' 
store of riierchandise for our pfurpose than at' Surat. I^ 
told thi^ messenffer, tliat tiU I knew what wais become of 
our cdunttymen and ^ods formerly left in the country, I 
could n6t determine how to proceed, and desired him there-* 
f&re a means that some one of our people might come 
aboard to confer with me, and that I might have a pilot to' 
conduct me to Oogo, ^nd then I would quickly resolve them 
i;rhat'I was to do. F dismissed tHjs messenger and his in* 
t^'rpreter with s^all presents.''. The 5th, the interpreter,' 
who was' a braihin, or priest of the Banians, came off with 
aletter from Bangham, and the letter from Captain Haw-, 
ktns, dated from Agra in April last, giving an account of 
tiie fickleness of the Mb^ul, who had given a firman to the 
Portuguese, by which bur traded formerly granted, was dis- 

3 Gog9 is a 8ee-;port pf Guzerat, on the west coast of the Gulf of 
Cambay, in lat. 122® 43' N, 

396 Earl^ Voyages of the part h, book hi. 

allowed* There were likewise two letters of a later date 
from Thomas Fitch» at Lahore, giving the same account of 
the inconstancy of the Great Mogul, and advising me on 
no account to land any goods, or to hope for trade. 

On reading these letters, I grew hopeless of any trade 
here, yet resolved to try all I possibly could before 1 would 
depart. I understood by.Bangham's letter, that Captain 
Sharpey, John Jordayne, and others, were coming from 
Cambaya to Surat to go along with me : and although I 
could have no trade^ I yet resolved to do all I could to get 
them on board. The Indian ships that rode beside me had 

given over their voyage southwards for this monsoon, and 
le bramin desired me to allow them to be carried into the 
river. This I would by no means grant ; desiring him to tell 
the governor and owners, that their ships should be detain- 
ed tnl I had all the !^nglish from Cambaya and Surat on 
board. If J had permitted them to be gone, I should have 
lost all me^ms oi sending to or hearing from our people 
ashore, as the Portuguese used their endeavours to intercept 
all letters and messengers* 

The 22d, the Portuguese laid, an ambush to intercept . 
some of my men that were sent on shore, and, on seeing an. 
advantage^ broke out upon thcni in great numbers, confu- 
sedly running towards my men and boats. They discharged . 
their shot at us, and we at them^ both such of my men as 
were on shore, and tliose also in jay frigate^^ which rowed close 
to th^ land. All my men retired in safety to my boats and 
frigate, and the Portuguese retired, with some hurt, behind 
the sand hills, oi;t of shot, and so, in worse case than they 
came, returned to their frigates. There were of them se- 
ven ensigns, and might be about three hundred men. At the 
time when these came upon us by land, five of their largest 
frigates, which rode a little way off to the northward, came 
up towards us^ firing at us, but far out of shot. Returning 
with our boats and frigate to the ships, I consulted with . 
Captain Powntpn and others what course to take, and it 
was thought best to bring the smaller ships out to where the 
Increase lay. The 8th Isovember, Nicholas Bangham came 
from Surat with some refreshments, and news that Mocreb, 
Khan was soon expected. This day the son of the Portu- 
guese viceroy came into the river with 100 frigates, most of 


^This frigate could only be the pinnace called the Release. — £. 


CHAP, X. SECT. XI. J^nglish East India Company. 397 

them being merchant grabs bound for Cambaya. At night, 
I caused our ships that rode in shore to come out and an- 
chor beside me, lest the Portuguese might attempt anj 
thing against them. 

Tlie 9th November, Khojah Nassau came to the shore, 
and I went to him with my frigate and boats to confer with 
Tiim. He promised in two or three days at farthest to re- 
turn, and bring goods with him for trade. I told him we 
had been here long, and could get no refreshment of victuals 
for our money, and desired therefore that he would give 
orders to the country people to bring me some, which he 
promised. The 18th, I had a letter from Bangham, say- 
ing, there were little or no hopes of any trade. All things 
considered I determined now to go away, and wrote there- 
fore to Nicholas Bangham to come on board ; but Khojah 
Nassau would not permit him, and he at length «tole pri- 
vately out of town, and got on boaird. Upon this, IChojah 
Nassau and Mocreb Khan sent me letters by JaddaWf a 
broker, both promising speedily to visit me. Though I 
hardly believed them, yet 1 determined to spend a few days 
longer to see the event. At this time the Portugese made 
another attempt to entrap our men on shore, ror they did 
not dare to attack us at sea. They laid another ambush 
among the sand hills with a great number of men, not far 
from our landing-place, whence they attacked our people^ 
but they all got safe into our boat. In the mean time, pur 
people in the ships let fly at them, and they took to their 
heels to their lurking place behind the hills,' leaving one of 
their men on the strand mortally wounded ipthehead^ whoni 
ourpeople brought aboard. 

The 24th, Jaadaw came again aboard, sayiiig that Mo- 
creb Khan was coming, and would be with me before night. 
After dinner I went close in shore with my frigate, where 
1 found Khojah Nassau, who sent me word Mocreb Khan 
would be there presently; having provided a suitable present, 
I wiDUt ashore well accompanied, where I found Mocreb 
Khan and Khojah Nassau waiting for me with many attend- 
ants. We embraced at meeting, and our ships fired some 
cannon to salute Mocreb Khan, which he seemed to take in 
good part. Having delivered my present, we sat down on 
caipets spread on the ground, • and had some conference. 
Being near sun-set, I invited Mocreb to go on board and 
stay all night, which he agreed to, taking with him his son, 


398 Early Voyages oftlie partii. bqo.k hi. 

the son of Khojah Nassau, ^v/^ several of his ql^ef followers, 
but Khojah Nassau :wouIcI holt go. I gave him the beat en- 
tertainment 1 could, setting before him such dainties ^s I 
could provide on a sudden, of which' hie and those with him 
eat heart^y. I now conceived good hopes of trade, as'aD 
this country was under his command, as he promised every 
thing I asked, even io give uis any place or harbour I" plea- 
sed to namie, and leave to fortify ourselves there- It grow- 
ing late, I left him to his rest. 

Next morning, the 25th, Mocreb jKhan busied himself in 
buying knives, glasses, and any toys he could find among 
the people. I shewed him the whole ship aloft and h'eloyfi 
and any thing that pleased him he got away for nothing ; 
besides niany toys that struck his fancy telonging to the 
company, which I bought and gave him. On returning to 
xny cabin, he would see aD my trunks, chests, and loclers 
opened, and whatever was m them that too^k his liking, I 
gave him for nothing. ^i,iinef being ready, jHe dinged witn 
me, and went afterwards oii board the otner ships, where 
ne behaved as in mm^. 

The 30th and si St, I sent Mr Fowler, Mr Jordayne, ai^i^ 
other merchants to lo^k at the goods, after which tHey I'e- 
turned witK Mustrelsy or invoices and prices,' on which we 
set down what we would give for each, desiring them to dp 
the like with ours. But they put me off fiom day to day^ 
concluding nothing, and would neither abate in t^eir prices, 
nor make any offer fpr our goods. Having sold all our 
sworci-blades to Mocreb Khan at a moderate rate, as taking 
all one with another, he retiijTned all the worst, above half 
of them, and no worJ when the others were to l^e paid. 
They then removed all thdr goods to Surat, and made a 
proclamation under great penalties, that no vjctuajs or bthef 
thing should be brought to us. The 8th December, Mo- 
creb Khan arid his crew came to the strand with a^out for tj 
packs of their goods, partly his apd Khojah Nassan?s, anc 
partly belonging to the sabahder and other merchants. \ 
went immediately ashore with a good guard of shojt am 
halberts, and fell to business, and we soon agreed for all our 
lead, quicksilver, and vermilion, and for their goods in ref 
turn. The business was mostly cbhductecji by Khojah Nas- 
sau, no one daring to buy and sell witjx us wiuiput bis 

The 9th> in the morniBg, we begaj^ to Jaigtd qiir lead, 

* ^ and 

CHAP. X. SECT. XI. English East India Company. 399 

and to receive some of tbeir mods in return^ and were in 
good forwardness to make prices for the rest, when a letter 
came to Mocreb Khan from his king, which dashed all his 
mirth and stopt our prdceedings for the present. He seem- 
ed quite cheerful ancl pleasant before receiving this letter; 
biit immediately on perusing it he became very sad." After 
sitting a good while musitig, he suiddenly rose and went 
away, neitner looking at nor speaking to me, though I sat 
close beside him. But before he took horse he sent forme, 

E raying me to excuse hi^ sudden departure, having earnest 
usiness;'but that he should leave Khojah Nassau to receive 
and deliver the gbo(Js bargained' for, and to agree for more. 
We heard shortly after, ' that he was deposed frorii the go- 
verninent of Cambay, and Khojah Nassau from that of bu- 
rat, others bang appointed in their places. Mocreb Khan 
was now nothing more than customer of Surat. 
' The lOtli December, the new governor of Surat and 
Hassan Ally cadie aboard the Pepper-corn to see the ships ; 
and I afterwards took them aboard the Tradbs-increase. 
At this time our factors were ashore* to see the lead weigh- 
ed, which was now nearly all ready to be isent on shore. 
They entreated Khojah* Nassau to go hand in hand with 
them in this afiair, as it would take a long while in doing. 
The factors wanted to weigh with our English- weights, 
which he would by no means agree to, the weigher of Su- 
rat being there with the weights 6f the town, which he in- 
sisted should be used. Seeing no other remedy they gave 
way, and began to iise the country beam ; but after some 
few draughts, they desired to understand the beam before 
they proceeded ; and on trial found a vast difference between 
their beam and ours, ho less than ten or eleven maund's on 
five pigs of lead, every maund being thirty-three poun48 
Unglish. Seeing he could not have the lead at any weight 
he pleased, Khojah Nassau began to cavil, saying he would 
have half money and half gooos for his commodities, railing 
and storming like a madman, calling for the carmen to 
drive away his goods, arid that he would not have any of 
bur lead or other goods. 

While I was in the Trades-increase with the governor 
and sabander, one of the factors came off and told me how 
Khojah Nassan was going on.' I advised with such of my 
officers as Were then about me what was best to be done, 
and we concluded to keep these men who were aboard as 


4?00 Early Voyages of the part li. book iit. 

pledges, and if we could get hold of Khojah Nassan to keep 
him and set these men free. Wherefore, I detained the go* 
vernor and sabander, telling them how Khojah Nassan had 
dealt with me, going about to delude me as formerly, and 
therefore I had no other remedy but to keep them as pledges 
for the performance of the bargain. The governor advised 
me to go ashore and fetch the man, which I did ; and gi- 
ving the governor a good present, I let him depart. 

The 19tb, Hassan Ally the sabander came on board, 
shewing me two letters n-om the viceroy at Goa, one to 
himseli and the other to the captain-major of the Portu- 
guese armada. I opened and perused them both. That 
to the captain-major thanked him for his special good ser- 
vice against the English, in making their captain and his 
Eeople to swim to tne boats for their safety, in which he 
ad done the part of a valiant captain and faithful soldier, 
which would redound to his great honour, and, to gratify 
him for his service on this occasion, he bestowed upon him 
certain frigates latdy taken from the Malabars. The vice- 
roy added, that he had sent his son in the command of the 
northern fleet, who, being young, he prayed the captain- 
major to aid him with his counsel. Thus were the viceroy 
and I abused by the false reports of a lying braggart. The 
letter to the sabander thanked him for refusing to allow the 
English to trade at Surat^ willing him to continue the same 
conduct, which would do great service to the King of Por- 
tugal, and for which he should be rewarded. This day came 
sundry carts laden with provisions from Surat, bought there 
for us by Nicholas Bangham. 

The 24th, accounts on both sides being cleared, and bu- 
siness finished, the pledges on either side were released. 
They now promised to deal with us for the rest of our commo- 
dities, but after waiting till the 26th, they did nothing worth 
notice. The 27th a Jew came on board, bringing me a let- 
ter from Masulipatam, dated 8th September, from Peter 
IFloris, a Dantzicker, employed by the company, shewing 
his setting out in February, his speedy and safe passage, 
and his arrival at Masulipatam in the beginning of Septem- 

The 2d January, 1612, I wrote to Captain Hawkins, and 
sent to him Captain Sharpey, Hugh Fraine, and Hugh 
Gred, to set his mind on some better course than he seem- 
ed to be in when he wrote me on the 28th December ; also 


.CHAP. X. szxT. x& English EoMi India Company. 401 

desuring them to buy some indigo add other commodities 
if they could be had at reasonaUe rates* 

The f 6th, Captain Hawkins and Captain Sbarpey with 
-the rest, came towards where we lay, leaving their carriages 
five miles from the water-^side. I landed with 200 armed 
.men and went to meet them, about three miles off, to guard 
them and their goods from the Pcurtuguese, who I ooubt- 
ed might attempt to intercept them^ and brought them all 
in safety aboard without seeing any thing of the Portu- 
guese. The 27th I sent John WiUiamsj one of our factors, 
to Surat on business. Some days before^ Mocreb Khan 
sent for Mr Jourdayne^ desiring his compliments to me^ 
and that he was now going out of town for two or three 
days, to meet a great commander who was coming from the 
Deccan wars ; but that on his return he would be as good 
as his word,, in regard to the establishment of our factory* 
He came back on the 27th, when he again sent for Mr 
Jourdayne, whom he asked with an an^y countenance what 
he did in Surat, and whexefore the English were not all 
gone ? His answer was, that he staid <m his word and pro*- 
mise to have a factory allowed us. He angrily answered, 
we should have no factory there, and that me long stay of 
the English ships had hindered him in his customs to the 
tune of a million of Matniveysy^ and commanded him there- 
£>re> in the king^s name, to be gone with aU speed, as there 
were neither factory nor trade to be had there by us. John 
Williams returned this morning, and two carts came from 
Surat with provisions. The 29th I sent lor the fiictors to 
hasten away from Surat^ as I meant to set sail. 

j 60 Fojfogefrom Surat to Dabul, and thence to the Red Sea, 

and Proceedings there. 

The morning of the 9th February, 1612, we warped the 
Trades-increase oyer the sands from the r«Mul of Swalfy, 
which, if we had not done this tide, we had lost the whole 
spring. This road is in the latitude of 20^ 57", and the va- 
riation is 16^ SO' J' The morning of the 11th we sailed for 

vojL. VIII, 2 c Surat 

^ This seems an error for mamudiett the Surat cuvreDcy In the former 
narradves of Hawkins and others.— £. 

' Svaliy road, a Ittde way north from the nuiath of the Taptee, or Sit- 
rat river»is in lat. 21^ 7' N.long. 72° 4^ £. We have no account in the 

iO£ Barfy Vcgages «f the 9ABT n» book m, 

JSiuBt road, and anchored there in the aftemocm beside a 
new ship belonging to Surat, jnst launcJbed and come out 
lof the xjTer, and bound for die Red Sea. Surat road is in 
lat 20^ 40^/ We weighed andior on the l£th, and anchor- 
ed two leagues sooth from the road beside a ship of Cali- 
cut bound for Surat» out of which I toc^L a pilot for DabuL 
We sailed again on the 19th, and at six in the evening of 
the 16th we arrived in the road of Dabul^ in lat. 17^ 42', 
£17* 450 N. 

The i7th I sent ashore the Malabar pilot, with a letter 
I had got when at Mdcfaa from Malek Ambar to the go- 
vernor, desiring him to use me w^ and to trade with me 
if Icameto^that ^ac& In the afternoon, both the governor 
and Malek Ambar aent me a small present of refi^menta^ 
with many compliments, offering me every thing the coun- 
try afibrded, and to deal with me for my commodities if I 
chose to send on shore for that purpose. I accordingly sent 
two of my merchants with a good present, who were kindly 
welcomed and well entertained while &ere« The 18th, Idth, 
•and 20th, were spent in the sale of goods, boats going eyenr 
'day between the ship and the shore^ the particulars of which 
I neia: to the merchants accounts, as not fit to be here ok- 
|>oes8ed. By the 2ad we had delivered all the goods bap- 
for, and had no forther hope of sales at Uils place. 

The 24th I called a council of my principal officers and 
jn^chynts, to consider what was best for us to do ; whethor 
to proceed for Priaman, Bantam, and the Spice islands, or 
to retium to the Red Sea to meet the ships of India, and, 
as they would not deal with us at their own doors, after we 
had come so far with commodities only vendible there, I 
.&oug^t we diould do ourselves some right, .and them no 
wrong, to cause them to barter with us,, we taking their in- 
digos and other goods at what they were worth, and giving 
^nirs in return. ^ were of this omnioa for the following rea- 
aons : lat^ The puliting off our English goods^ and getting 


.original of having removed there* but that probably is ovii\g to the ncjg- 
ligence of Purchas in abbreviating. — £. 

* The parallel of 81° N. runs through Surat roads, while the latitude 
in the text falls fkr to the south of Surat river. The di£ference of latitude 
assigned l^ Sir Henry between Swally roads and Surat roads, supposing 
that of the preoedii^ note for SwaHy aocurate, which we believe is the 
case, as taken upon the authority of the latest and best map q£ }ndiB, 
•Arrowsmith's, woidd place the best anchoring mnad of Sorat roads in 
S0^60'»whic^lik»viaeismucbtoo&r80ttth.-^£. . 

mhr.x. BECT.Xf.' Ep^M £aH Indict Compantf. 4lM 

others in their pleuoe fit for oorooitiitiT $ 2d) to dike some 
revenge of the great vrrongs sufiered mm the Turks ; Sd^ 
to save a ship, with her goods and nien5 which we heard 
were bound there, by letters received from Masulipatam^ 
and which we thought could iK>t possibly esciipe being be- 
trayed as wfe had been. 

Having ooiicluded to return to die Red S^a, we were 
employed till the 27th in getting fresh water aboard, and 
taking back our red-lead^ which we had sold and delivered 
at Dabul, but they disliked. In the evening we saw a sail 
in the offing, which some Matabar vessels beside us said was 
a Portuguese ship of Cochin boimd for. Chaul; on which I . 
sent the Pepper-corn, Darling, and Release to bring her 
in, which they did on the 28tn. Finding my pec^e in the 
Release had pillaged the Portuguese vessel, I took every 
thing away from tbeiti, and gave them back to the owners^ 
Her lading was mostly cocoa-nuts, and I took some smatt 
matter out of her. 

Continuing our voyage lor the Red Sea, we get sk|ht ^ 
the island of Socotora on the 24th of March, and at four p; 
in. the point of Delisha bore S. S. W* six leagues distfUiCb 
From noon of the SUh tS^ noon <^ the 25th, we steered 
N. W. by W. and W.N. W. and W. all night, thmking by 
diay-light to have been near the Westermost purt of the 
island; but* we found we had gone little a-head, although 
iiye had a fair wind, owing to a strong current against us. 
The 27th, in the morning,' we had sight of Abdd Cniiat 
and before night espied Onar-da-fui. 

The 2d April, Mr Pemberton came aboard me, teiing 
me he had been at Socotora, where the king shewed him 
h writing left there by Capftain John Saris, who was gene- 
ral of three ships from India, stating the time he left £ng- 
-Ifknd, his places of refreshment, the time of his arrival at 
Socotora, and his having proceeded for the Red Sea in 
quest of trade; mentioning likewise his having perused the 
writing left by me, containii^many reasons tat not gcrin^ 
there; but^ having the pass pf the Grand ISgnior, he hcq>e9 
to meet better entertainment than I had. On this unex- 
^ pected news, I called a council to deliberate on what weh^ 
nest do ; when we quickly resolved to proceed as we had 
, formerly determined, having now no other way left^ as we 
could not return again till the next westerlv monsoon^ which 
^¥ould not be till the middk of May. I tfaerefoye left Cap- 

404 Earfy Voyages of the part ii. book iit. 

tain Downton in the Pepper-oorn to remain till the 5th off 
the mouth, keeping the port of Aden shut up; while I went 
with the Trades-increase and Darling to keep the two pas- 
sages of the straits of Bab-al-Mondub. 

The 4th, about ten a. m. we anchored within the island 
in eight fathoms. Presently after there came a boat from 
shore with a Turk and three or four Arabian soMiers, the 
Turk being chief of the place under the aga of Mokha. He 
offered, if 1 had any letter to send, he would dispatch it by 
a foot-post, who would bring back an answer in three days* 
I wrote, therefore, to Captain Saris, giving him an account 
of the cause of my coming, and what I proposed to do. - 

The 6th came a Ja/da oelonging to Zeyla^ a place with* 
out the Bab, on the African coast, bound for Mdcha, laden 
with mats. I bought from her twelve sheep, and permitted 
her to departs The 7th, before day, came in a ship of Ba- 
sanor, which I obliged to anchor beside me. Richard 
Wickam, one of Captain Saris's merchants^ came this morn- 
ing with letters to me from Captain Saris, the contents of 
^mch I omit to write. I sent back an answer by a Turk 
that came in his company, but detained Wickam, lest they 
might have made him prisoner at Mokha^as I had embargoed 
the India ships. The 8th came in a ship of X)iu, bound for 
Mokho, which I stopped and brought to anchor beside me^ 
being the same I detained last year in Mokha roads. This 
day we rummaged these two ships, taking out of them such 
goods as suited our purpose, which were brought on board 
my ship. The 9th c^me in a small bark of Shahr,^ laden 
with coarse olibanum, some of which we bought and paid 
for in ryals to their contentment. 

The 14th we were joined by Captain Saris with his three 
ships. After mutual salutes. Captain Saris, Captain Tow- 
erson, and Mr Cox, their chief merchant, came aboard of 
me, and we ^ent all that day in friendly communication ; 
and acQuainting Captain Saris that I was much in want of 
cables, ne engaged to supply me. The 15th I went aboard 
the Clove, where I and those that came with me were kindly 
entertained. Captain Saris shewed me the pass from the 
Grand Signior, and we had a long conversation^ he belie- 

3 Called Shaher in Porchas, and by others Xaer and Xael after iht 
Portuguese orthograpbj. It is dependent upon Kushen or Kashin.-^ 
AfitL I. 38& d. 

-CHAP. X. SECT. XI. Er^lish East India Company. 405 

ving that he would have had much good trade at Mokha 
if i had not come, which my experience found otherwise. 
At last we agreed, and set it down in writing interchange- 
ably, that he was to have a third part of all that was taken, 
paying for the same as I did, leaving the subsequent dispo- 
sal of the ships to me, who had sustained the injury. From 
this to the 23d, many ships came in at the bab from differ- 
ent ports of India, as Surat,Diu, Calicut, Cannanor, Acheen, 
and other ports ; and this last day came in the Rhemy of 
Surat, belonging to the queen mother of the Great Mogul, 
laden with India commodities, and bound for Jiddah^ the 
port of Mecca.* In this ship were 1500 persons, mostly pil- 
grims, going to Mecca. The 24th I weighed anchor from 
the baby together with all the ships I had detained, and 
went for the road of Assab. About five p. m. we came to 
anchor with all the fleet off Crab island in twelve fathoms; 
and next morning stood in for the bay of Assab, where at 
one p. m. we anchored in seven and a half fathoms. The 
27th we brought good store of indigo out of the ships of 
Surat and Diu. The Clove being in sight, plying off and 
on and not seeing us, I caused a shot to be fired, which 
they hearing, answered with another, and presently bore up 
for the road... • •••• 

Hote. The narrative of Sir Henry Middleton breaks off 
here abruptly, for which no reason is assigned by Purchas. 
The omission will, however, be found supplied in the sub- 
sequttit report of tlie same voyage by Captain Downton, 
and in the Journal of the Eighth Voyage of the India Com<- 
pany commanded by Captain John Saris.-*-Ed. 


^ It has beqn thought quite needless to enumerate the difierent ships 
mentioned in Purchas> amounting in all to sixteen sail of various sorts 
and sizes. — E. 

406 Earfy Foyag€$ of the ^nlut lu book hi. 

Section XIL 

Journal of the preceding Foyage by Nichcdas Ihwnionj ■[ 

Captain y^the Pepper-^orn^